Presentation on theme: "Control Architectures: Feed Forward, Feedback, Ratio, and Cascade"— Presentation transcript:
1Control Architectures: Feed Forward, Feedback, Ratio, and Cascade By Peter WoolfUniversity of Michigan Michigan Chemical Process Dynamics and Controls Open Textbook version 1.0Creative commons
2Connecting Controllers & Actuators In control programming we make statements like:Adjust v3 to maintain LC1at LC1 setWe could implement this as the following PID controller:But there are other controls possible:Maintain LC1 by controlling v3 (Feedback control)Anticipate changes in LC1 by measuring FC1 and FC2 and preemptively adjust v3 (Feed forward control)Feed in a defined ratio of A and B (Ratio control)Connect LC1 to FC1 to adjust v1 (Cascade control)
3Feedback Control Philosophy: Adjust for errors as they take place. Example: Maintain LC1 by controlling v3AdvantagesSimple to designNo process model requiredDisadvantagesOnly corrects for errors after they happenGenerally only takes input from one sensor
4Feed Forward Control Philosophy: Anticipate and correct for errors before they happenExample: Maintain LC1 by measuring FC1 and FC2 and preemptively adjust v3(assuming a linear valve)AdvantagesCorrects for deviations before they happen!In ideal cases can produce perfect controlDisadvantagesRequires infinitely accurate modelsRequires infinitely accurate measurements
5Ratio Control Philosophy: Connect two flows to maintain a constant ratioExample: Feed in a defined ratio of A and B where A is the wild stream.AdvantagesLinks two streams to produce a defined ratioSimple--does not require a complex modelDisadvantagesNever measures FC2, thus assumes the flows are matchedAssumes pressure from B is constant
6Cascade Control Philosophy: Sensors can control the set points of other sensors to integrate informationExample: Connect LC1 to FC1 to adjust v1Inner loop(slave)Outer loop(master)Logic: The inner loop is something that changes quickly, here possibly due to pressure changes from the A storage.Outer loop changes slowly, and influences the inner loop by controlling the set point of FC1.
7Cascade Control Example: Connect LC1 to FC1 to adjust v1 Inner loop (slave)Outer loop(master)Logic: The inner loop is something that changes quickly, here possibly due to pressure changes from the A storage.Outer loop changes slowly, and influences the inner loop by controlling the set point of FC1.AdvantagesController responds quickly to high frequency changesController integrates multiple sensor readings togetherDisadvantagesController is more complexTuning cascade controllers is more difficult as the set point changes + more parameters
8Mixed ArchitecturesMost real systems have combinations of feedback, feed forward, ratio, and cascade control.Example #1:Control LC1 using FC1 cascaded to v1 and feedback control on v3.Inner loop(slave)(feedback)Outer loop(master)Feedback
9Mixed ArchitecturesMost real systems have combinations of feedback, feed forward, ratio, and cascade control.Example #2:Maintain ratio of B using FC1 cascaded to FC2 to control v2Inner loop(slave)(feedback)Outer loop(master)(ratio control)
10Mixed ArchitecturesMost real systems have combinations of feedback, feed forward, ratio, and cascade control.AdvantagesPick and choose features to fit the problemIncorporate in any number of sensors in a rational wayDisadvantagesControllers can be complex(Each I controller adds an ODE, eigenvalue, and new dimension to the problem.)Tuning is difficult- Routh stability really helps define appropriate ranges- Optimization based tuning
11Example 1 Check signs! TC1 TC2set v1 T Which sensor likely responds to temperature changes in the cooling water faster?Which loop would be the inner loop (slave) and which the outer loop (master)? Why?Write out an appropriate cascade controller for this system.TC2TC2 inner, TC1 outerInner loop(slave)Outer loop(master)
12Example 2 Control pHC1 using a single feedback PID controller. Control pHC1 using a single feed forward controller.Control pHC1 using a cascaded P-only ratio controller to balance the acid waste water.
13Select a mixture of ratio, cascade, feedback, and or feed forward control systems to control the rectifying section of the following distillation column:One example configuration might have AC2 cascaded to TC2, cascaded to FC2 controlling V1, and LC1 cascaded to FC3 controlling V2.
14To help with deciding which control schemes to use, consider the following questions: a) What is your control objective?b) Which loops are likely to be fast and which slow?c) Changes in what variables likely influence the process compositions most directly?
15Other examples:• The ratio of FC2 to FC3 is set by AC2. For this scheme, use a level control to set either FC2 or FC3 and determine the other flow using the ratio controller.• The ratio of FC3 and FC1 Is set by AC2. For this set up, also include a level control scheme for the accumulator.• AC2 is cascaded to TC2, which is cascaded to FC2 controlling V1. In addition, AC1 could be a feed forward controller on FC2 and V1. (Note here two paths control V1, so a more sophisticated logical relationship would be needed). LC1 is cascaded to FC3, which controls V2.• AC2 is cascaded to TC2. TC2 is a ratio controller of FC2 and FC1, and this output is combined with FC1 to form a set point for FC2. FC2 controls V1. Also, AC1 feeds forward to FC2. LC1 is cascaded to FC3 to control V2.(Note: there are many configurations possible, depending on the control objective. Some, however don’t make sense such as having FC3 control V1, or cascading AC1 to LC1 to control FC3, to control V2. )
16Take Home MessagesUsing a combination of feedback, feed forward, ratio, and cascade control you can design flexible control systemsMore complex control systems are harder to tune and model, but if done right outperform simpler architecturesWhen designing your control system, be aware of the control objective and possible conflicts