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InterMR ( Inter - M ANET R outing for Heterogeneous MANETs) 12-Apr-15 1 SeungHoon Lee, Mario Gerla (UCLA) Starsky H.Y. Wong, Kang-Won Lee (IBM Research)

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Presentation on theme: "InterMR ( Inter - M ANET R outing for Heterogeneous MANETs) 12-Apr-15 1 SeungHoon Lee, Mario Gerla (UCLA) Starsky H.Y. Wong, Kang-Won Lee (IBM Research)"— Presentation transcript:

1 InterMR ( Inter - M ANET R outing for Heterogeneous MANETs) 12-Apr-15 1 SeungHoon Lee, Mario Gerla (UCLA) Starsky H.Y. Wong, Kang-Won Lee (IBM Research) Chi-Kin Chau, Jon Crowcroft (University of Cambridge, UK)

2 Challenges & Motivation 212-Apr-15 Police (P) Medical crew (MC) Firefighter (F) 1, Different technologies 2, Different routings 3, Different policies - WiFi - AODV - WiFi - DSDV - WiMAX - OSLR Heterogeneous Wireless Networks 4/12/20152

3 Challenges & Motivation 312-Apr-15 Police (P) Medical crew (MC) Firefighter (F) 1, Different technologies 2, Different routings 3, Different policies - WiFi - AODV - WiFi - DSDV - WiMAX - OSLR How can we enable interoperation among heterogeneous MANETs ? Heterogeneous Wireless Networks 4/12/20153

4 Related works (1)  Hybrid Routing (e.g., SHARP[1])  Balancing between proactive & reactive  Combining two different routing protocols  Cluster-based networking in MANETs [2]  Forming self-organizing clusters  Routing between cluster of nodes  Main goal is to improve the routing performance in a single MANET 412-Apr-15 4/12/20154 [1] V. Ramasubramanian, Z. J. Haas, and E. G. Sirer. SHARP: A hybrid adaptive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. In Proc. ACM MOBIHOC, June [2] Xiaoyan Hong, Mario Gerla, Yunjung Yi, Kaixin Xu and Taek Jin Kwon. “Scalable Ad Hoc Routing in Large, Dense Wireless Networks Using Clustering and Landmarks In Proc. ICC ‘02

5 Related works (2)  Border Gateway Protocol(BGP) [3]  Inter-domain routing among heterogeneous domains(ASs)  Enabling administrative control over intra-domain and inter-domain routing policy  BGP is for wired networks, not suitable for dynamic topology changes 512-Apr-15 4/12/20155 [3] Y. Rekhter and T. Li. RFC 1771: A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4), March 1995.

6 Challenges & Motivation  Inadequacy of existing ad hoc routing for MANETs  Improves network performance in a single MANET  Limitations of BGP  Not suitable for mobility  No split/merge  Only works well with hierarchical prefixes 612-Apr-15 4/12/20156

7 InterMR ( I nter - M ANET R outing for Heterogeneous MANETs) 712-Apr-15 4/12/20157

8 Design Goals (1) Preserve internal protocol architecture  No changes required in intra-MANET protocol stack  InterMR operates with any protocols (2) Effectively handle inter/intra MANET topology changes, while seamlessly providing inter-MANET routing 8 4/12/20158

9 Main Contributions (1) A new inter-MANET protocol architecture (2) Content/Attribute based MANET addressing  Transparent to split/merge  No DNS requirements (3) Dynamic Gateway Election  Maximizing network performance yet minimizing protocol overhead 9 4/12/20159

10 Protocol Architecture: InterMR Component  Interacts with intra-MANET protocol stack 10 4/12/ Routing: AODV/DSDV/TORA/DSR APP Traffic (CBR, video etc) Routing Table MAC/Link: a/b/… PHY Interface 0 (base interface) Internal Protocol Stack

11  Interacts with intra-MANET protocol stack 11 4/12/ Routing: AODV/DSDV/TORA/DSR APP Traffic (CBR, video etc) Routing Table MAC/Link: a/b/… PHY Interface 0 (base interface) InterMR Table MAC/Link: a/b/… PHY Interface 1 InterMR Application Traffic and Existing Routing traffic unaware of InterMR Optional Internal Protocol Stack Protocol Architecture: InterMR Component

12 Protocol Architecture: Gateway  Gateway maintains InterMR component  Subset of nodes in each MANET  Maintains intra/inter MANET topology information  Propagating intra-MANET information to outside  Receiving inter-MANET information from other Gateways Apr-15 4/12/ MANET A Gateway MANET B A1 A2 B1 B2

13 Protocol Architecture: Gateway  Roles of Gateway  Handling inter-MANET routing  Enforcing inter-MANET routing policies  Monitoring security and performing authentication 13 4/12/ Apr-15 MANET A Gateway MANET B A1 A2 B1 B2

14 Protocol Architecture: e-InterMR, i-InterMR  e-InterMR  Inter-MANET communication by broadcasting (single hop)  Detecting external topology change (e-InterMR beacon)  Exchanging Inter-MANET routing information  i-InterMR  Intra-MANET communication by underlying routing protocol  Detecting internal topology change (i-InterMR beacon)  Synchronizing Inter-MANET routing information among intra Gateways Apr-15 4/12/ MANET A Gateway MANET B e-InterMR i-InterMR A1 A2 B1 B2 Non-Gateway

15 Dynamic MANET Addressing  Dynamic MANET Split/Merge  Detection by periodic i-InterMR beacon  Unique MANET Address  Generate a new MANET address based on attributes inside MANET  IP addresses, MAC, symbolic name, type of nodes (e.g., vehicle), contents stored in nodes  Represented by Bloom Filter  Guarantee uniqueness of MANTET address  To avoid routing inconsistencies/loops  Simply check attributes of each MANET 15 4/12/201515

16 Dynamic MANET Addressing  Bloom Filter & MANET address generation 16 4/12/ B1 B2 b1 b2 B Bloom Filter(BF) MANET address Hash

17 Dynamic MANET Addressing  Bloom Filter & MANET address generation  MANET Split  Generating New Bloom filters/ MANET addresses 17 4/12/ B1 B2 b1 b2 B Bloom Filter(BF) Hash MANET addr

18 Protocol Architecture: Routing Tables  Gateway maintains two routing tables  InterMR routing table  Inter-MANET topology information  Bloom filter of each MANET, next hop info.  Base routing table (i.e., AODV or DSDV)  Intra-MANET topology information  destinations in the same MANET 1812-Apr-15 4/12/ Gateway InterMRBase Inter-MANET information Intra-MANET destinations

19 4/12/ Protocol Architecture: Example 1912-Apr-15 A1 B1 B2 MANET A (AODV)MANET B (DSDV) C1 MANET C (DSR) b1 b2 c1 B3 a1 a2

20 Protocol Architecture: Example 2012-Apr-15 4/12/ e-InterMR A1 B2 MANET A (AODV)MANET B (DSDV) C1 MANET C (DSR) A1 InterMRAODV C1 InterMRDSR B2 InterMRDSDV B1 InterMRDSDV e-InterMR i-InterMR a1 b1 b2 c1 dst: a1, a2 BF[a1, a2,A1] next: MANET A BF[a1,a2,A1] next: B1 BF[a1,a2,A1] next: MANET B B3 B1 e-InterMR a2

21 Protocol Architecture: Example 2112-Apr-15 4/12/ e-InterMR A1 B2 MANET A (AODV)MANET B (DSDV) C1 MANET C (DSR) A1 InterMRAODV C1 InterMRDSR B2 InterMRDSDV B1 InterMRDSDV e-InterMR i-InterMR a1 b1 b2 c1 dst: a1, a2 BF[a1, a2,A1] BF[b1,b2..B3] next: MANETB BF[c1,C1] next: MANET B BF[a1,a2, A1] next: MANET A BF[b1,b2.,..B3] BF[c1,C1] next: B2 BF[a1,a2,A1] next: B1 BF[b1,b2..B3] BF[c1,C1] next: MANET C BF[a1,a2,A1] next: MANET B BF[b1,b2,…B3] next: MANET B BF[c1,C1] B3 B1 a2 dst: b1, b2 B1,B3 dst: b1, b2 B1,B3 dst: c1, C1

22 22  Static assignment may result:  Inter-MANET connectivity gets lost with node mobility  Node mobility causes  Loss of connectivity: Gateways are not able to communicate with other gateways  Partition Isolation: A partition without any gateways MANET A1 (AODV) MANET A1 (AODV) MANET B (DSDV) MANET B (DSDV) A1 B1 B2 MANET A2 (AODV) MANET A2 (AODV) Necessitate an adaptive approach A2 A3 A4 Gateway Deployment

23 23  Design Goals  Maximize network performance (i.e., inter-MANET connectivity)  Minimize the protocol overhead/ resource consumption (i.e., minimum number of active gateways)  Distributed algorithm  Local decision by each gateway  Become active only necessary Dynamic Gateway Election

24 24 Initial topology Active gateways: G1, G2, G3, G4 Inactive gateways: G5 Topology change Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3 G5 G1 G4G2

25 25 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2 Step 1: Collect Inter- MANET connectivity information –By e-InterMR G1: MANET A, B G4: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G5: MANET D e-InterMR Control Message

26 26 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2 i-InterMR Control Message Step 2: Exchange connectivity information –Gateways exchange beacons in the same MANET –Beacons contain the connectivity info.

27 27 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2 i-InterMR Control Message Step 2: Exchange connectivity information –Gateways exchange beacons in the same MANET –Beacons contain the connectivity info. G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D G1

28 28 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2 i-InterMR Control Message Step 2: Exchange connectivity information –Gateways exchange beacons in the same MANET –Beacons contain the connectivity info. G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D G1G2G3G4 G5

29 29 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Covers all of reachable MANETs with the minimum # of GWs  Local Decision G1G2G3G4 G5 G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D

30 30 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Covers all of reachable MANETs with the minimum # of GWs  Local Decision G1G2G3G4 G5 G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D

31 31 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Covers all of reachable MANETs with the minimum # of GWs  Local Decision G1G2G3G4 G5 G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D

32 32 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Covers all of reachable MANETs with the minimum # of GWs  Local Decision G1G2G3G4 G5 G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D

33 33 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Covers all of reachable MANETs with the minimum # of GWs  Local Decision G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D G1G2G3G4 G5

34 34 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Covers all of reachable MANETs with the minimum # of GWs  Local Decision G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D G1G2G3G4 G5 Active!

35 35 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Covers all of reachable MANETs with the minimum # of GWs  Local Decision G1: MANET A, B G2: - G3: MANET C G4: MANET A, B G5: MANET D MANET: A, B, C, D G1G2G3G4 G5 Inactive

36 36 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3G4 G1 G5 G2  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Covers all of reachable MANETs with the minimum # of GWs  Local Decision

37 37 Dynamic Gateway Election: Example G3 G1  Step 3: Elect Active Gateways  Local Decision G1: Active G2: Active  Inactive G3: Active G4: Active  Inactive G5: Inactive  Active G4 G5 G2

38 38  Implemented InterMR in NS2  Performance metrics  # of Active gateways elected  Connectivity (# of reachable destinations)  Settings  Mobility Patterns  Reference Point Group Mobility (RPGM)  Random Waypoint Mobility  100 nodes with 2 MANETs, 4 MANETs  Area: 1500mx1500m, 2000mx2000m Evaluation

39 Evaluation (1) – Reference Point Group Mobility 3912-Apr-15 4/12/  Outperforms Static GW assignment scheme  Guarantees inter-MANET connectivity  Adaptively elects more/less number of active GWs as network topology changes

40 Evaluation (2) – Random Waypoint 4012-Apr-15 4/12/  Network Connectivity decreases with RWP  InterMR elects more active GWs

41 Conclusion 4112-Apr-15 4/12/  Designed a novel Inter-MANET Routing protocol (InterMR)  Handles heterogeneity of MANETs & node mobility  Adaptively adjusts to topology changes via dynamic GW election  Scalable, yet maximizing network performance  Implemented, evaluated InterMR  NS2, various mobility patterns  Effectively achieves the maximal performance  Future work  Various performance metrics on gateway election  Resource balancing, Routing Policy, etc.

42 Question & Answer 4212-Apr-15 4/12/ Thank you!


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