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Size Matters Why small is different Simon Brown MacDiarmid Institute and Department of Physics University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand NZIP.

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Presentation on theme: "Size Matters Why small is different Simon Brown MacDiarmid Institute and Department of Physics University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand NZIP."— Presentation transcript:

1 Size Matters Why small is different Simon Brown MacDiarmid Institute and Department of Physics University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand NZIP Conference, Christchurch, July 2009

2 Silicon

3 Diamond Structure Lowest energy configuration

4 The surface of Silicon (111) Model But what happens to the dangling bonds?

5 The best way of imaging surfaces Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) UHV STM / AFM installed at UC, Jan 2009

6 The surface of Silicon (111) Model But what happens to the dangling bonds?

7 The surface of Silicon (111) Image from Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM) “Reconstruction” minimises energy

8 The surface of Silicon (001) Image from Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM)

9 The surface of Silicon (001) Image from Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM)

10 Gold

11 Gold – a close packed structure Face-centred cubic

12 Surface of Gold Paweł Kowalczyk (UC)

13 Surface of Gold Paweł Kowalczyk (UC)

14 Surface of Gold (111) “Herringbone” reconstruction

15 Nanoparticles Mostly surface! Here: 42 / 55 atoms are on surface

16 Size matters In small metal particles (e.g. Au) Five-fold symmetry is forbidden in large crystals not space-filling Small (<2nm) Large (>4 nm) Cuboctahedron Truncated decahedron Icosahedron Medium (~3nm)

17 Structure of small gold clusters 2D versus 3D structures Johansson et al, Phys. Rev. A 77, (2008)

18 Gold Gold nanoparticles look red!

19 Catalysis by Gold Nanoparticles Oxidation of CO: CO + O → CO 2 Goodman et al, Top. Catal. 14, 71 (2001).

20 Catalysis by Gold Nanoparticles Atomic arrangement on Au surface is critical CO + O → CO 2 Goodman et al, Top. Catal. 14, 71 (2001).

21 Melting point changes Dramatic decrease at small sizes S. L. Lai et al., PRL 77, 99 (1996) Sn

22 Surface melting Shaun Hendy, IRL

23 Its not all about the surface Quantum Effects

24 Its not all about the surface New materials, new properties Carbon nanotubes are Strongest material known Highest conductivity known

25 Some “new” phenomena for metal nanoparticles Coalescence Bouncing Sometimes nanoparticles act more like liquids than solids

26 How to make nanoparticles (“clusters”) Cluster source: highly flexible  e.g. Si for transistors, Cu for interconnects, Pd for hydrogen sensors  Proof of concept with Sb, Bi – interesting electronic properties  Change cluster size through temperature, gas type and pressure  Change cluster velocity through gas flow rate

27 Simple Nanodevices Made from Nanoparticles Schmelzer et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, (2002)

28 Large metal particles do not coalesce (Obviously!)

29 But liquid drops do… Spreading of droplets of silicone oil on a highly wet-able substrate Ristenpart et al, PRL 97, (2006)

30 Metal nanoparticles coalesce Convers, Natali et al (to be published) “Frozen” by immediate exposure to air Allowed to evolve in vacuum for 3 days 30nm Bi clusters

31 Coalescence Convers, Natali et al (to be published) Increase in conductance

32 Rayleigh Instability Lord Rayleigh, On the instabilities of jets, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 10, 4 (1878) Decrease in conductance

33 Large balls bounce

34 Liquid droplets also bounce…. Jayaratne and Mason, Proc. Roy. Soc. London. Ser. A, 280, 545 (1964)

35 …. but they also wet surfaces

36 Clusters partially wet surfaces Bismuth on SiO x

37 Molecular Dynamics Simulations – Nanoparticle Bouncing Awasthi et al, PRL 97, (2006)

38 Nanoparticle Bouncing Awasthi et al, PRL 97, (2006); PRB 76, (2007)

39 Nanoparticle Bouncing Awasthi et al, PRL 97, (2006); PRB 76, (2007) Elastic Sticking

40 Nanoparticle Bouncing Awasthi et al, PRL 97, (2006); PRB 76, (2007) Elastic Bouncing

41 Nanoparticle Bouncing Awasthi et al, PRL 97, (2006); PRB 76, (2007) Plastic Sticking

42 Nanoparticle Bouncing Awasthi et al, PRL 97, (2006); PRB 76, (2007) Plastic Bouncing

43 Templated devices 30nm Sb clusters Partridge et al, Nanotechnology 15, 1382 (2004) Bouncing of clusters off flat surfaces governs cluster assembly

44 No Lift-off lithography Reichel et al, Appl. Phys. Lett, 89, (2006). 30nm Bi clusters

45 Metal Oxide Sensors: SnO 2 Metal Oxides are usually semiconductors Metal oxides can be used for many types of gas sensors Lassesson et al, Nanotechnology 19, (2008).

46 SnO 2 Sensors: H 2 6nm Sn clusters oxidised: 200ºC, 18hrs doped with 1nm Pd T=80ºC Lassesson et al, Nanotechnology 19, (2008).

47 Response Mechanism Metal Oxides are commonly n-type semiconductors Electrons carry the current A HHHHHHHH

48 Response Mechanism A reducing gas reacts with surface HHHHHHHH

49 Response Mechanism Surface defects (donors) are created

50 Response Mechanism Surface defects (donors) are created Additional electrons are released into the wire The current increases

51 SnO 2 Sensors: H 2 Lassesson et al, Nanotechnology 19, (2008)

52 New nanoparticle products >800 products in market place already Source: Woodrow Wilson Centre, Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies Mostly “low tech” Sunscreens, cosmetics, nappies, washing machines, fuel additives FOE report: 100 nanoproducts in Food and packaging We are unaware of most of them

53 New hazards Long carbon nanotubes work like asbestos in the lungs Silver nanoparticles are toxic Nanoparticles can cause DNA damage Sunscreens cause photo-catalytic damage to colour-steel roofing* Very many unknowns * Barker and Branch, Progress in Organic Coatings 62, 313 (2008)

54 New Uncertainties All new technologies have risks In this case we don’t know what they are Risk Assessment protocols yet to be developed Problem: Incredible number of unknowns Do nanoparticles penetrate the skin, lungs? What do they do inside the body? Huge number of challenges Example: Regulation Same materials, different sizes 50,000 types of carbon nanotube

55 New Uncertainties All new technologies have risks In this case we don’t know what they are Risk Assessment protocols yet to be developed Problem: Incredible number of unknowns Do nanoparticles penetrate the skin, lungs? What do they do inside the body? Huge number of challenges Example: Regulation Same materials, different sizes 50,000 types of carbon nanotube

56 Size really does matter Nanoparticles and nanowires are mainly surface Properties are very different to bulk materials New Science Surface reconstructions New “crystal” structures Catalysis New Technology Sensors Catalysts Transistors New Hazards Penetration of skin and lungs Carcinogens Business risks


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