2Course Objectives properties & processing. Introduce fundamental concepts in MaterialsScienceProvide the interrelationships among structure,properties & processing.
3Learning OutcomesAt the end of this course the students should be able to:Describe the classifications, structures & applications of metals, ceramics and polymers correctly.Analyse deformations behavior and strengthening mechanisms relying to its structure & properties of materials clearly.Apply Fick’s Law in calculating the diffusion process and its mechanism in solids properly.
4Learning OutcomesAt the end of this course the students should be able to:Demonstrate appropriate test methods in determining mechanical properties.Apply the relation between composition, microstructure and properties of metallic materials by using apposite phase diagram and heat treatment process.
5Course SynopsisThis course comprises the fundamentals of Materials Science and its applications, atomic structure, crystal structure, solidification, imperfections and solid diffusion, mechanical and physical properties, phase diagrams and transformation, synthesis, types and applications of materials.
6Course ReferencesCallister W. D., 2008, Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons.Smith W. F., 2004, Foundation of Materials Science and Engineering, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill.Shackleford J. F. , 2000, Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall.Budinski K. G. and Budinski M.G., 1999, Engineering Materials: Properties and Selection, 6th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann UK.Askeland D. R., 1994, The Science and Engineering of Materials, 3rd Edition, PWS Publication Co.
7Tutorial/Lab. Sections LecturesLecturer: Wan Mohd Farid bin Wan MohamadTime: 8 – 10 a.m (Tuesday)Place: BK 3, Fasa BTutorial/Lab. SectionsGroup 1Lecturer: Wan Mohd FaridTime: 2 – 5 p.m (Tuesday)Place: BK 1/MSTBGroup 2Lecturer: Sushiela EdayuTime: 2 – 5 p.m (Monday)Place: MCS /MSTBTechnician (G1 & G2)Mahader bin Muhamad
8Course Evaluations Criteria % Test 15 Assignment 5 Quiz Laboratory 12 Course workTest1 Test (1½ hour)15Assignment1 assignmentWill be submitted 4 weeks after tutorial1 Group presentation (week 15)5Quiz2 QuizzesLaboratory3 Informal Group Reports (hand written)Will be submitted 3 days after lab session121 Formal Individual Report (hand written)Will be submitted 1 week after lab session8Final examinationExam1 Final Exam (2 ½ hours)40Total100
9Hari Raya Aidilfitri Break Course SchedulesWeek1,23,45,678,910,111213,14151617,18,19,20TopicGeneral Intro; Atomic Structure & BondingCrystalline Structures; PolymersDefects; DiffusionMid-Semester BreakMechanical Properties; Strength MechanismsFailure; Phase DiagramsHari Raya Aidilfitri BreakPhase Transform; Appl. of MaterialsPhysical PropertiesRevision & Group presentationStudy weekFinal examChapter1,23,45,67,89,1011,1213Lectures: will highlight important portions of each chapter.
10General Introduction What is materials science? Why should we know about it?Materials drive our societyStone AgeBronze AgeIron AgeNow?Silicon Age?Polymer Age?
11Example – Hip ImplantWith age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate. Particularly those with large loads (such as hip).Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e.
12Example – Hip Implant Requirements mechanical strength (many cycles) good lubricitybiocompatibilityAdapted from Fig , Callister 7e.12
13Example – Hip ImplantAdapted from Fig , Callister 7e.13
14Hip Implant Key problems to overcome Ball fixation agent to hold acetabular cupcup lubrication materialfemoral stem – fixing agent (“glue”)must avoid any debris in cupBallAcetabularCup & LinerFemoralStemAdapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 22, Callister 7e.14
15Structure, Processing, & Properties • Properties depend on structureex: hardness vs structure of steelmartensitic(d)30 mm600tempered martensitepearlite + proeutectoid ferrite500(c)4 mmspheroiditeData obtained from Figs (a)and with 4 wt% C composition,and from Fig and associateddiscussion, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig.11.19; (b) Fig ;(c) Fig ;and (d) Fig , Callister & Rethwisch 3e.400(b)30 mm(a)30 mmHardness (BHN)3002001000.010.11101001000Cooling Rate (ºC/s)• Processing can change structureex: structure vs cooling rate of steel15
16Types of Materials Metals: Strong, ductileHigh thermal & electrical conductivityOpaque, reflective.Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding sharing of e’sSoft, ductile, low strength, low densityThermal & electrical insulatorsOptically translucent or transparent.Metals have high thermal & electrical conductivity because valence electrons are free to roamCeramics: ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic & non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides)Brittle, glassy, elasticNon-conducting (insulators)16
18ELECTRICAL • Electrical Resistivity of Copper: Resistivity, r T (°C) -200-100Cu at%NiCu at%Nideformed Cu at%Ni123456Resistivity, r(10-8 Ohm-m)Cu at%Ni“Pure” CuAdapted from Fig. 12.8, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig adapted from: J.O. Linde, Ann Physik 5, 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1970.)• Adding “impurity” atoms to Cu increases resistivity.• Deforming Cu increases resistivity.18
19THERMAL • Space Shuttle Tiles: • Thermal Conductivity of Copper: -- Silica fiber insulationoffers low heat conduction.• Thermal Conductivityof Copper:-- It decreases whenyou add zinc!Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 17, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Courtesy of LockheedMissiles and SpaceCompany, Inc.)Composition (wt% Zinc)Thermal Conductivity(W/m-K)40030020010010203040100 mmAdapted fromFig. 19.4W, Callister 6e. (Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA)(Note: "W" denotes fig. is on CD-ROM.)Adapted from Fig. 17.4, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig is adapted from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)19
20OPTICAL • Transmittance: -- Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, oropaque depending on the material structure.single crystalpolycrystal:low porosityhigh porosityAdapted from Fig. 1.2,Callister & Rethwisch 3e.(Specimen preparation,P.A. Lessing; photo by S. Tanner.)transparent translucent opaque20
21DETERIORATIVE • Heat treatment: slows • Stress & Saltwater... -- causes cracks!• Heat treatment: slowscrack speed in salt water!“held at160ºC for 1 hrbefore testing”increasing loadcrack speed (m/s)“as-is”10-10-8Alloy 7178 tested insaturated aqueous NaClsolution at 23ºCAdapted from Fig (b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 16, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.(from Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.)4 mm-- material:7150-T651 Al "alloy"(Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 11, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Provided courtesy of G.H. Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.)21
22SUMMARY Course Goals: • Use the right material for the job. • Understand the relation between properties,structure, and processing.• Recognize new design opportunities offeredby materials selection.22