Features of all living things Movement Respiration Sensitivity Growth Reproduction Excretion Food All living things are made up of cells.
Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They need a specific constant temperature to work at their optimum. Enzymes Enzymes become denatured (stop working) above about 55 o C. The higher the temperature the faster molecules move around and therefore (a) collide more frequently and (b) collide with more energy. This results in an increased rate of reaction. click to react lock and key enzymemolecule Most enzymes work best at about 40 o C. active site The active site can be changed by heating above a certain temperature and altering the pH, so that the molecules can no longer fit and the reaction cannot happen.
Enzymes at work in plants Photosynthesis equation (takes place in chloroplasts) light energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 chlorophyll Carbon dioxide water glucose oxygen Chlorophyll absorbs light and uses the energy to kick-start photosynthesis Glucose is used by plant cells in 3 ways 1.Making other chemicals needed for cell growth 2.Storing energy in starch molecules 3.Releasing energy in respiration
Diffusion (passive transport) This is the movement of molecules from a region of their high concentration to a region of their lower concentration Region of high concentration Region of low concentration Diffusion causes the molecules to become evenly distributed due to their random movement. It is like as if the molecules have moved from the region of high concentration to the region of low concentration. Diffusion in the leaf happens through the stomata- carbon dioxide in and oxygen out = eg oxygen
Osmosis is the same as diffusion but applies to water molecules passing through a partially permeable membrane. = starch = water High concentration of starch Low concentration of starch partially permeable membrane High concentration of water Low concentration of water movement of water molecules Starch molecules cannot pass through the partially permeable membrane but water molecules can.
If too much water passes into a cell by osmosis then it may rupture. Molecules like glucose are moved by active transport. cell low salt concentrationhigh salt concentration potato chip the potato chip absorbs water and expands the potato chip loses water and shrinks Osmosis in plant cells
Minerals from the soil Plants take in nitrogen from the soil as nitrate ions, they are absorbed by root hair cells. The cells use a process called active transport to pump nitrates from the soil and into the roots against their diffusion gradient.
The rate of photosynthesis Increasing the amount of light a plant receives increases the rate of photosynthesis up to a point. Increasing the light intensity stops having an effect on the rate of photosynthesis because one of the other factors e.g. carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll or temperature is in short supply. This factor is called the LIMITING FACTOR
Environments and adaptations A habitat is a place where an organism lives. A quadrat is used to survey the plants in a square metre. The positioning of a quadrat in the area being investigated is random. Samples can be taken at regular intervals along a straight line called a transect.
Energy for life Aerobic respiration Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water (+ energy released) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O What happens to the energy from respiration? used in active transport movement building molecules used for growth and repair Anaerobic respiration Glucose lactic acid (+energy released) – in animals Glucose ethanol + carbon dioxide (+ energy released) – in plants and microorganisms
Useful products from respiration Bioethanol (used to fuel car engines) is made from sugars in plant material. Yeast cells take sugars and convert them into ethanol during the process of anaerobic respiration, this is called fermentation. Biogas is a fuel obtained from animal manure or human waste using bacteria, it produces methane gas. The fuel can be used to heat buildings and run electricity generators
DNA has a double helix structure Cytoplasm – where proteins are made Nucleus – where the genes are located The base pairs always pair up the same way A to T and G to C adenine
CTATGTCTATGT G- A- T- A- C- A- C T A T G T nucleus cytoplasm The DNA unzips to expose the codeA copy of the code is made using RNAThe mRNA travels to the cytoplasmThe DNA zips up againThe mRNA is used to produce a protein Each gene codes for a specific protein genegene (using ribosomes)
The order of bases in a gene determines the order of amino acids that make a particular protein. This is the simplest amino acid - valine Protein is made up of amino acids joined together in chains The order of amino acids determines the 3D structure of a particular protein. The 3D structure of a protein determines its function (job)
Meiosis is a type of cell division that produces gametes, ie sperm and egg cells. Cells produced by meiosis only contain half the chromosome number of the parent cell Cell division by mitosis produces two new cells identical to each other and to the parent cell Cell division Mitosis involves copying the chromosomes exactly
In a human embryo, up to the eight cell stage, all the cells are identical and could produce any sort of cell required by the organism (embryonic stem cells); After this point the cells become specialised and form different types of tissue. Adult and embryonic stem cells have the potential to produce cells needed to replace damaged tissues. In carefully controlled conditions of mammalian cloning, it is possible to reactivate inactive genes in the nucleus of a body cell to form cells of all tissue types.
Making stem cells using the DNA from a patient means the cells wont be rejected when they are transplanted into the patient This means that the patient’s immune system wont attack the transplanted stem cells foreign cell with antigen White blood cells recognise it as a foreign cell and make antibodies The antibodies help to kill the foreign cell X With this technique the white blood cells do not recognise the transplanted stem cells as foreign and therefore don’t attack them
New cells in plants specialise into cells of roots, leaves or flowers. Some plant cells remain unspecialized and can develop into any type of plant cell, unlike animal cells. Most plants continue to grow in height and width throughout their lives, unlike animals. Plant meristems divide to produce cells that result in increased height, length of roots, and girth of the plant. If the hormonal conditions in their environment are changed, unspecialised plant cells can develop into a range of other tissues Transport vessels: xylem and phloem Organs: leaves, roots and flowers
Cut stems from a plant can develop roots in the presence of plant hormones (auxins) and grow into a complete plant which is a clone of the parent.
shoot tip The action of light causes auxin to move across the shoot tip from the side getting the light to the shaded side. plant stem This causes the cells on the shaded side to elongate which causes the stem to bend towards the light. This helps the plant to grow towards the light which helps its survival.
axondendrite neurotransmitter receptor site synapse acetylcholine The neurotransmitter diffuses across the gap Receptor molecules only bind to specific chemicals, initiating a nerve impulse in the motor neuron.
At the end of a sensory neuron an impulse triggers the release of chemicals into the synapse, which diffuse across and bind to receptor molecules on the membrane of a motor neuron.
stimulus is detected by a receptor nerve impulse travels along a sensory neurone neurotransmitter diffuses across a synapse nerve impulse travels along a relay neurone neurotransmitter diffuses across a synapse nerve impulse travels along a neurone to the brain nerve impulse travels along a motor neurone muscle contracts / hormone is released from a gland Conscious awareness of the stimulus Sequence at the same time
receptor stimulus central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) sensory neurone (nerve) motor neurone (nerve) effector (muscle or gland) Fast and short lived responses nervous systems use electrical impulses
melanin ADH ACTH, FSH, LH, growth H thyroxine PTH Involved in producing T cells adrenaline Insulin, glucagon oestrogen, progesterone testosterone Glands in the body
High blood sugar level insulin released from the pancreas decrease in blood sugar level Low blood sugar level glucagon released from the pancreas increase in blood sugar level Control of blood sugar homeostasis Hormonal control Hormones are chemicals which travel in the blood slow and long lasting
How can reflex actions be an advantage for survival ?
A new born baby has a set of reflex actions, eg: Grasping reflex: Touching a baby’s palm will cause the baby’s fingers to curl. Sucking reflex: Putting an object in a baby’s mouth will cause the baby to suck the object. Diving reflex: Putting a baby in water will cause the baby to hold it’s breath and move it’s arms around
Pupil reflex When the surroundings get darker the iris relaxes causing the pupil to dilate When the surroundings get lighter the iris contracts causing the pupil to get smaller This reflex helps to protect the light sensitive receptors in the eye when it is too light and to get more visual information when dark.
Some birds develop a learned conditioned reflex or have an evolved reflex to avoid eating particular caterpillars on the basis of their colours. Some caterpillars have a poisonous toxin in their skin.
Simple animals rely on reflex actions for the majority of their behaviour
This is a unicellular organism which needs light to survive, eg plankton This is a reflex response to move towards lighter areas
dopamine seratonin melatonin acetylcholine adrenaline / epinephrine Neurotransmitters Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system [you don’t have to know the structures]
visual auditory, speech spatial sense essential functions movement reasoning cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex is the part of our brain most concerned with intelligence, memory, language and consciousness.
CT scanner MRI scanner PET scanner A variety of methods can be used to map the brain CT and MRI scanners can be used to get images of structures. PET scanners can be used to monitor activity in the brain
Electrical stimulation of the brain can be used in studies
MDMA - ecstasy Ecstasy blocks the re-uptake of serotonin in the synapses of the brain. This causes an increase in the serotonin concentration which leads to mood-enhancing effects.
During development, the interaction between mammals and their environment results in neuron pathways forming in the brain. Here, neuron pathways in the visual cortex interplay with neuron pathways in the motor cortex in order to grab an object. After many attempts the neuron pathways get fine tuned to produce the responses that we intend. Eventually we build up a vast array of efficient pathways.
Brain stem 1 2 3 4 The second set of nerve cells are not stimulated enough to fire One of the nerve cells in the second set receives enough input to fire One of the nerve cells in the second set receives enough input to fire and this neuronal pathway is strengthened by a nerve impulse from the brain stem The neuronal pathway doesn’t need the extra input to work Click 1 then 2 then 3 then 4 This gives you a very basic idea about how neuron pathways are formed
Learning is the result of experience where certain pathways in the brain will become more likely to transmit impulses than others. This is why some skills may be learnt through repetition. The variety of potential pathways in the brain makes it possible for animals to adapt to new situations. There is evidence to suggest that children may only acquire some skills at a particular age, eg language development in feral children. A feral child is one who has been brought up by wild animals from early childhood.
Memory is basically the storage and retrieval of information. Verbal memory can be divided into short-term memory and long-term memory. Humans are more likely to remember information if: they can see a pattern in it there is repetition of the information, especially over an extended period of time there is a strong stimulus associated with it, eg colour, light, smell, sound etc
By the time you have become consciously aware of the snake your brain has already set into play a series of responses.