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Thapliyal 1MAPLD 2005/1011 A High Speed and Efficient Method of Elliptic Curve Encryption Using Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics Himanshu Thapliyal and M.B Srinivas (thapliyalhimanshu@yahoo.com, srinivas@iiit.net) Center for VLSI and Embedded System Technologies International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad-500019, India

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Thapliyal 2MAPLD 2005/1011 Abstract This paper presents efficient hardware circuitry for point addition and doubling using multiplication and square algorithms of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics. The multiplier architecture is based on the vertical and crosswise algorithm of ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics. In the proposed architecture 4 bits of the multiplicand and multiplier are grouped together and the partial product is made available within a single clock cycle. In order to calculate the square of a number, “Duplex” D property of binary numbers is proposed. A technique for computation of fourth power of a number is also being proposed. In the Duplex, twice the product of the outermost pair is taken, and add twice the product of the next outermost pair, and so on till no pairs are left. A considerable improvement in the point additions and doubling has been observed when implemented using proposed techniques for exponentiation.

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Thapliyal 3MAPLD 2005/1011 Introduction of ECC An Elliptic curve is defined by an equation in two variables, with coefficients. The variables and coefficients are restricted to elements in finite field, which results in a finite Abelian group. Weierstrass equation in GF(2 m ) y 2 +xy=x 3 +ax 2 +b Weierstrass equation in GF(p) y 2 =x 3 +ax+b

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Thapliyal 4MAPLD 2005/1011 Elliptic Curve Cryptography Emerging as a new generation of cryptosystems based on public key cryptography No sub-exponential algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem Smallest key size & highest strength per bit compared to other public key cryptosystems Smaller key sizes suitable for hardware implementation

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Thapliyal 5MAPLD 2005/1011 Elliptic Curve Arithmetic Arithmetic Operation Hierarchy

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Thapliyal 6MAPLD 2005/1011 Prominent Operations in ECC Point addition Point Doubling

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Thapliyal 7MAPLD 2005/1011 Point Doubling (Using Projective Co-Ordinate System) In GF(p) field

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Thapliyal 8MAPLD 2005/1011 Prominent Bottleneck Operations in Point Doubling Multiplier efficiency can be one of the bottlenecks in efficiency of point doubling Exponentiation operations like square, cube and computation of fourth power are the major bottlenecks in the efficiency of the point additions and doubling.

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Thapliyal 9MAPLD 2005/1011 Proposed Multiplication Multiplier Architecture a.The multiplier deals with N x N bit numbers and takes less time as the number of bits increases. b.It takes n bits of multiplicand and multiplier and produces 2n bit of product Implemented Algorithm Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertical & Crosswise) - Urdhva means vertically up-down, Tiryakbhyam means left to right or vice versa

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Thapliyal 10MAPLD 2005/1011 TABLE 1- 16 x 16 bit Vedic multiplier Using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam CP- Cross Product (Vertically and Crosswise) A= A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 X3 X2 X1 X0 B= B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0 X3 X2 X1 X0 Multiplicand[16 bits] Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0 Multiplier [16 bits] ------------------------------------------------------------------ J I H G F E D C P7 P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1 P0 Product[32 bits] Where X3, X2, X1, X0, Y3, Y2, Y1 and Y0 are each of 4 bits. PARALLEL COMPUTATION & METHODOLOGY 1. CP X0 = X0 * Y0 = A Y0 2. CP X1 X0 = X1 * Y0+X0 * Y1= B Y1 Y0 3 CP X2 X1 X0 = X2 * Y0 +X0 * Y2 +X1 * Y1=C Y2 Y1 Y0 4 CP X3 X2 X1 X0 = X3 * Y0 +X0 * Y3+X2 * Y1 +X1 * Y2=D Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0 5 CP X3 X2 X1 = X3 * Y1+X1 * Y3+X2 * Y2=E Y3 Y2 Y1 6 CP X3 X2 = X3 * Y2+X2 * Y3=F Y3 Y2 7 CP X3 = X3 * Y3 =G Y3 Note: Each Multiplication operation is an embedded parallel 4x4 multiply module

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Thapliyal 11MAPLD 2005/1011 Existing Efficient Square proposed by Flynn et. al

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Thapliyal 12MAPLD 2005/1011 Proposed Duplex Property of Binary Numbers For Square Computation In the Duplex, we take twice the product of the outermost pair, and then add twice the product of the next outermost pair, and so on till no pairs are left. When there are odd number of bits in the original sequence there is one bit left by itself in the middle, and this enters as such. Thus, 1.For a 1 bit number, D is the same number i.e D(X0)=X0. 2.For a 2 bit number D is twice their product i.e D(X1X0)=2 * X1 * X0. 3. For a 3 bit number D is twice the product of the outer pair + the e middle bit i.e D(X2X1X0)=2 * X2 * X0+X1. 4.For a 4 bit number D is twice the product of the outer pair + twice the product of the inner pair i.e D(X3X2X1X0) =2 * X3 * X0+2 * X2 * X1 The pairing of the bits 4 at a time is done for number to be squared.

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Thapliyal 13MAPLD 2005/1011 Proposed Vedic Square Using Duplex

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Thapliyal 14MAPLD 2005/1011 Proposed Technique for Calculating Fourth Power of a Number This Paper also proposes an algorithm for calculating the fourth power of a number. The technique is developed as an extension of the duplex and Anurupya Sutra of Vedic Mathematics. If a and b are two digits, then according to proposed technique, the number M of N bits whose 4th power is to be calculated can be decomposed into two number a & b of N/2 bits. Now, the 4th power of M can be calculated as follows. The number can again be further decomposed until the we can get the product through the smallest 4x4 or 8x8 multiplier available.

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Thapliyal 15MAPLD 2005/1011 Verification and Implementation The algorithms and architecture have been implemented using Verilog HDL and the simulation has been done using Modelsim Simulator. The codes are synthesized in Xilinx ISE foundation 6.3. The designs are optimized for speed using Xilinx, Device Family : VirtexE, Device : XCV300e, Package: bg432, Speed grade: -8. The designs are completely technology independent and can be easily converted from one technology to another.

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Thapliyal 16MAPLD 2005/1011 Comparison Results of Square Name of Multiplier VendorDevice Family & Device Package Speed Grade Cell Use Estimated Delay (ns) Square Proposed by Flynn et.al 8 x 8 bit XilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-817730.370 16 x 16 bit XilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-872760.646 Proposed Square 8 x 8 bitXilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-819015.193 16 x 16 bit XilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-875123.600

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Thapliyal 17MAPLD 2005/1011 Comparison Results of Point Doubling Point Doubling Using Square VendorDevice Family & Device Package Speed Grade Cell Use Estimated Delay (ns) Using Square Proposed by Flynn et.al 8 x 8 bit XilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-825599604.861 16 x 16 bit XilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-8966631327.809 Using Proposed Square 8 x 8 bitXilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-826290542.325 16 x 16 bit XilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-8968051207.677

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Thapliyal 18MAPLD 2005/1011 Results of Point Doubling When Using Proposed Technique for computation of 4 th Power Point DoublingVendorDevice Family & Device Package Speed Grade Cell Use Estimated Delay (ns) Using Proposed Square 8 x 8 bitXilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-8 26290 542.325 16 x 16 bit XilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-8 96805 1207.677 Using Proposed Fourth Power Technique 8 x 8 bitXilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-8 33828 537.885 16 x 16 bit XilinxVirtexE Xcv300e Bg432-8 139059 1348.971

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Thapliyal 19MAPLD 2005/1011 Conclusions The results shows there is a significant improvement in speed/area using the proposed square. In FPGA, the proposed technique for computation of fourth power should be used for small bit sizes only. For higher bit sizes, it is better to perform the fourth power operation by recursively using the proposed square rather than directly calculating using the proposed technique. The proposed techniques of square and fourth power computation will be highly beneficial for low power operation as the sub-modules can be switched on and off based on the requirement.

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Thapliyal 20MAPLD 2005/1011 References Sangook Moon,"Elliptic Curve Scalar Point Multiplication Using Radix-4 Booth's Algorithm", International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies 2004(ISCIT 2004),pp. 80-83, Japan, October 26-29,2004. Siddaveerasharan Devarkal and Duncan A. Buell," Elliptic Curve Arithmetic", Proceedings, MAPLD 2003. Duncan A. Buell, James P. Davis, and Gang Quan, “Reconfigurable computing applied to problems in communication security,” Proceedings, MAPLD 2002. Energy Scalable Reconfigurable Cryptographic Hardware for Portable Applications. James Ross Goodman, PhD Dissertation, MIT. Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn, "Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, California, October 2000. Albert Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square and Cube Computations", Technical report CSL-TR-00-808, Stanford University, August 2000.

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Thapliyal 21MAPLD 2005/1011 References Continued Karatsuba A.; Ofman Y. Multiplication of multidigit numbers by automata, Soviet Physics- Doklady 7, p. 595-596, 1963 Bailey, D. V. and Paar, C.,” Efficient Arithmetic in Finite Field Extensions with Application in Elliptic Curve Cryptography”, Journal of Cryptology, vol. 14, no. 3, 153–176. 2001 A.Weimerskirch, C.Paar and S.C.Shantz (2001), “Elliptic Curve Cryptography on a Palm OS Device”, Proceeding of 6th Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy (ACISP 2001), 11-13 July 2001, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. M. Rosner, Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems on reconfigurable hardware. Master’s Thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, USA, 1998.

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