Presentation on theme: "Because of Poverty, Slow Development, Corruption, Disorder etc in Kerala & India, I searched for a good model for FAST Socio- economic Development Slides."— Presentation transcript:
Because of Poverty, Slow Development, Corruption, Disorder etc in Kerala & India, I searched for a good model for FAST Socio- economic Development Slides advance on Mause click
Many may think this is an old story! In August 2007, Dr. Arjun Sengupta Committee reported that 836 million Indians – over 77 percent - are poor and vulnerable surviving on a daily average expenditure of under Rs. 20 a day (The Hindu newspaper from 8–11 June 2008) 14 Jul Indian states Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal have 421 million "poor" people, a UN sponsored study found. This is more than the 410 million poor in the poorest 26 African countries. This is measured by a new Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). On 15 Jun 2011 a survey by TrustLaw, a UK-based Foundation revealed That India is the fourth most dangerous country for women after Afganistan, Congo and Pakistan. All the above are a shame for the Indian legislatures who managed India all these yeras. 3.html Many documents can be added to prove the very bad state of India! But any observant Indian knows these very well! PPP, Text & Concept by: Abraham Karammel –
Two Super Models of FAST Development Singapore is world‘s most successful City for more than 25 years. It developed from 3rd world to 1st in about 25 years, thru authoritative, disciplining and restrictive democracy by highly talented technocrats – this is called ‚Meritocracy‘; it is a type of ‘benevolent autocracy’. It also had unique circumstances and exceptional personalities behind its success! Porto Alegre is Brazil‘s city with the best quality of life since This city was bankrupt in 1988, spending 96% of revenue for salaries and routine expenses. To resolve this crisis, the city started Participatory Budgeting (PB) in This PB evolved into world‘s most efficient & systematic socio-economic development process, now famous as ‚Porto Alegre Innovation‘. This PB process is suitable for villages/towns/cities of developing and developed countries. Because of its great merits, Participatory Budgeting is adapted in about 300 local Governments in Brazil and in about 40 countries including Argentina, Chile, China, Mexico, Paraguay, Canada, England, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, USA etc. Why Singapore & Porto Alegre? These are two super-models from recent history that any one can trace. Porto Alegre is a much researched model of our times.
Achievements of Singapore 1. World’s highest Industrial productivity $62,100 (2012) 2. Very high per capita income – about $60,000 (2012) 3. World’s top clean city & a garden city for several years 4. Singapore Airlines & Airport - world’s best/top many times 5. Singapore world’s 2 nd busiest port; can handle 700 ships at a time 6. World’s best housing policy - 80% people own their home (2010) 7. World’s highest millionaire density of 1 in 6 (2012) 8. Excellent transportation system - only big city without traffic jams km express highways; 160 km metro; 3426 km roads (2012) 10. Very efficient Water, Electricity and Telecom systems 11. Very efficient Healthcare System with only 3.5% of GDP 12. World‘s lowest Infant Mortality: 1.8/1000 (2012) 13. Very efficient Education System; world‘s best in Maths & Science 14. Very few strikes & protests; unemployment rate: 2% (2010) 15. World‘s largest Oil Rig & 3rd Oil Refining industry 16. Very high political stability – PAP vote share 86 to 60% ( ) 17. Foreign Currency reserve 2013: $273 Billion (India: $293 Billion) 18. One of the world‘s 10 least corrupt countries for over 10 years 19. World‘s top tourist & shopping city – over 14 million tourists in Rated as World‘s best managed City for World‘s most business friendly city for 20 years 21. Top in export - $410 billion in 2012 (India $313 billion) (German Exports in 2012: $1,493 billions) (Singapore: area 716 sq.km; Population density: ca. 7, 500/sq. km in 2013)
Singapore‘s new landmark (2012): Gardens by the Bay A 101 hectar (200 football fields) large wonderful garden
The Secret of Singapore‘s Success Mr. Lee Kuan Yew founded Peoples‘ Action Party (PAP) in 1954 Became the 1st PM in 1959 & was chosen repeatedly as PM until 1990 Declined to be PM in 1991 & was Senior Minister from 1991 to 2004 Mr. Lee was placed as ‚Minister Mentor‘ in Aug 2004 (Probably world‘s longest serving minister and only Mentor Minister – Till 14 May 2011!) Right: Mr. Lee‘s book ‚From Third World to First‘
Mr. Lee Kuan Yew the 1 st PM of Singapore is a Double 1st Class Cambridge Law Graduate Very knowledgeable, great orator & Visionary In 1960s, during political struggle, he started planting trees in the city! On a friend’s tip, he imported fishing rods for the poor to catch fish for food!! In 1994 he linked ministers’ salaries to that of 8 top earners in 6 top professions, to attract best brains to politics & be clean! It was fixed at 2/3 the median earnings of lawyers, accountants, bankers, MNC CEOs, local Company CEOs and engineers. In 2008 Singapore PM’s revised salary was S$3,09 mil. or US $2.04 mil. per year! In 2011 PM’s salary was reduced by 36% to S$2.2 mil. (US $1.9 Mil.)+Bonus! Salary now linked to 1000 top earnings of Singapore citizens – Isn’t it SMART? US President gets only $400,000, UK PM $375,222 & French President $346,000!! Important advice of Mr. Lee Kuan Yew The important personality traits of his CEOs: 1. Analytical Thinking, 2. Logical understanding of Cause and Effect, 3. Concentration to the Point/Target, and 4. Imagination (known as Helicopter Qualities) Pre-requisites for Socio-economic Development: 1.A Determined Leadership, 2. Efficient Administration, and 3. Social Discipline WARNING: A Society where the corrupt becomes rich and powerful, and the hard-working remains poor will fail
Criticisms on Singapore Very Authoritative rule No real democracy No freedom of opinion Highly censored press Very short lead time for elections Compulsory voting; those do not vote lose the right Singapore is a ‘fine-city’ (penalty-city) Very harsh punishments Death penalty for drug smuggling & Kidnapping Country with the highest death penalty rate Too high salaries of Singapore Ministers PM‘s salary as reduced in 2011: S$2.2 million (US$1.7 mil.) /year Because of the above, the uniqueness of Singapore etc, its political system is not practical in Kerala/India But Singapore‘s Institutionalisation is worth copying!!
I read about Porto Alegre Innovation in Participatory Budgeting and collected details! 1.It is a process for Infrastructure Development alone 2. It is a Ward-wise Decentralised Budgeting Process 3.It is a Grass-roots upwards process 4. The yearly cyclic process evaluates, corrects and adjusts 5. The process continuously improves in efficiency 6. It resolved Bankruptcy of the city in SIX YEARS 7. It made Porto Alegre, Brazil‘s city with the best quality of life in 12 years ( )! Singapor‘s Meritocracy is excellent for High Quality Institutionalisation! But, Singapore‘s Authoritarian Rule Is almost impossible in Kerala/India!! Therefore, I searched further…
The Brazilian city Porto Alegre proved that „Another World is Possible“ – Fairer & more Equitable
Porto Alegre‘s Development In 12 Years – (Yearly spending only 3 to 15% of City Budget for Infrastructure) 1.Pipe Water from 40 to 99% households 2.Sanitation improved from 46 to 85% 3.Sewerage from 46 to 90% 4.Public schools increased from 29 to 86 5.School Enrolment doubled (200%); Literacy to 98% km Surfaced roads each year 7.Day-care homes increased from 2 to Public Housing from 1700 to 29,000 persons 9.Established very efficient Public Transportation 10.Tax collection improved and bankruptcy resolved 11.Corruption virtually disappeared 12.Citizen participation in PB process increased from 700 in 1989 to 50,000 in Rated as Brazil‘s city with the highest quality of life (Porto Alegre: area 497 sq.km; Population density: ca. 2, 900/km² in 2008)
Porto Alegre‘s Innovative Participatory Budgeting (PB) process 1.The 497 sq. km city was divided into 16 wards. Many pre-planned minor discussion meetings and two major assemblies of the residents are held in each ward, from March thru July every year infrastructure ward themes selected by experts: 1. education, 2. health, 3. housing, 4. sewage, 5. social assistance, 6. transportation & circulation, 7. pavement, 8. city organisation, 9. leisure areas, 10. sports & leisure, 11. economic development, and 12. culture. Additional 5 Infrastructure themes for City-wide consideration: C1. Transportation & Circulation; C2. Education, Leisure & Culture; C3. Health & Social Welfare; C4. Economic Development & Taxation; and C5. City Organisation & Urban Development. 3.Residents of each ward vote to select & prioritise three Infrastructures urgently needed in each ward, from the 12 above. 4.The residents also elect two PB Councillors and two alternates from each ward and for each city-wide theme for one year. Participatory Budgeting Council (PBC) of 42 members is the most important organ in PB. 5.Infrastructures voted by residents are equitably shared among the wards, based on the population of the ward, the weight assigned to the relevant infrastructure, the volume of the infrastructure in the ward and the priority voted. 6.PBC negotiates with Mayor‘s executives & the city councillors, the adoption of priorities, implementation of projects and oversees them too. 7.Directly elected Mayer and his executives, separately elected City Council, and the Participatory Budgeting Council – three teams - work together. (See graphics of the process on the following slides)
In 12 years, Porto Alegre became the City with the best Quality of Life in Brazil Based on 15 factors 1.Housing, 2. Sanitation, 3. Life Expectancy, 4. Infant Mortality, 5. Hospital Beds, 6. Literacy, 7. School enrolment, 8. Standard of Higher Education, 9. Job Availability, 10. Catering Facilities, 11. Per Capita Consumption, 12. Highways, 13. Airports, 14. Climate, and 15. Criminality A very detailed study of Porto Alegre Innovation is at: budgeting/
Socio-economic Problems When socio-economy is NOT managed well, Unemployment, Poverty, Diseases, Suicides, Homicides, Destitution, Migration etc become acute!? Then, every action to solve them Should be very careful, deliberte, and balanced. Success models should be adapted to save time, effort and errors! Copying is the easiest, quickest, most economical And a very efficient way of doing things! Computers, cars, Jumbo-jets and human beings are copies. Copies can be even better than the original or worse!! Decisive points in copying: 1. Essential Adaptations should be made to make it feasible in a different situation; and 2. Important Elements should not be dropped out at all Today, for about 95 percent of the problems in the world, several solutions are available somewhere!! Photos Curtsy, Singapore Tourism Board, Goethe Institute Porto Alegre, & Ms. Leia B. Bagesteira PPP, Text & Concept by: Abraham Karammel –
Two Success Stories – Both highlight Effective Local Involvement Indian State Andhra Pradesh shows the way Social audits in Andhra Pradesh covering 12 million people is a brilliant example of civil society action enriching mainstream politics “Political support has, of course, been a necessary but by no means sufficient condition. Two other novel features have turned the tide. One, the use of Information Technology (IT) and the other, the role of civil society. All stages of NREGA work, from registration of workers to issue of job cards, preparation of work estimates, muster rolls and payments to workers have been computerised. With strong administrative backing and robust social audit, this IT system frees information from the shackles of power and privileged access.” (From Article by: Mihir Shah & Pramathesh Ambasta – The Hindu ) A mission that’s possible Community-based monitoring has laid bare the inadequacies of the primary health care system in Indian State Maharashtra “The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was introduced in 2005 to improve health care in poor areas with an enhanced funding mechanism. More than the mission itself, it is the community-based monitoring component introduced in Maharashtra in April 2007, which has emerged as a means of correcting institutionalised deficiencies.” (From Article by: Meena Menon - The Hindu – )
4 Model Indian Panchayats 1.Religan Siddhi (Maharashtra) - Sri. Anna Hazare Area: hector. No. of Households: 394 in 2001; Population: 2306 (Two thousand three hundred six) The small draught ridden village had poverty, unemployment, alcoholism etc. Many residents deserted it for jobs. In 1975 Anna Hazare, a retired Indian Army driver, started dedicated developmental work in the village. Five principles (‘Panchasuthri’) adopted by Anna Hazare: 1.1. Voluntary Free Labour, 1.2. Family Planning, 1.3. Ban on Tree Cutting, 1.4. Ban on Liquor, and 1.5. Ban on open free Grazing. In a few years, the village became self sufficient and a model for Indian villages. Maharashtra gov’t started a project of 300 model villages with Sri Anna Hazare/Popet Pawar as project officers. 100 villages were selected and work started. Lately, the state gov’t stopped funding it. Status in 2007: Infant Mortality: 27.42/1000; High School Completion: 85% Sri. Anna Hazare has been honored by 20 National & International awards. - Anna Hazare org - Good & brief article 2. Hiware Bazar (Maharashtra) – Sri. Popat Pawar (1 st Successful copy of Relegan Siddhi) No. of Households in :180; Below Poverty Line (BPL): 168 (93%) No. of BPL households during : 11 out of 210. Per capita income: Rs. 832 (1994); Rs. 24,893 (2007) Increase 30 times! This village had the same problems as Relegan Siddhi. In 1994 Popat Pawar, an M.Com graduate persuaded by residents, stood for and won Panchayat President election. He started dedicated developmental work copying Relegan Siddhi. In a few years Hiware Bazar superseded Religan Sidhi in development. (Continued on next slide)
4 Model Indian Panchayats (continued) 3. Kuthambakkam (Tamil Nadu) - Sri. Elango Rangaswami Area: 36 square kilometers; about 700 acres of wetland and 1100 acres of dry land. PROBLEMS:.1. Illicit arrack brewing and easy illicit liquor, 2. Caste clashes between dalits and non dalits, 3. Inadequate safe drinking water, drainage and internal roads, 4. No regular income due to unemployment 5. No assurance to food, and 6. Violence against women and children existed. In 1996, Sri. Elango Rangaswamy, an M.Tech. graduate became the President He started dedicated developmental work as below: 1. Eradication of illicit arrack liquor trade, 2. Low cost mud-block housing scheme, 3. Roads and street lighting, 4. Rain water harvesting and water supply 5. Self-help Groups (SHGs), 6. Literacy and Education 7. Employment Generation thru small scale rural industries And 8. Information Centre and Computer Education Centre Mr. Elango organized a cluster of villages for mutual help and cooperation. The cluster managed to produce about 80% of their requirements. FINALLY, the Panchayat set up an institute to train local self-government administrators (like Kerala’s KILA) (See Week Man of the Year 2013: )
4 Model Indian Panchayats (continued) 4. Adat (Trissur district, Kerala) - Sri. Anil Akkara Area: sq. km. Wards: 18; Population: 23441; Density: 1018; Literacy: 92.7 (2001) 1. Won 8 times the Swaraj trophy for best Grama Panchayat. 2. Won 3 rd place in ‘Green Kerala Express’ Social Reality Show competition in 2010 for its Bio-village (‘Jaivagramaam’) project. 3. Got national Nirmal award for full sanitation. 4. National award for groundwater amplification through rain harvesting. 5. Puzhakal River of Adat was cleaned, and Kashmiri shikara boats and other boats await tourists under the village tourism project. 6. Implemented the Universal Health Insurance Scheme of the Union government. About 3,500 BPL families and 1,000 APL families are under the scheme and won the first Health Security Panchayat Award in the State. 7. Switched to organic farming preventing contamination of 3,000 acres of Kol wetlands. Earlier, these fields annually consumed 1.5 tones of highly toxic Furadan pesticide. Acquired geographical Indication patent for Adat Rice. The Panchayat sells about 20 tones of Adat Rice and over 3,000 kg of Kerasree organic Coconut Oil every month ===== ‘Malayalam’ Video-Clips on Adat from Green Kerala Express Social Reality Show: -Episode-1-1;http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DQuGxVIgG9g-Episode-99-1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DQuGxVIgG9g (Please WATCH the follow on EPISODES on RIGHT HAND SIDE in YouTube) Adat Panchayat in news: kerala/adat-panchayat-shows-the-way/article ecehttp://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp- kerala/adat-panchayat-shows-the-way/article ece
The Mellennium Development Goals (MDG) 1.Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2.Achieve universal primery education 3.Promote gender equality and empower women 4.Reduce child mortality rate 5.Improve maternal health 6.Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7.Ensure environmental sustainability 8.Develop global partnership for development The UN reviewed the MDG‘s progress in September 2010 And found that the MDG will not be met in 2015!? What can be done? Porto Alegre‘s Innovative PB has PROVED that It is the BEST process for FAST Socio-economic Development! If ‚Innovative PB‘ is Adapted in more countries, it will change the world!