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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Materials Science. 2 Course Objectives Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials Science Provide the interrelationships.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Materials Science. 2 Course Objectives Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials Science Provide the interrelationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Materials Science

2 2 Course Objectives Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials Science Provide the interrelationships among structure, properties & processing.

3 3 Learning Outcomes At the end of this course the students should be able to: 1.Describe the classifications, structures & applications of metals, ceramics and polymers correctly. 2.Analyse deformations behavior and strengthening mechanisms relying to its structure & properties of materials clearly. 3.Apply Fick’s Law in calculating the diffusion process and its mechanism in solids properly.

4 4 Learning Outcomes At the end of this course the students should be able to: 4.Demonstrate appropriate test methods in determining mechanical properties. 5.Apply the relation between composition, microstructure and properties of metallic materials by using apposite phase diagram and heat treatment process.

5 5 Course Synopsis This course comprises the fundamentals of Materials Science and its applications, atomic structure, crystal structure, solidification, imperfections and solid diffusion, mechanical and physical properties, phase diagrams and transformation, synthesis, types and applications of materials.

6 6 Course References 1.Callister W. D., 2008, Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons. 2.Smith W. F., 2004, Foundation of Materials Science and Engineering, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill. 3.Shackleford J. F., 2000, Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall. 4.Budinski K. G. and Budinski M.G., 1999, Engineering Materials: Properties and Selection, 6th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann UK. 5.Askeland D. R., 1994, The Science and Engineering of Materials, 3rd Edition, PWS Publication Co.

7 7 Lectures Lecturer: Wan Mohd Farid bin Wan Mohamad Time: 8 – 10 a.m (Tuesday) Place: BK 3, Fasa B Tutorial/Lab. Sections Group 1 Lecturer: Wan Mohd Farid Time: 2 – 5 p.m (Tuesday) Place: BK 1/MSTB Group 2 Lecturer: Sushiela Edayu Time: 2 – 5 p.m (Monday) Place: MCS /MSTB Technician (G1 & G2) Mahader bin Muhamad

8 8 Course Evaluations Criteria% Course work Test 1 Test (1½ hour) 15 Assignment 1 assignment Will be submitted 4 weeks after tutorial 15 1 Group presentation (week 15) 5 Quiz 2 Quizzes 5 Laboratory 3 Informal Group Reports (hand written) Will be submitted 3 days after lab session 12 1 Formal Individual Report (hand written) Will be submitted 1 week after lab session 8 Final examination Exam 1 Final Exam (2 ½ hours) 40 Total100

9 9 Course Schedules Week 1,2 3,4 5,6 7 8,9 10, , , 18,19,20 Topic General Intro; Atomic Structure & Bonding Crystalline Structures; Polymers Defects; Diffusion Mid-Semester Break Mechanical Properties; Strength Mechanisms Failure; Phase Diagrams Hari Raya Aidilfitri Break Phase Transform; Appl. of Materials Physical Properties Revision & Group presentation Study week Final exam Chapter 1,2 3,4 5,6 7,8 9,10 11,12 13 Lectures: will highlight important portions of each chapter.

10 10 General Introduction What is materials science? Why should we know about it? Materials drive our society –Stone Age –Bronze Age –Iron Age –Now? Silicon Age? Polymer Age?

11 11 Example – Hip Implant With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate. Particularly those with large loads (such as hip). Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e.

12 12 Example – Hip Implant Requirements –mechanical strength (many cycles) –good lubricity –biocompatibility Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e.

13 13 Example – Hip Implant Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e.

14 14 Hip Implant Key problems to overcome –fixation agent to hold acetabular cup –cup lubrication material –femoral stem – fixing agent (“glue”) –must avoid any debris in cup Femoral Stem Ball Acetabular Cup & Liner Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 22, Callister 7e.

15 15 ex: hardness vs structure of steel Properties depend on structure Data obtained from Figs (a) and with 4 wt% C composition, and from Fig and associated discussion, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig ; (b) Fig ;(c) Fig ; and (d) Fig , Callister & Rethwisch 3e. ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel Processing can change structure Structure, Processing, & Properties Hardness (BHN) Cooling Rate (ºC/s) (d) 30 mm (c) 4 mm (b) 30 mm (a) 30 mm spheroidite martensitic tempered martensite pearlite + proeutectoid ferrite

16 16 Types of Materials Metals : –Strong, ductile –High thermal & electrical conductivity –Opaque, reflective. Polymers/plastics : Covalent bonding  sharing of e’s –Soft, ductile, low strength, low density –Thermal & electrical insulators –Optically translucent or transparent. Ceramics : ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic & non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides) –Brittle, glassy, elastic –Non-conducting (insulators)

17 17 1.Pick ApplicationDetermine required Properties Processing: changes structure and overall shape ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping forming, joining, annealing. Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal, magnetic, optical, deteriorative. Material: structure, composition. 2.Properties Identify candidate Material(s) 3.Material Identify required Processing The Materials Selection Process

18 18 ELECTRICAL Electrical Resistivity of Copper: Adding “impurity” atoms to Cu increases resistivity. Deforming Cu increases resistivity. Adapted from Fig. 12.8, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig adapted from: J.O. Linde, Ann Physik 5, 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1970.) T (°C) Cu at%Ni Cu at%Ni deformed Cu at%Ni Resistivity, r (10 -8 Ohm-m) 0 Cu at%Ni “Pure” Cu

19 19 THERMAL Space Shuttle Tiles: -- Silica fiber insulation offers low heat conduction. Thermal Conductivity of Copper: -- It decreases when you add zinc! Adapted from Fig. 19.4W, Callister 6e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA) (Note: "W" denotes fig. is on CD-ROM.) Adapted from Fig. 17.4, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig is adapted from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.) Composition (wt% Zinc) Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K)  m Adapted from chapter- opening photograph, Chapter 17, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc.)

20 20 Transmittance: -- Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or opaque depending on the material structure. Adapted from Fig. 1.2, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Specimen preparation, P.A. Lessing; photo by S. Tanner.) single crystal polycrystal: low porosity polycrystal: high porosity OPTICAL transparent translucent opaque

21 21 DETERIORATIVE Stress & Saltwater causes cracks! Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 16, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (from Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.) 4 m4 m -- material: 7150-T651 Al "alloy" (Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr) Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 11, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Provided courtesy of G.H. Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.) Heat treatment: slows crack speed in salt water! Adapted from Fig (b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.) “held at 160ºC for 1 hr before testing” increasing load crack speed (m/s) “as-is” Alloy 7178 tested in saturated aqueous NaCl solution at 23ºC

22 22 Use the right material for the job. Understand the relation between properties, structure, and processing. Recognize new design opportunities offered by materials selection. Course Goals: SUMMARY

23 23 End of Chapter 1

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