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Dark Matter Masaki Asano (Tohoku U.) Collaborators: Keisuke Fujii (KEK) Katsumasa Ikematsu (KEK) Rei Sasaki (Tohoku U.) Taikan Suehara (ICEPP, U. of Tokyo) Yosuke Takubo (Tohoku U.) Ryo Yonamine (Sokendai) Theorists: R.S. Hundi (U. of Hawaii) Hideo Itoh (KEK) Shigeki Matsumoto (Toyama U.) Nobuchika Okada (KEK)

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Dark Matter WIMP Neutral Massive Stable http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) ~ 0.1 DM abundance is establish by WMAP. One of the most plausible candidate: The nature is WIMPs are also able to account for the large scale structure of the presence universe. It is also plausible that DM appears in TeV new physics model which are motivated as the solution of the hierarchy problem (which should be solved at ~ TeV). WMAP results show that WIMP DM mass m χ around 100 GeV.

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Dark Matter Candidates WIMP Axion Gravitino (SUSY) … The spin of DM candidate comes in a variety of types. How to distinguish the dark matter nature in different new physics models? others η I 0 Inert Doublet χ 0 ½ SUSY A H 1 Littlest Higgs We concentrate on In order to measure mass & spin of new particles at ILC. W-W- W+W+ X0 X+ X- spinmodel Charged new particle Dark matter

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SUSY W-W- W+W+ X0 X+ X- X0: Neutralino spin ½ X+: Chargino spin ½ For example,

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SUSY W-W- W+W+ X0 X+ X- X0: Neutralino spin ½ X+: Chargino spin ½ For example, Since WIMP DM is interact SM particle weakly, the DM will interact W+- gauge boson. To conserve the charge and Z2- symmetry, the interaction also includes Charged New Particles. W+W+ X0

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SUSY W-W- W+W+ X0 X+ X- X0: Neutralino spin ½ X+: Chargino spin ½ For example, Since WIMP DM is interact SM particle weakly, the DM will interact W+- gauge boson. To conserve the charge and Z2- symmetry, the interaction also includes Charged New Particles. W+W+ X0 X+

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SUSY X0: Neutralino spin ½ X+: Chargino spin ½ For example, Since WIMP DM is interact SM particle weakly, the DM will interact W+- gauge boson. To conserve the charge and Z2- symmetry, the interaction also includes Charged New Particles. Other WIMP scenario will also have this mode. Inert Higgs W-W- W+W+ X0 X+ X-

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we will measure Angular distribution of charged new particles X ± Angular distribution of jets from W ± polarization X +- spin The decay vertex structure masses mass relation between X 0 & X +- will confirm the model. W-W- W+W+ X0 X+ X- From this mode, Inert Higgs We will study this mode for three models in order to distinguish the dark matter nature.

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Littlest Higgs Model SUSY transforms bosons into fermions and vice versa. Cancelation of the Quadratic div. to Higgs mass term is guaranteed by the supersymmetry. Inert Doublet Model SUSY Model Higgs boson is regarded as a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson The quadratic div. vanish at one-loop level due to the collective symmetry breaking. N. Arkani-Hamed, A. G. Cohen, H. Georgi (’01) 2 Higgs doublet model in which 1 doublet has Z2-odd parity. Higgs mass ~ 500GeV while avoiding EWPM constraints. R. Barbieri, L. J. Hall, V. S. Rychkov (’06)

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Littlest Higgs Model SUSY transforms bosons into fermions and vice versa. Cancelation of the Quadratic div. to Higgs mass term is guaranteed by the supersymmetry. Inert Doublet Model SUSY Model Higgs boson is regarded as a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson The quadratic div. vanish at one-loop level due to the collective symmetry breaking. N. Arkani-Hamed, A. G. Cohen, H. Georgi (’01) 2 Higgs doublet model in which 1 doublet has Z2-odd parity. Higgs mass ~ 500GeV while avoiding EWPM constraint. R. Barbieri, L. J. Hall, V. S. Rychkov (’06) SM particles + R-odd SM partner (spin is different) SM particles + T-odd SM partner (spin is same) SM particles + Z2-odd Higgs doublet

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Littlest Higgs with T-parity W-W- W+W+ AHAH AHAH WH+WH+ WH-WH- A H : Heavy Photon spin 1 W H + : Heavy W boson spin 1 SUSY X0: Neutralino spin ½ X+: Chargino spin ½ W-W- W+W+ X0 X+ X- Inert Doublet model W-W- W+W+ ηＩηＩ ηＩηＩ η+ η- η Ｉ : Neutral Inert Higgs spin 0 η + : Charged Inert Higgs spin 0

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Our Plan 1. We will analysis for three models using same masses. This is ongoing study. We have not finished simulation study for all models. 2. The cross section will adjust the smallest cross section in three models in order to more general WIMP study. I show only the Little Higgs case which have already finished.

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13 Signal Background Large missing energy 4 jet in final state All events are forced to 4 jets in final state W 2 < 10 : 2 for W ± reconstruction from jets P T miss >50 GeV/c : Missing transverse momentum Selection Cut W + W - e + e - W + W - W + W - and e + e - W + W - are effectively reduced by P T miss cut. Z H Z H Z H Z H is negligible after W 2 cut. W + W - and W + W - Z remain after 2 cuts. Event Little Higgs@ 1 TeV ILC e + e - W H W H A H A H WW

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14 Mass determination m AH = 81.58 ± 0.67 GeV, m WH = 368.3 ± 0.63 GeV true(81.85) true(368.2) An energy distribution of W’s from W H W H after subtraction of the backgrounds, whose number of events was estimated by independent background samples. The distribution is fitted by a polynomial function convoluted with an error function. High accuracy ! Energy distribution of reconstructed W bosons after subtracting BG Little Higgs@ 1 TeV ILC Masses of A H and W H can be determined from edges of W energy distribution. signal others

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15 e-e- e+e+ WH+WH+ W+W+ AHAH WH-WH- AHAH W-W- W H ± candidates are reconstructed as corn around W ±. If W H + and W H - are assumed as back-to-back, there are 2 solutions for W H ± candidates. In this mode, however, 2 solutions should be close to true W H ±. W+W+ W-W- WH+WH+ WH-WH- Distribution of production angles of W H + Production angle of W H ± spin-1 This shape shows W H ± spin as spin-1. Angular distribution of jets W+W+ j1j1 j2j2 j1j1 j2j2 longitudinal W ± helicity as longitudinal mode. Angular distribution of jets in the helicity-frame of the W ± carries information on the polarization of the W ±.

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16 W H is spin 1 particle! The dominance of the longitudinal mode! The coupling arises from EWSB! Angular distribution of charged new particles W H ± Angular distribution of jets from W ± polarization masses mass relation between A H & W H +- can be confirmed with good accuracy. Little Higgs@ 1 TeV ILC

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Inert DoubletSUSYLittle Higgs Angular distribution in three models @ Since, angular distribution is different from each models, this is the powerful probe of the dark matter nature. N. Okada We need full simulation for each models in next step. But, we now neglect the t-channel process. The case in which the t- channel process is significant, is more complicated.

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Advanced study In these three models, there are also t-channel process. When νH is very heavy, t-channel is neglidgible, there will be no asymmetry. If the t-channel process is significant, the cross section shows big FB asymmetry. Ex. LHT -> W charge ID is important. N. Okada W-W- W+W+ AHAH AHAH WH+WH+ WH-WH- W-W- W+W+ AHAH AHAH WH+WH+ WH-WH-

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Dark matter candidates which suggested by models of TeV new physics come in a variety of types. For new physics models, we are studying How accurately ILC can determine the dark matter properties using Generic WIMP Study! Summary W-W- W+W+ X0 X+ X-

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