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Directions This Operational Cultural Awareness Training (OCAT) Brief in PowerPoint (.ppt) format is designed primarily for presentation to a group by a.

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Presentation on theme: "Directions This Operational Cultural Awareness Training (OCAT) Brief in PowerPoint (.ppt) format is designed primarily for presentation to a group by a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Directions This Operational Cultural Awareness Training (OCAT) Brief in PowerPoint (.ppt) format is designed primarily for presentation to a group by a facilitator. In the.ppt format, the bulk of information can be found in the Notes Section. Slides contain bulletized summaries of the Notes Section and images supporting the information presented. The facilitator should print out the Notes Pages and read the text aloud while presenting the slide. Bracketed text is intended as additional information for the facilitator and may or may not be read/commented on at the facilitator’s discretion. To print the Notes Pages: In the menu bar, select “File” and “Print”; a print menu will appear. On the print menu, in the lower left area under the pulldown tab “Print What”, select “Notes Pages”. If viewing the OCAT individually, it is recommended that the Notes Pages be viewed/read. To access the Notes Pages, in the menu bar, select “View” and “Notes Page”. Direct questions or comments about this presentation to the Regional Desk Officer listed on the last slide of this presentation.

2 This training is an introduction to cultural norms and is NOT intended to countermand or supersede current rules of engagement (RoE). RoE are subject to continuous review and modification in response to strategic objectives and the dynamic tactical environment. Where ambiguity or inconsistency exists regarding what you, as an American service member, should do in a specific situation, consult your chain of command. The photos and text reproduced herein have been extracted solely for research, comment and information reporting, and are intended for fair use by designated personnel in their official duties, including local reproduction for training. A listing of all references and photos used herein is maintained by CLREC. Further dissemination of copyrighted material contained in this document, to include excerpts and graphics, is strictly prohibited under Title 17, U.S. Code. Disclaimer

3 Center for Language, Regional Expertise and Culture (CLREC) A Directorate of the Center for Information Dominance (CID) Pensacola, Florida Last Update: May 3, 2010 Version 3.0 Operational Cultural Awareness Training – Okinawa Prefecture

4 Overview The following characteristics of Okinawa and its people will be presented: Geography History Peoples and Ethnic Groups Language Religious Influences Society and Norms Behavior and Etiquette Cultural Summary Introduction The purpose of this brief is to familiarize you with the values, beliefs, behaviors and norms of modern Okinawa; significant cultural differences between America and Okinawa will be presented so that U.S. military operators can understand and anticipate the behavior and thought processes of the Okinawan people. Prefectural Flag of Okinawa National Flag of Japan

5 Southern most Japanese prefecture Part of Ryūkyū Island chain Okinawa means “sea rope” Okinawa prefecture Okinawa Islands Miyako Islands Yaeyama Islands The island of Okinawa About ⅓ the size of Rhode Island Includes prefecture capital – Naha Northern ⅔ – mountains, forests Southern ⅓ – rolling hills Geography Hiji Falls in Northern Okinawa Naha

6 Subtropical climate Average temperatures July – 82°F January – 61°F Rainy seasons May-Jun Jun-Nov – tropical cyclone Diverse agriculture and wildlife Naha Battered by Typhoon Songda in 2004 Geography (Continued) Nago Pineapple Park

7 Dangerous wildlife Venomous land creatures Four types of Habu snakes Brown Recluse spider Dangerous marine life Blue-ringed octopus Box jellyfish Cone shells Lionfish Marine catfish Crown of thorns star Sea snakes Stingrays Sakishima Habu Brown Recluse Spider Blue Ringed Octopus Lionfish Crown of Thorns Starfish Geography (Continued)

8 Inhabited continuously since 2,500 BC Migration from Melanesia Migration from Kyūshū (southern Japan) 779 AD – first written reference to “Okinawa” A series of dynasties Shunten – 1187-1259 Eiso – 1260-1349 Satto – 1350-1405 First Sho – 1406-1469 Second Sho – 1470-1879 1879-1945 – Prefecture of Japan History Statue of Jianzhen Shuri CastleShorin-Ryu Karate at Shuri Castle

9 Ryūkyū Island chain Important in defense of Japanese mainland June 1944 – Japanese soldiers sent to Okinawa Before the battle for Okinawa October 1944 – Americans commence bombing March 1945 – American troops land on Kerama Islands Battle of Okinawa 1 April 1945 – invasion begins Lasted 11 weeks 20 June 1945 – battle ended Heavy military casualities ⅓ of civilian population killed 2 September 1945 – Japan officially surrendered Japanese Representatives Aboard USS Missouri History (Continued) Invasion of Okinawa U.S. Forces on Patrol in Okinawa

10 1946 – rebuilding of Okinawa begins First hospital Civilian newspaper Bank Legal system By 1950 Foreign trade begins anew Civilian government 1951 – treaty signed with Japan U.S. maintained administrative control Okinawa referred to as residual sovereignty 15 May 1972 Full administrative control returned to Japan Becomes 47 th Prefecture of Japan again American Vice President Spiro Agnew Presents Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato With Documents Returning Okinawa and the other Ryūkyū Islands History (Continued) Extensive Damage from the Invasion

11 Historically descendants of Japanese Southeast Asian Uchinanchu – the people of Okinawa Do not consider themselves Japanese Refer to Japanese as Yamatunchus Culture more influenced by China than Japan Uchinanchu developed their own Political system Local and religious festivals Languages Holidays Similarities to Japanese Behavior Social framework Diet Peoples and Ethnic Groups

12 Official language – Japanese Used during formal occasions Mainly spoken by younger generation Taught in school Uchinaguchi or Uchina Guchi Mainly spoken by people over age of 60 Native language of Okinawa Some commonality with Japanese language Used in cultural activities and radio news Grandparents teach younger generation Additional languages in the Ryūkyū Islands Amami Miyako Kunigami Yaeyama Yonaguni Mutually incomprehensible with others Endangered of being lost Language Differences in Japanese and Okinawan Numbers Billboards in Kin, Okinawa – The Center Uses Standard Japanese, the others Use Okinawan

13 Onarigami – a core belief in Okinawan culture Sister has spiritual power Power used to protect her brother Fire God Worshipped at kitchen hearth Predates ancestral worship Ceramic incense container used to offer prayers Prayers then offered at ancestral shrine Prayers always conducted by oldest woman Prayers conducted on 1 st and 15 th of each month and during other rituals Incense container disposed of when the oldest woman dies Religious Influences Hinukan at Nakijin Castle Ruins Tisaji Kouro

14 Many religions practiced Animism Belief in different kinds of spirits Spirits are sacred and supernatural Ceremonies appease the spirits Many rituals throughout year Many sacred places for worship Shamanism Good and evil spirits Kaminchu – priestess Performs all ceremonies in village Hereditary position Holds position for life Yuta – shaman Intermediary between spiritual and physical world Called when misfortune present Highly integrated into society Sanjinso – fortuneteller Lunar Calendar I Ching Other books Religious Influences (Continued) The Sefa Utaki Sacred Site Yutas During the Shioya Ungami Festival Uganju at Ozato Castle

15 Ancestor Worship Introduced in the 14 th century Widespread by the 17 th century Ancestors’ spirits watch over descendants Ceremonies honor ancestors Ancestral shrines in nearly every home Located in an alcove in a main room Top shelf includes sacred tables Oldest woman is in charge of the shrine and conducts rituals Family tomb Located in remote areas of a village Family gathers there for prayers on special occasions Religious Influences (Continued) Ancestral Shrine Family Tomb

16 Buddhism Originated in India Mid-6 th century – arrived in Japan 7 th century – embraced by Empress Suiko Prince Shotoku considered the father of Japanese Buddhism Buddhist rituals used for almost all funerals Several large monasteries throughout Japan Religious Influences (Continued) Tourinji Temple Obon Festival Great Buddha of Kamakura

17 Temple etiquette Usually must remove shoes Be calm and respectful Praying at temples Throw a coin in the offering box Pray in front of sacred object Place incense in burner and wave smoke toward self Photography Usually allowed outside Not usually allowed inside Signs may be posted Religious Influences (Continued) Osenko Remove Shoes Before Entering a Temple Conan Praying at TempleLighting Incense Offering Box

18 Shinto – “way of the gods” Major influence on culture Huge shrines throughout Japan Follow gods or spirits found in nature, heavenly bodies, and natural phenomena Sacred objects marked with ropes and white paper strips Temples identified by torii gates Major differences from other religions No official creed No moral guidelines No holy scriptures Shinto, Buddhism, and Christianity combined by many people Shisa statues outside the house Religious Influences (Continued) Torii Gates Mark Entrance to Torii Station Shinto PriestShisa Statue

19 Shrine etiquette Calm and respectful Do not visit while sick, with and open wound, or while mourning Before entering Rinse hands at purification fountain Rinse mouth Prayer Throw a coin in the offering box Bow deeply twice Clap hands twice Bow deeply once Prayer for a few seconds Strike gong before praying if present Photography usually allowed – look for signs Religious Influences (Continued) Purification Fountain Praying at a Shrine

20 Confucianism – a philosophy Based on The Analects Important impact on Japanese culture Some core teachings Social harmony Parental respect Loyalty to superiors Kind and bureaucratic government Family loyalty Ancestor worship Respect for the elderly Other areas of importance Prominent in Japanese development of education system Credited with writing the original Golden Rule Religious Influences (Continued) Statue of Confucius Honoring Ancestors

21 Taoism Both philosophy and religion Developed over 2,500 years ago Taoism influences Japanese thought Zen Buddhism Shamanist tradition and rituals Other beliefs rooted in Taoism Lunar calendar Selection of favorable days Selection of building sites Folk medicine Yin and Yang – symbolizes perfect balance Black – yin White – yang Does not represent good and evil Religious Influences (Continued) Yin and Yang Rinzai Buddhist Sect Temple

22 Marriage Bride of eldest son moves to in-laws’ home Adds to social interaction Married couple helps financially Inherit family altar Onarigami Can cause conflict with married brothers Proverbs and fables – wives have negative influence, sisters protect Girls stay attached to their “birth” home Visit often, sometimes daily Can cause conflict with in-laws Family and Family Values Society and Norms An Okinawan Women Tends to a Family Tomb

23 Role of women in mainland Japan Responsible for the home Men responsible for income Role of women in Okinawa Well-regarded Responsible for religious activities Believed to have ability to communicate with gods Women in Traditional Clothing at Shuri Castle Women Praying at Utaki Conducting Prayers to the Fire GodWomen Praying in Animist Ceremony Gender Roles Society and Norms (Continued)

24 Typical clothing Reflects tropical climate Mostly Western-styles Traditional clothing Hand woven Dyed using natural colors Geometric designs vary Kariyushi – very common Bingata-styled Dyed cloth Used for ceremonies Designs inspired by nature Typical Everyday Clothing Women Selling Fresh Produce Bingata-styled Dance Clothing Dress and Appearance Society and Norms (Continued) Japan’s Prime Minister and Cabinet Members Hold a Meeting Wearing Okinawan Kariyushi Shirts

25 Mainland Japan Houses built with wood Open floor plan Okinawa Houses built with concrete Barred windows Built to withstand typhoons 3 basic types of structures Roofing – Chinese influenced Usually red in color Build to withstand high winds Shisa found on most single-family homes Apartment Building Near Kadena Airbase Shisa Family Housing on Kadena Airbase Housing Society and Norms (Continued)

26 Literacy – 99% male and female Primary education Mandatory for ages 6-15 Generally free Curriculum stresses math and sciences Private schools Require difficult entrance exams Students attend cram schools to prepare University Required difficult entrance exams Competition intense Affiliated with elementary, middle, and high schools Iheya Junior High School Literacy and Education Society and Norms (Continued) Students from Iha Elementary School Present U.S. Marines with Gifts as a Sign of Appreciation

27 High standard of health Low infant mortality Extremely long life expectancy Healthy diets and active lifestyle Medical facilities are very good Universal health care Everyone falls into 1 of 2 programs Costs based on earnings Hospital in Kochinda Medicinal and Healing Practices Society and Norms (Continued)

28 Level of crime – low Personal disputes Theft Vandalism Violent crime rare Sexual assaults Hate-crimes possible Pick-pocketing in crowded places Organized crime – Yakuza Sex-related industry Gambling Protection racket Bars and nightclubs Travel advice Travel in pairs Do not carry large sums of money Keep wallet in front pocket Japanese Police Nightclub Bar Crime, Vice and Trafficking in Persons Society and Norms (Continued) A Message Written on the Roof of a Ginowan City Building

29 IAW UCMJ U.S. armed forces and DoD civilians prohibited from engaging in any form of prostitution Trafficking in persons – major problem Women are trafficked From other Asian countries Brought into country Japan on entertainment visas Passports seized by managers Work to pay off debt Employed in bars Located in major metropolitan areas Near military installations Base commanders typically publish off-limits areas Crime, Vice and Trafficking in Persons (Continued) Society and Norms (Continued) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Graphic

30 Popular sports: Soccer Basketball Baseball Softball Martial arts Water sports Volleyball Track and field Popular activities: Television Karaoke Movies Bars and nightclubs Nature walks Diving Botanical gardens Expo Park American Village Recreation Society and Norms (Continued) American Village Southeast Botanical Garden Expo Park

31 Dance Eisa – the most well-known Main performance at end of Obon festival Music Sanshin – three-stringed lute Taiko drums – large Paranki drums – small Karate – from Okinawa Lacquer ware Eisa Dance Sanshin TaikoParankuKarate Arts Society and Norms (Continued)

32 Important holidays New Year’s Day1 January Adult’s DaySecond Monday in January National Foundation Day11 February Vernal Equinox DayFirst day of spring Golden Week Holidays29 April, 3-5 May Marine DayThird Monday in July Respect for the Aged DayThird Monday in September Autumnal Equinox DayFirst day of fall Culture Day3 November Labor Thanksgiving Day23 November Emperor’s Birthday23 December Many important festivals and religious rituals Vernal Equinox Dragon Boat Races Kick Off Golden Week Holidays Society and Norms (Continued) Standing on the Rope, Preparing for the Tug-of-War

33 Proper etiquette is very important Greetings Bowing most common May shake hands with non-Japanese Handshakes slightly different than in U.S. Bowing – a sign of respect Different bows for different reasons Originate at the waist Back straight Hands at sides for men and boys Hands in lap for women and girls Depth of bow depends on relationship Longer, deeper bow shows more respect Introductions, Meeting and Greeting Behavior and Etiquette

34 Introductions Wait to be introduced Considered rude to introduce oneself When introducing someone else Do not point with the index finger Point with an open hand Correct Note the open hand Incorrect Never use the index finger to point Introductions, Meeting and Greeting (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette

35 Seating arrangement Most important guest furthest from entrance Guests in front of niche or alcove Least important person by the entrance Highest ranking person behind the driver Speeches Highest ranking person speaks last Higher status person speaks politely using casual speech Lower status people use “super polite” or “respectful” language Introductions, Meeting and Greeting (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette

36 American gestures May have no meaning in Japan Could be misinterpreted Acceptable gestures Sniffing Snorting Spitting Unacceptable gestures Blowing nose in public Keeping hands in pockets while speaking Pointing with index finger Prolonged direct eye contact Dramatic arm and hand gestures Unusual facial expressions Non-Verbal Communications Behavior and Etiquette (Continued) Avoid Blowing Nose in Public Smile, Even When Angry

37 Laughter – meaning depends on context Embarrassment Confusion Shock Amusement Personal space Larger than in the U.S. Men do not slap each other on the back People may push others out of their way More behaviors to avoid Standing with the legs crossed Leaning on walls or desks Crossing ankle over leg Showing the bottom of the feet Non-Verbal Communications (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette (Continued)

38 Come here Hand held palm down and fingers flapped Should not be used with superiors No Open hand waved in front of face Faster wave is more emphatic Has multiple meanings Excuse me In a crowd or as an apology Hand flat in front of nose Let’s eat Middle and index finger simulate chopsticks Pretend to shovel food from the other hand Me Index finger to nose Has multiple meanings Come HereIndicates No Excuse Me Let’s Eat Are You Talking to Me? Non-Verbal Communications (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette (Continued)

39 Sitting upright on the floor very common During meals Tea ceremony Other traditional events Formal way of sitting – seize style May be uncomfortable Foreigners may not be expected to do so Casual sitting Men – legs crossed in front Women – on knees with legs to one side Shoes Removed before entering many places Socks should be clean and in good repair Sitting in the Formal Seize Style Formal Style For Men Non-Verbal Communications (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette (Continued) Informal Style for Men Only Informal Style for Women Only

40 Meetings Punctuality important Japanese may be late Saving face Very important in Japan Never embarrass or criticize in public Do not force person to admit lack of knowledge Ask if further information is desired Silence while communicating Could indicate a lack of knowledge on a topic Considered useful and valued May be reflecting on the conversation Do not break the silence May be used to personal advantage Official Business and Meetings Behavior and Etiquette (Continued) Silence is Golden Be on Time

41 Form of address Introduction may be the last name only Attach the suffix -san as a sign of respect Business cards Presented and accepted with both hands Treated respectfully Presented with introduction – organization, position, and name Held by corners, face up, facing recipient Reviewed when received, followed by a bow Placed in shirt pocket or held Bilingual business cards are a very good idea Gift giving Gifts common, especially at first meeting, mid-year, and New Year’s Wrapped and unwrapped very carefully Sweets, tea, coffee, liquor, sporting goods Official and Business Meetings (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette (Continued)

42 Shoes and slippers Shoes not worn in homes If wearing sandals, carry white socks Slippers provided for guests at the door Slippers not worn in bathroom or on tatami mats Bathing Baths are for relaxation, not cleaning Body and hair cleaned before entering the tub Separate sink or faucet and stool near tub Social Engagements and Visiting Behavior and Etiquette (Continued) Slippers Kept by the DoorShoes Left at the Door Tatami Mats in a Japanese Home Japanese Bathroom

43 Wipe hands with damp towel provided Chopsticks – hashi Primary eating utensil Honest attempt to use shows respect for the culture Proper chopstick etiquette Place across bowl when not in use Place in rest if provide, on bowl, or in paper sleeve when finished Improper chopstick use Left sticking out of a bowl Transferring food to someone else’s Moving a bowl In a communal bowl Waived over bowls Spearing food Correct Chopstick Placement How to Properly Hold Chopsticks Improper Food and Dining Behavior and Etiquette (Continued)

44 Table manners All foods placed before eating Itadakimasu – before the meal Gochisosama deshita – after the meal Soup Drunk directly from the bowl Solid portions taken with chopsticks Slurping accepted and expected Noodles led into mouth with chopsticks Eaten with ceramic spoon if provided Rest of the meal Bite of main food, a bit of rice, some soup Large pieces separated with chopsticks or bitten Small portion of rice saved for the end Dishes returned to positions at end of meal Soba in Okinawa Itadakimasu – Said Before a Meal Chimushinji – Typical Soup Proper Way to Eat Rice Food and Dining (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette (Continued)

45 Drinking etiquette People serve each other Refill friend’s cups when near empty Allow friend to refill your cup Place hand over cup if no more desired Toasting etiquette Wait until all glasses have been filled Everyone should stand before the toast Kampai – to your health Drinking too much Inappropriate in very formal restaurants Acceptable in less formal restaurants if one does not bother others Food and Dining (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette (Continued) Saki

46 Typical foods Strong flavors Spicy Chinese-influenced Staple foods Pork – the entire pig Seafood Vegetables Fruits Black sugar Awamori – rice liquor Popular foods Chanpuru – stir fry Rafuti Toofuyoo – snack Taco rice Taco RiceRafuti Chanpuru Awamori Food and Dining (Continued) Behavior and Etiquette (Continued)

47 47 th Prefecture of Japan, includes 3 major island groups Okinawa is the largest and most populated island Subtropical climate similar to Hawaii Populated continuously for 4,500 years, played a major role in World War II Okinawans are descendents of Japanese and other southeast Asian peoples Official language is Japanese, Uchina Guchi spoken by older people Very diverse mix of indigenous and imported religions Normally wear Western styles, traditional clothes for their numerous festivals Extremely long life expectancy due to diet and lifestyle Women play a key role in religion, concept of Onarigami very important to the culture Proper etiquette extremely important to building relationships Observing etiquette builds trust and demonstrates appreciation of Okinawa culture Cultural Summary

48 COMM: 850.452.6736 DSN: 922.6736 CLREC Contact

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