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1 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by.

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Presentation on theme: "1 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Chapter 3 Project Management

2 2 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Manajemen Proyek SW efektif jika fokus pada 4 P’s  People — the most important element of a successful project  Product — the software to be built  Process — the set of framework activities and software engineering tasks to get the job done  Project — all work required to make the product a reality

3 3 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 People  Players  Senior Managers  Project (technical) Managers  Practitioners  Pelanggan  Pengguna Akhir  Team Leaders  Model kepemimpinan MOI (Motivation, Organization, Ideas/Innovation)  Jerry Weinberg  Pandangan Lain, Effective Leadership ditandai 4 hal :  Problem Solving,  Managerial Identity,  Achievement,  Influence and Team Building

4 4 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Team Organization  Mantei menyarankan 3 bentuk organisasi tim:  Democratic Decentralized (DD) –  tidak ada leader permanen  Keputusan kelompok  Komunikasi horisontal  Controlled Decentralized (CD) –  Ada team leader dan secondary leader  Keputusan kelompok  Komunikasi horisontal dan vertikal  Controlled Centralized (CD)  Keputusan tanggung jawab leader  Koordinasi tanggung-jawab leader  Komunikasi vertikal

5 5 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Software Projects size delivery deadline budgets and costs application domain technology to be implemented system constraints user requirements available resources Factors that influence the end result...

6 6 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Project Management Concerns

7 7 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, tanda Proyek Sistem Informasi dalam masalah  1. Software people don’t understand their customer’s needs.  2. The product scope is poorly defined.  3. Changes are made  4. The chosen technology changes.  5. Business needs change [or are ill-defined].  6. Deadlines are unrealistic.

8 8 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, tanda Proyek Sistem Informasi dalam masalah (lanjutan)  7. Users are resistant.  8. Sponsorship is lost [or was never properly obtained].  9. The project team lacks people with appropriate skills.  10. Managers [and practitioners] avoid best practices and lessons learned.naged poorly.

9 9 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Bagaimana cara menghindari permasalahan seperti di atas  Start on the right foot  Maintain momentum.  Track progress.  Make smart decisions.  Conduct a postmortem analysis.

10 10 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Why Projects Fail? an unrealistic deadline is established an unrealistic deadline is established changing customer requirements changing customer requirements an honest underestimate of effort an honest underestimate of effort predictable and/or unpredictable risks predictable and/or unpredictable risks technical difficulties technical difficulties miscommunication among project staff miscommunication among project staff failure in project management failure in project management

11 11 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Software Teams  the difficulty of the problem to be solved  the size of the resultant program(s) in lines of code or function points  the time that the team will stay together (team lifetime)  the degree to which the problem can be modularized  the required quality and reliability of the system to be built  the rigidity of the delivery date  the degree of sociability (communication) required for the project The following factors must be considered when selecting a software project team structure...

12 12 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001  closed paradigm—structures a team along a traditional hierarchy of authority (similar to a CC team)  random paradigm—structures a team loosely and depends on individual initiative of the team members  open paradigm—attempts to structure a team in a manner that achieves some of the controls associated with the closed paradigm but also much of the innovation that occurs when using the random paradigm  synchronous paradigm—relies on the natural compartment- alization of a problem and organizes team members to work on pieces of the problem with little active communication among themselves Organizational Paradigms suggested by Constantine [CON93]

13 13 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Defining the Problem  establish scope—a narrative that bounds the problem  decomposition—establishes functional partitioning

14 14 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Melding Problem and Process

15 15 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 To Get to the Essence of a Project  Why is the system being developed?  What will be done? By when?  Who is responsible for a function?  Where are they organizationally located?  How will the job be done technically and managerially?  How much of each resource (e.g., people, software, tools, database) will be needed? Barry Boehm

16 16 These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 5/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001 Critical Practices  Formal risk analysis  Empirical cost and schedule estimation  Metrics-based project management  Earned value tracking  Defect tracking against quality targets  People aware project management


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