4Geography Shapes Greek Life Greek life influenced by:1) Sea2) Land3) Climate
5Mycenaean Civilization Develops Strong culture led by wealthy warrior-kingsInvade Crete, spread aspects of Minoan cultureMycenaean kings defeat Troy & become the dominant power in Aegean region
6Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians Dorians replace MycenaeansNo written language & less advanced than MycenaeansHomer composes The Iliad & The OdysseyMyths help Greeks understand nature & human behavior
7Individual ActivityIn your notebook, answer questions 1-2 on page You do not have to write the question.Where was the center of the Mycenaean Civilization located?Based on the map, how did Mycenaean traders conduct most of their trade?
8Group Activity: 1-2 People Option 1: Comparing CulturesCreate a chart comparing the Mycenaeans, Minoans, and DoriansOption 2: Remembering the Trojan War-2 pagesWrite a journal entry as a survivor of the Trojan War. Discuss what you remember about the war, why it was fought, and how it ended (p. 125)Option 3: Greek Epics and Myths-2 pagesWrite an essay explaining why the Greek epics and myths are so well known and studied in today’s society (page )
10Rule & Order in Greek City-States Polis (city-state): basic political unit; run by malesAcropolis: hilltop where men gathered to conduct businessEach polis ruled by a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchyA new idea--army made of citizen-soldiersUsed the phalanx formation (spear & shield)
11Sparta Builds a Military State Conquers Messenians & forces them to stay on the land to work it (helots)Governed by an assembly, Council of Elders, & 5 elected officials that carried out the laws passed by the assemblySpartan education=military training for boysBoys & girls learned to put Sparta before anything elseValued duty, strength, & discipline
12Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Avoids civil war by developing democratic rule; only free men can be citizens (women expected to be unheard, unseen)Solon given power in 594 B.C.E.; reformed legal system, assembly, & tradeCleisthenes weakens the nobility & gives citizens more powerValued individuality, beauty, & freedom
13The Persian WarsDefeats Darius on land; 10 years later defeat Xerxes by land & seaVictory gives Athenians renewed self-confidence & sets the stage for a golden age
14Democracy & Greece’s Golden Age Section 3:Democracy & Greece’s Golden Age
15Pericles’ 3 Goals for Athens 1) Direct Democracy: increased # of paid public officials, citizens rule directly2) Strengthens Navy: used $ from Delian League’s treasury; 200 ships3) Beautifies Athens: bought gold, marble, built Parthenon
16Greek Styles in Art Artists & sculptors create an idealized human form Classical Art=standards of order, balance, & proportion
17Individual ActivityLook at pages on Greek Art and ArchitectureRead the section and answer the following questions in your notebook:How does the Parthenon display the Greek preference for symmetry and balance?On what does our culture today base its standards of beauty? Give examples to support your answer.
20Greek Drama Dramatic tragedies & comedies serve as entertainment (More about this in your group activity today)
21Spartans & Athenians Go to War Sparta & Athens begin the Peloponnesian War willingly (so much for the unification they had at Thermopylae)After 27 years, Athens surrenders to SpartaAthens loses its empire, power & wealth; confidence in democratic rule declines due to bad leadersAthens loses power due to plague and defeat at Syracuse (an ally of Starta)
23Reasons for the Peloponnesian War How could the goal of strengthening democracy have helped lead Athens to war?How could war be used to strengthen Athens’ trade empire?How might war increase Athens’ prestige?
24Philosophers Search for Truth Believe universe & its laws can be studied & understoodSocrates: ?’s traditional Greek values; condemned to deathPlato: wrote The Republic & says ideal society is an oligarchyAristotle: develops rules of logic; leads to scientific methodPhilosopher=lover of wisdom
25Partner Activity: Exploring Themes in Greek Drama Step 1: Read the passage on Greek drama on page 136.Step 2: Create a list of the different themes treated in Greek theater.Step 3: Match as many themes as possible with some of the TV shows or movies you have watched.Ex: the movies in the Star Wars series deal with warExtra Credit: Identify any shows or movies in which a leading character has a tragic flaw that causes his/her downfall.
27Philip Build’s Macedonia’s Power Builds a powerful professional army & defeats his enemiesConquers Greece, but murdered before he gets to PersiaAlexander continues father’s empire buildingDefeats Athens & Thebes at Battle of Chaeronea (care-o-nea)
28Alexander Defeats Persia 1st establishes control over Greece, then invades PersiaDefeat of Persians in Anatolia shows military geniusDarius tries to negotiate, but Alexander conquers Egypt & Persia
29Alexander’s Other Conquests Extends empire into Central Asia; wants to reach continent’s endConquests end at Indus ValleyDies planning another expansionStrong generals divide and take over his empireConquests result in blending of Greek & Persian cultures
30Activity: Pop-Up MapIn groups of no more than 3, develop a map of Alexander’s EmpireOn your map, you must outline the empire and label important geographical featuresUse pages to research the places Alexander took his empire.Create at least 7 “pop-ups” that provide information about what happened in that regionThis assignment is worth 20 points. It is graded on completeness and effort.
31The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Section 5:The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
32Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria A blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, & Indian influencesAlexandria in Africa becomes greatest Hellenistic cityCity thrives as major center of scholarship with its museums & library
33Science & TechnologyAstronomers develop theories that shape European thought for centuriesEuclid develops geometryArchimedes’ laws serve as the basis for many mechanical inventions
34Individual Activity Refer to the picture on page 147 of your book. For what aspects of astronomy were the Greeks relatively correct?For what aspects of astronomy were the Greeks incorrect?What was Ptolemy’s view of the universe?
35Philosophy & ArtStoics seek to control desire & live in harmony w/ natural & divine lawsEpicureans seek to harmonize in mind & bodySculptors reject classical ideas & create more realistic works
37Group Activity: Hellenistic Alexandria For this activity, you will be dividing into 6 groups:Trade and Cultural DiversityAlexandria’s AttractionsAstronomyMathematics and PhysicsStoicism and EpicureanismRealism in SculptureIn your group, read your section then create a poster to explain your section.Remember the purpose of posters: to inform briefly from a distanceYour poster must have written and visual informationYou may not go to the library to print pictures
38Review Questions Why was sea travel important to early Greece? Why did the Greeks develop myths?What were the two most powerful city-states in early Greece?What were the consequences of the Persian Wars?What were Pericles’ three goals for Athens?Who were the three renowned philosophers of the golden age?Why was Greece so easily conquered by Macedonia?What was the full extent of Alexander’s empire before his death?What four influences blended to form Hellenistic culture?What were some of the scientific achievements of the Hellenistic period?