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7. Solid Modeling e-mail: Assoc.Prof.Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp e-mail: azsenalp@gmail.comazsenalp@gmail.com Mechanical Engineering Department Gebze Technical University ME 521 Computer Aided Design

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1967 Surface Modeling(S.A. Coons) 1973 Solid Modeling– Constructive Solid Geometry (Laning et al., Draper Lab.) 1973 Solid Modeling– Boundary Representation (Ian Braid, Cambridge U.) 1985 Feature Based Modeling (Pratt & Wilson) 1990 Parametric Modeling (PTC) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 2 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Using volume information – weight or volume calculation, mass center calculation, moment of inertia calculation, – Finite element analysis model preperation Using volume and boundary information – CNC code generation, robotics and assemblies Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 3 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Unbounded geometric entities Each one of them divides the representation space into infinite portions, one filled with material and the other empty Surfaces can be considered half-space boundaries and half spaces can be considered directed surfaces An object is defined by the volume space contained within the defined boundary of the object Introduces the direction into the modeling, thus enables the topological information be stored in a geometric model Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 4 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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By specifying different boundary surface, we can have any half-spaces; The most commonly used half spaces: Planar Cylindrical Spherical Conical Toroidal By combining half-spaces (using Boolean operations) in a building block fashion, various solids can be constructed. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 5 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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The properties that a solid model or an abstract solid should capture mathematically can be stated as follows: 1. Rigidity. This implies that the shape of a solid model is invariant and does not depend on the model location or orientation in space. 2. Homogeneous three-dimensionality. Solid boundaries must be in contact with the interior. No isolated or dangling boundaries should be permitted. 3. Finiteness and finite describability. The former property means that the size of the solid is not infinite while the latter ensures that a limited amount of information can describe the solid. The latter property is needed in order to be able to store solid models into computers whose storage space is always limited. It should be noted that the former property does not include the latter and vice versa. For example, a cylinder that may have a finite radius and length may be described by an infinite number of planar faces. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 6 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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4. Closure under rigid motion and regularized Boolean operations. This property ensures that manipulation of solids by moving them in space or changing them via Boolean operations must produce other valid solids. 5. Boundary determinism. The boundary of a solid must contain the solid and hence must determine distinctively the interior of the solid. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 7 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Constructive Solid Geometry: CSG Boundary Representation: B-rep Hybrid (Feature Based Modeling) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 8 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Based on simple geometric primitives – box – cone – sphere – etc. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 9 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Primitives are placed and combined by using boolean operations boolean operations: – Union denoted by – Difference or subtraction denoted by – Intersection denoted by Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 10 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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B A C A-B (A-B) C Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 11 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 12 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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All the operations are stored as a boolean tree spherecylinder rotation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 13 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Boundary Representation (B-Rep) The boundary representation method represents a solid as a collection of boundary surfaces. The database records both of the surface geometry and the topological relations among these surfaces. This representation is used mainly for graphical displays. Solids are represented by faces, edges and vertices. To enable the validity of the object topological rules should be guaranteed; – Faces are bounded with edges – Each edge should be shared with exactly 2 faces – Each edge should have a vertex at each end – At least 3 edges should connect at each vertex The surface must be closed Euler operations are used to construct B-rep models by combining faces, edges and vertices. Euler operation are lower level operations than boolean operations. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 14 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Vertices Edges Faces Boundary Representation (B-Rep) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 15 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Boundary Representation (B-Rep) Geometry should obey Euler rules: V: Number of vertices E: Number of edges F: Number of faces V-E+F=2 B-rep does not guarantee that a group of boundary surfaces should form a closed solid. Most CAD software uses both CSG and B-rep methods (hybrid structure). 16 – 24 + 10 – 2 = 2 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 16 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Solid modelers store more information (geometry and topology) than wireframe or surface modelers (geometry only). Geometry is the actual dimensions that define the entities of the object. The geometry that defines the object shown in Figure1 is the lengths of lines L1, L2 and L3, the angles between the lines, and the radius R and the center P1 of the half-circle. Topology (sometimes called combinatorial structure), on the other hand, is the connectivity and associativity of the object entities. The topology of the object shown below can be stated as follows; L 1 shares a vertex (point) with L 2 and C 1 L 2 shares a vertex with L 1 and L 3 ; L 3 shares a vertex with L 2 and C 1. L 1 and L 3 do not overlap Same geometry but different topology (P 1 is inside/outside) Same topology but different geometry Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 17 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Based on these definitions, neither geometry nor topology alone can completely model objects. Wireframe and surface models deal only with geometrical information of objects, and are therefore considered incomplete and ambiguous. From a user point of view, geometry is visible, and topology is considered to be nongraphical relational information that is stored in solid model databases and is not visible to users. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 18 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Geometry construction commands: Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 19 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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CSG Simple representation Limited to simple objects Stored as binary tree Difficult to calculate Rarely used anymore B-Rep Flexible and powerful representation Stored explicitly Can be generated from CSG representation Used in current CAD systems Most of the CAD system uses B-rep or hybrid method. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 20 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Parts modelled by adding features to a base part Features represent manufacturing “operations” – hole – fillet – round – rib – chamfer – slot – pocket – etc. Material can be added or subtracted, similar to CSG Features are not limited to simple primitives, and can be created by Extrusion Sweeping Revolving etc. A history tree is created, similar to a CSG boolean tree Today most of the CAD systems use feature based modelling Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 21 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Features represent manufacturing “operations” Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 22 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Fillet Slot Hole Shell Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 23 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Final Part Part 3 Hole Shell Part 2 FilletsPart 1 SlotBase Features added Increasing part complexity Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 24 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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The part is created from the history tree Features can be added, deleted and re-ordered Feature dimensions can be changed Feature parameters can be changed – eg. From protrusion to cutout Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 25 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Feature-based, Parametric Models – Pro/E Feature-based, Parametric Solid Modeling system represents the recent advance of computer geometric modeling. It is used as the foundation of Pro/ENGINEER, etc. Feature-based, parametric solid modeling eliminated the direct use of common geometric primitives such as cone, cylinder, sphere, etc, since these primitives only represent low-level geometric entities. In designing and manufacturing mechanical parts, one would always refer to mechanical features. The modeling approach uses sweeping to form the main shape of the part, and build-in mechanical features to specify the detailed geometry of the model. These features include holes (through, blind, sink), rounds, chamfers, slots, etc. Operations to solid model, such as cut and shell (change a solid model into a hollow shell) are also supported. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 26 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Feature-based, Parametric Models – Pro/E To create the 2D cross-section for sweeping, a 2D sketch needs to be generated in the 2D Sketcher. A user can sketch the rough shape of the closed shape. The system will automatically assign a dimension value of the sketched feature. The dimensions of the sketched feature can be changed at any time by simply entering the desired value, or kept as a variable, allowing even more convenient change of its value. The user has to provide all necessary dimensions to pass the section of cross-section generation. Problems of under- or over- dimensioning can be identified. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 27 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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3D solids are formed by using 2D cross sections Sweeping consists of : - extrude - revolve - sweep Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 28 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Feature based modeling – Base Features : can be a datum plane/coordinate axis or a sketched feature. All future geometry will refer to this feature directly/indirectly. – Sketched Features: These are user created features using a sweep/blend technique from 2D sections. Sweep => extrude, revolve... – Referenced Features: These features reference existing features and do not have to be drawn. e.g. holes, chamfers... – Datum Features: Features used only to provide a reference for other features. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 29 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Constraint Based Modelling User constraints geometry based on Design Intent Design variations can be generated by changing a few key dimensions Geometry is automatically regenerated based on constraints Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 30 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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D1 D2 D4 D3 D5 Constraint Based Modelling Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 31 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Constraint Based Modelling Design Intent: The part should be twice as long as it is wide The hole should be centred in both directions The hole diameter should be 50mm Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 32 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Parametric and Variational Modelling Parametric modelling – constraints defined sequentially – each constraint calculated based on previously defined constraints – order of constraint specification is important Variational modelling – constraints solved simultaneously – order of constraint specification doesn’t matter Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 33 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Parametric Definition User specifies dimension D1, other dimensions calculated sequentially Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 34 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Variational Definition Solve system of simultaneous equations: Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 35 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Constraint Types Ground constraints Dimensional constraints Geometric constraints Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 36 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Ground Constraints Horizontal Vertical Both ends fixed Point location X of point Y of point Angle of line Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 37 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Dimensional Constraints Horizontal dimension Vertical dimension Linear dimension Angular dimension Radial dimension Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 38 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Geometric Constraints Parallel Perpendicular Tangent Collinear, coincident, coplanar Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 39 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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Modelling Approach Sketch approximate geometry Generate solids and features Add constraints and dimensions afterwards Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 40 Mechanical Engineering Department, GTU 7. Solid Modeling

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