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Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen Claudia Kuzla Prosody – a missing link between phonetic detail and phonemic categories?

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Presentation on theme: "Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen Claudia Kuzla Prosody – a missing link between phonetic detail and phonemic categories?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen Claudia Kuzla Prosody – a missing link between phonetic detail and phonemic categories?

2 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody2 Prosody influences phonetic detail: In prosodically prominent positions, speech sounds are articulated more strongly (e.g., Keating et al. 2003) Prosodic Phonology: Phonological processes occur within prosodic domains, but not across prosodic boundaries (Nespor & Vogel 1986) Prosodic Allophones Q :How are phonemic contrasts affected by prosodic conditioning of phonetic detail? Q :How are phonemic contrasts affected by prosodic conditioning of phonetic detail?

3 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody3 Prosodic Structure (Beckman & Pierrehumbert 1986)

4 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody4 Articulatory & Acoustic Studies: “Domain-initial strengthening”  Segments at the beginning of higher prosodic domains are temporally and spatially expanded: Longer closure durations More linguo-palatal contact Longer Voice Onset Time Less coarticulation Less assimilation Prosody & Phonetic Detail

5 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody5 Early articulatory data: Segments get ‘stronger’ at higher prosodic boundaries. Sound change occurs first in prosodically weak positions. ( Fougeron 1997) The ‘Fortition’ Account Q: Is a prosodically ‘weak’ [p] still different from a ‘strong’ [b] ? Q: Is a prosodically ‘weak’ [p] still different from a ‘strong’ [b] ?

6 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody6 The Feature Enhancement Account English: Longer VOT at higher boundaries for all plosives Dutch: Shorter VOT at higher boundaries for voiceless plosives; more prevoicing for voiced plosives  Enhancement of the features [+ spread glottis] (Engl.) vs. [-spread glottis] (Dutch)  Implementation of Prosodic Strengthening is language- specific (Cho & Jun 2000; Cho & McQueen 2005)

7 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody7 Exp 1: German Plosives /b,p/ : Backen ‘bake’ – Packen ‘pack’ /d,t/ : Dank ‘thanks’– Tank ‘tank’ /g,k/: Garten ‘garden’ – Karten ‘cards’ …in sentence contexts, with various prosodic realizations…

8 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody8 Am Samstag wollen wir backen und einkaufen. ‘On Saturday, we want to do baking and shopping.’ Geplant hatten wir, Backen und Einkauf zuerst zu machen. ‘Our plan was to do baking and shopping first.’ Einkaufen müssen wir, backen für morgen, und aufräumen. ‘We have to go shopping, bake for tomorrow, and tidy up.’ Heute segeln wir. Backen kann Anna. ‘Today we go sailing. Baking can be done by Anna.’ Speech Materials

9 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody9 Prosodic Boundary Categorization Major Phrase: [+ Pause, + BoundaryTone] Minor Phrase: [- Pause, + BoundaryTone] Prosodic Word:[- Pause, - BoundaryTone] …supported by preboundary lengthening patterns: Major > Minor > Word

10 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody10 Acoustic Measurements Closure duration [ms] Voice Onset Time [ms] Glottal Vibration in /b,d,g/ [% of closure] Burst Intensity Maximum for /p,t,k/ [dB]

11 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody11 Results: Closure duration

12 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody12 Results: VOT Wd = Minor = Major /g/ > /d/ > /b/ Wd > Minor > Major /k/ > /t/ > /p/

13 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody13 Results: Glottal vibration /b,d,g/ Major (3.5 %) < Minor (32.2%) < Word (60.0%)  Against Feature Enhancement

14 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody14 Results: Burst Intensity Max /p,t,k/ Effect of PCat for /t/ and /k/ : /t/: Major < Word /k/: Major < {Minor = Word} [dB]/p//t//k/ Major Minor Word  Against predictions of both ‘Fortition’ and Feature Enhancement

15 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody15 Summary Acoustic CueProsodic EffectFeature Enhancement Fortition Closurelonger closures at higher boundaries VOTshorter VOT for /p,t,k/ at higher boundaries Glottal Vibration less at higher boundaries Burst IntensityIf any: lower at higher boundaries

16 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody16 Word-initial lenis fricatives /v,z/ may be devoiced if they follow /t/: /hAt vEld  / → [hAtv  Eld  ] ‘has forests’ /hAt zAnt/ → [hAtz  Ant] ‘has sand’ /hAt fEld  / → [hAtfEld  ] ‘has fields’ * /hAt sAnt/ Exp 2: Voice Assimilation of Fricatives

17 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody17 Contrast between /v, z/ and /f, s/ is not only cued by glottal vibration, but also by duration. Prosodic structure might influence exactly these two cues: - glottal vibration, due to effects on assimilation : more assimilatory devoicing across smaller boundaries - duration, due to initial strengthening: longer duration after larger boundaries Predictions

18 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody18 Speech Materials /f,v,z/ in word-initial position: [f]elder ‘fields’, [v]älder ‘forests’, [z]enken ‘hollows’ Preceding context : /  / in hatte ‘had’ (non-assimilation context), /t/ in hat ‘has’ (assimilation context) Similar sentence sets as in Experiment 1: Anna hatte Felder und Wiesen gemalt. …Anna gemalt hat. Felder und Wiesen… Same prosodic categorization

19 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody19 Results: Fricative duration

20 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody20 Results: Glottal vibration (assimilation)

21 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody21 Summary Two important cues to the fortis-lenis distinction remain balanced across prosodic conditions: Phrase: longer duration -> more fortis /f/ less devoicing -> more lenis /v/ Word: shorter duration -> more lenis /v/ more devoicing -> more fortis /f/

22 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody22 Conclusions Prosodic structure interacts with phonetic detail and phonemic categories in a complex way: Neither general ‘Fortition’ nor ‘Feature Enhancement’ through the Prosodic Hierarchy; Phonological contrasts are phonetically implemented in different ways for different prosodic positions.

23 1 June 2007NVFW Seminar on Prosody23 Thank you… … and Mirjam Ernestus Taehong Cho


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