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TRAINING & SAFETY IS IT TIME TO QUESTION OUR BELIEFS? TRAINING & SAFETY IS IT TIME TO QUESTION OUR BELIEFS? Capt. Jean-Michel Bigarré Vice President ATR.

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Presentation on theme: "TRAINING & SAFETY IS IT TIME TO QUESTION OUR BELIEFS? TRAINING & SAFETY IS IT TIME TO QUESTION OUR BELIEFS? Capt. Jean-Michel Bigarré Vice President ATR."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRAINING & SAFETY IS IT TIME TO QUESTION OUR BELIEFS? TRAINING & SAFETY IS IT TIME TO QUESTION OUR BELIEFS? Capt. Jean-Michel Bigarré Vice President ATR Training & Flight Operations Capt. Jean-Michel Bigarré Vice President ATR Training & Flight Operations

2 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 2 Agenda Introduction Aviation Safety: Facts & Interrogations. Advanced Training: Analysis. The ATR reflection. The ATR proposal. Consequences for airlines & TRTO. Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion

3 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 3 Over the last few decades aviation safety has achieved an enviable safety level and divided by ten its accident ratio per pax x km. Is this statement as satisfying as it sound ? The increasing numbers of new kind of accidents and incidents, highlighted by recent events have seen the emergence of a new source of risk: Confidence knowledge and skills of all the actors involved - the ultimate shield against accidents - is now challenged. Introduction. Intro Is it time to recast Aviation Training ?

4 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 4 Safety improvements may follow many directions. Maintenance, design, training,... As A/C manufacturer, airlines services provider and a world-leading TRTO, ATR has decided to engage on a complete re-thinking about Aviation Training: There are two kinds of training: Basic Training. FTOs Advanced Training TRTOs Airlines Aviation Safety Improvement. Training Maintenance Human factors Human factors Design Ops Regulations TrainingTraining facts ATR is focusing on the improvement of Advanced Training techniques.

5 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 5 Tools are used in phase with learning objectives. In the 90’s, Regulation described a number of qualification levels. BITD (JAR-STD 4A): “basic” trainer. FNPT (JAR-STD 3A): for IR, Type/Class Rating & MCC. FTD (JAR-STD 2A): Credits allow Recurrent & Type Rating on multi-pilot a/c (only for systems management). A convertible FNPT/FTD simulator allows recurrent & Type Rating on multi-pilot a/c. FFS (JAR-STD 1A): Allows Recurrent & multi-pilot Type Rating with a maximum of credits. Advanced Training: Toolbox analysis Today, are all qualification levels suitable in any case ?

6 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 6 The training environment is impacted by rules, policies and constraints which may have differing or even conflicting motivations: Regulation, Cost reduction policies, Quality policies, Operations Cost, Geographic distribution… Advanced Training: Environment analysis Is one direction of improvement the better distribution of affordable training facilities ?

7 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 7 Training Volume The present aviation environment is driven by blinded cost-reduction policies. Today, tools and structures make cost reduction policies inducing training volume reduction… Lowering : Skill level … Systems Knowledge… Behaviour... Advanced Training: The Cost Reduction Spin OPS COST Non Duty Time analysis Distant Training Centres FFS COST The cost reduction spin Is it acceptable ? Safety ?

8 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 8 Can we improve training quality and simultaneously reduce costs ? By increasing training time with suitable tools? By increasing recurrent training time with new tools? By using “state-of-the-art” tools? By using latest technologies? By improving access to suitable tools? By installing simulators nearer to operators? Aviation Training: New orientations analysis

9 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 9 In the face of this reality, ATR has started working on a new concept of Advanced Aviation Training In the face of this reality, ATR has started working on a new concept of Advanced Aviation Training reflection analysis

10 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 10 Training performance is closely linked to tools and methods: The Full Flight Simulator represents the main tool used in advanced training: Is it suitable for ALL exercises ? Are we too confident with it ? Is it always cost efficient from a performance and accessibility point of view ? Are we wrong with: ”if the tool has a great performance, the result is bound to be great” ? Is the FFS always best suited to the learning objective ? Advanced Training: The ATR Reflection reflection With all these interrogations, ATR really questions the FFS concept.

11 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 11 reflection A Major Actor: The FFS ATR questions some FFS features The FFS is a complex & expensive tool. Which parts of the FFS can be redesigned radically ? The motion system, its associated maintenance and the complex infrastructure needed to lodge an FFS may need rethinking. In addition to this, FFS instruments and systems are specific and therefore expensive. New technologies may be used to create realistic and affordable cockpits.

12 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 12 WHAT ABOUT THE MOTION SYSTEM ? reflection

13 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 13 Many pilot behaviour studies have been made by research centers. NASA & FAA (AIAA) have recently issued a study linking simulators technologies to training performances, providing some answers to the following questions: Motion is the “art of the cheater”. Is it an advantage ? Does it induce wrong behaviour among pilots ? Is a motion essential to ensure a good training ? Is high resolution display plus sound enough for the pilot’s feel ? Is a Fixed FFS able to share training credits with a FFS ? Are there new technologies capable of replacing the motion ? American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics A behaviour study issued by NASA/FAA reflection

14 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 14 reflection Final Study Validation Test with motion AIAA - a study focused on recurrent training. 40 B pilots from US airlines. NASA/FAA FFS B with well tuned motion. High Resolution Visualization (Level D). Spatial sound. Evaluation & training : 20 pilots with tuned motion. 20 pilots without motion (not aware of the motion status). 3 steps: Evaluation, Training & Test. A behaviour study issued by NASA/FAA

15 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 15 A behaviour study issued by NASA/FAA reflection RVR = 600ft Tailwind = 10 kt Engine Failure at V1 Scenario 1 : V1 Cut Scenario 2 : V2 Cut Engine Failure at V2 RVR = 600ft Tailwind = 10 kt Scenario 4 : Sidestep L to R with windshear (N-1) Cloud = 1100 ft ceiling Visibility = 5 mi wind = crosswind 10 kt Vertical upgust 25 ft/s at 2 Nm from Threshold Approach N-1 Scenario 3 : Precision Instrument Approach (N-1) Cloud = 500 ft ceiling RVR = 5200ft wind = shifting 10>12 kt Quartering headwind to tailwind Approach N-1

16 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 16 From evaluation and training to final test on FFS with motion (“Quasi- Transfer”), performances of the two groups have the same evolution. With or without motion : Training performances are close. For “no-motion” pilots, the performance evolution through study’s phases is more significant. Success Rates by Phase & Maneuver A behaviour study issued by NASA/FAA reflection Rudder pedal reaction on engine cut-off.

17 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 17 With or without motion: Training performances are close. This study highlights the efficiency of a realistic fixed base simulator for pilot training, especially for recurrent training. Pilots are flying more “strategically” & use less their “feeling” without over-control, even in stressful situations. The “No-motion” group performances demonstrate that motion does not always help flying (over-control and lazy rudder control). The “No-motion” group performances is the victory of the Back-To-Basics. NASA/FAA Conclusions : A behaviour study issued by NASA/FAA reflection

18 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 18 How can we go one step further ? proposal reflection

19 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 19 Virtual Cockpit Low Cost No flight dynamics Virtual Environment No external view FNPT II Generic flight dynamics Class Specific External View FFS Data Package High level of realism External view Motion FTD level 1 Generic flight dynamics Type Specific Open cockpit level 2 Generic flight dynamics Type Specific Optional External view Cost x1Cost x5 Cost x35 Cost x350 There is a large step (in performance & cost) between FNPT/FTD & FFS. The present training toolbox: proposal

20 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 20 Virtual Cockpit Low Cost No flight dynamics Virtual Environment No external view FNPT II Generic flight dynamics Class Specific External View FFS Data Package High level of realism External view Motion FTD level 1 Generic flight dynamics Type Specific Open cockpit level 2 Generic flight dynamics Type Specific Optional External view Cost x1Cost x5 Cost x35 Cost x350 ? The present training toolbox: proposal The ATR answer Cost x50~100 FFT FFS Data Package ground & flight High Quality External View A Fixed FFS

21 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 21 FFT DESIGN Visual Pilot seat Systems Flight Dynamics Sounds IOS Instructor Seat Cockpit Instruments Force Feedback Cockpit Instruments Force Feedback FFS Pilot seat Cockpit Pilot seat Instruments Systems (MCC) Flight Dynamics Sounds IOS Instructor Seat FNPT Type II Systems Flight Dynamics Sounds IOS Instructor Seat FTD level 2 FFT: taking the best from each tool proposal Visual Pilot seat Systems Flight Dynamics Sounds IOS Instructor Seat Cockpit Instruments Force Feedback Visual Cockpit Pilot seat Instruments Force Feedback Systems Flight Dynamics Sounds IOS Instructor Seat Visual Cockpit Pilot seat Instruments Force Feedback Systems Flight Dynamics Sounds IOS Instructor Seat FFT

22 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 22 Consequences & Advantages for TRTO & Airlines Consequences & Advantages for TRTO & Airlines conclusion proposal

23 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 23 Easy to install and to support. conclusion FFT Concept: Advantage 1 Hydraulics High Voltage High building 220 VAC std room DedicatedInstruments off-the-shelf Instruments High Qualification Maintenance Staff Heavy Maintenance Costs Off-the-shelf Maintenance Costs FFSFFT

24 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 24 The operating & investment costs allow the development of a worldwide well distributed training network. Training will be closer to airlines. FFT Concept: Advantage 2 conclusion Because it’s there to use, it will be used.

25 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 25 But, there is More… But, there is More…

26 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 26 JAR-STD 1A ATR 42/72 FFT JAR-STD 3A JAR-STD 2A New Regulation Frame ? The FFT Performances exceed the JAR- STD 3A & 2A requirements. There is a room for a multi-purpose simulator A new qualification level may be created. FFT Qualification: New Framework conclusion Why not create a new framework, based on helicopter standard (JAR-STD 2H) ?

27 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 27 FFT Concept: More Advantages Recurrent Training: Operating cost allows an increase of the training volume: 4hrs of FFS = 2x3hrs of FFT conclusion 4hrs Check OPC Check LPC 4hrs 6hrs Today With FFT FFS FFT 12hrs 4hrs MORE Check

28 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 28 Yes, conclusion Does safety have a price ? Keep things as they are with risk of continued downgrading of skills Use new, better adapted and affordable tools, with a redefined educational strategy Use new, better adapted and affordable tools, with a redefined educational strategy But we have a choice to make ? ?

29 An Alenia Aeronautica and EADS joint venture New Training Concept 4/12/2015 Version EATS 4.2 Page Intro facts analysis reflection proposal conclusion 29 Thank You FFT Concept Today’s Answer for Tomorrow’s Safety


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