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Approach to child with heart disease

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Presentation on theme: "Approach to child with heart disease"— Presentation transcript:

1 Approach to child with heart disease
Pushpa Raj Sharma Professor of Child Health Institute of Medicine

2 Diseases of heart Blood vessels Endocardium Myocardium Pericardium

3 Prevalence Acquired Congenital Cyanotic: 22% Acyanotic: 68%
Kawasaki disease Rheumatic Tubercular Collagen Congenital Cyanotic: 22% Acyanotic: 68% VSD 25% ASD 6% PDA 6% TOF 5% PS 5% AS 5% Ceylon Med J 2001 Sep; 46 (3): 96-8; Indian J Pediatr Aug;68 (8):757-7 Nelson’s Textbook of pediatrics; 17 ed.

4 Common acyanotic lesions
Ventricular septal defects Atrial septal defects Atrio-ventricular septal defects Patent ductus arteriosus Truncus arteriosus Pulmonary stenosis Aortic stenosis Mitral stenosis/incompetence Coarctation of aorta Tricuspid regurgitation

5 Common Cyanotic Lesions
Decreased flow 1. Tetralogy of Fallot 2. Tricuspid Atresia 3. Severe Pulmonic Stenosis 4. Ebstein’s anamoly Increased Flow 5. Transposition of great vessles 6. VSD with pulmonary atresia

6 Common Lesions producing cyanosis
7. Truncus Arteriosus 8. Hypoplastic left heart 9. Single ventricle 10. TAPVR with infradiaphragmatic obstruction

7 Presenting complaints/signs
Fast breathing Oedema Hepatomegaly, spleenomegaly Clubbing Cyanosis Focal neurological lesion Other organ defects Chromosomal anomalies Failure to thrive Exercise intolerence Easy fatigability Chest indrawing Sweating during feeding Bluish spells Fever with rigor Palpitation Convulsion

8 Cyanosis: is it a cardiac cause or lung cause
Hyperoxia test Neonates with cyanotic congenital heart disease usually do not have significantly raised arterial Pao2 during administration of 100% oxygen.

9 Ventricular Defect Small VSD Large VSD Asymptomatic
A loud, harsh, or blowing holosystolic murmur. Large VSD dyspnea, feeding difficulties, poor growth, profuse perspiration, recurrent pulmonary infections, and cardiac failure in early infancy. 80% Syndromes associated with this condition

10 VSD: ECG is normal but may show right ventricular hypertrophy, if present indicates defect is large and presence of pulmonary hypertension or pulmonry stenosis

11 Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Small VSDs, the chest radiograph is usually normal Large VSD: The presence of right ventricular hypertrophy, olegeimic lung fields (pulmonary hypertension or an associated pulmonic stenosis), gross cardiomegaly with prominence of both ventricles, the left atrium.

12 Ventricular Septal defects
30–50% of small defects close spontaneously, most frequently during the 1st 2 yr of life. Small muscular VSDs are more likely to close (up to 80%) than membranous VSDs are (up to 35%). infants with large defects have repeated episodes of respiratory infection and heart failure despite optimal medical management. Surgical repair prior to development of an irreversible increase in pulmonary vasculalr resistance (usually prior to the patient's second birthday).

13 Atrial Septal Defects: secundum
Most common form of ASD (fossa ovalis) In large defects, a considerable shunt of oxygenated blood flows from the left to the right atrium. Mostly asymptomatic The 2nd heart sound is characteristically widely split and fixed. Secundum

14 Atrial Septal Defects:primum
Situated in the lower portion of the atrial septum and overlies the mitral and tricuspid valves. In most instances, a cleft in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve is also noted. Combination of a left-to-right shunt across the atrial defect and mitral insufficiency C/F similar to that of an ostium secundum ASD

15 Atrial Septal Defect Enlargement of the right ventricle
Enlargement of atrium Large pulmonary artery increased pulmonary vascularity is.

16 The electrocardiogram in patients with a complete AV septal defect is distinctive. The principal abnormalities are (1) superior orientation of the mean frontal QRS axis with left axis deviation to the left upper or right upper quadrant, (2) counterclockwise inscription of the superiorly oriented QRS vector loop, (3) signs of biventricular hypertrophy or isolated right ventricular hypertrophy, (4) right ventricular conduction delay (RSR′ pattern in leads V3 R and V1 ), (5) normal or tall P waves, and (6) occasional prolongation of the P-R interval

17 Atrial Septal Defects Secundum ASDs are well tolerated during childhood. Antibiotic prophylaxis for isolated secundum ASDs is not recommended. Surgery or transcatheter device closure is advised for all symptomatic patients and also for asymptomatic patients with a Qp:Qs ratio of at least 2:1. Ostium primum defects are approached surgically

18 Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Small defect no symptoms. Large defect: Wide pulse pressure Enlarged heart Thrill in L second IS Continuous murmur X-ray: prominent pulmonary artery with increased vascular markings.

19 Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
Prominent pulmonary artery. Prominent right ventricle Prominent vascularity in the hilar areas Decreased vascualr marking in the periphery. No treatment PPrimary pulmonary hypertension is characterized by pulmonary vascular obstructive disease and right-sided heart failure. It occurs at any age, although in pediatric patients the diagnosis is initially made in the teenage years. Chest roentgenograms reveal a prominent pulmonary artery and right ventricle. The pulmonary vascularity in the hilar areas may be prominent, in contrast to the peripheral lung fields, in which pulmonary markings are decreased.

20 Mitral insufficiency: Rheumatic
High volume load Inflammatory process Enlarged left ventricles Dilatation of the left atrium Pulmonary congestion Symptoms of left sided failure Spontaneous improvement Repeated insult Chronic mitral insufficiency Raised Pulmonary AP Symptoms of right heart failure Enlarged right ventricle and atrium

21 Mitral insufficiency: Rheumatic
Signs of heart failure Heaving apical impulse Apical systolic thrill Accentuated 2nd sound Holosystolic murmur radiating to axilla ECG: bifid P waves and left ventricular hyertrophy X-ray: prominent left atrium and ventricle (straight left border) Prophylaxis against recurrence of rheumatic fever

22 Rheumatic valvular disease: Mitral stenosis
Takes 10 years to develop Symptoms proportionate to severity Left ventricular failure right ventricular failure Loud first heart sound with opening snap. Diastolic murmur Absent murmur if heart failure. Surgical intervention if symptomatic

23 Mitral Stenosis Loud 1st sound Diastolic murmur
left atrial enlargement prominence of the pulmonary artery enlarged right-sided heart chambers; ECG: prominent notched P wave.

24 Pericardial Effusion Presenting complaint Signs: Precordial pain Cough
Dyspnoea Abdominal pain Vomiting Fever Other organs involvement Signs: Position: leaning forward. Puffy face Friction rub Absent apical impulse Muffled heart sounds Pulsus paradoxus Distended neck veins Low QRS complex, T inversion

25 Pericardial Effusion A relatively large pericardial effusion must be present to cause an enlarged cardiac shadow with the usual “water bottle” configuration on a chest roentgenogram

26 The test that differentiates
The cardiac seize and the vascularity in the chest X-ray

27 Cardiac disease with normal/decreased vasculature
Viral myocarditis Tetralogy of Fallot Pulmonary atresia Tricuspid atresia Endocardial fibroelastosis Aberrant left coronary artery Cystic medial necrosis Diabetic mother

28 Tetralogy of Fallot Ventricular septal defect Pulmonic stenosis
Overriding aorta Right ventricular hypertrophy Cyanotic

29 Cardiac disease with increased vasculature
Atrioventricular septal defects Congestive cardiac failure Transposition of great arteries with VSD Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage Truncus arteriosus Single ventricle without pulmonary stenosis Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

30 Congestive Cardiac Failure
Enlarged heart Plethoric lung fields specially at bases

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