2DefinisiSoil structure is the arrangement of the primary soil particles (sand, silt, and clay) and other soil materials into discrete aggregates.
3Peds = Gumpalan, Bongkahan, Agregat Structural units are called peds, and have distinct boundaries and well-defined planes of weakness between the aggregates.Peds consist of primary particles bound together by cementing agents like organic matter, clay, and hydrous oxides of iron and aluminum.Ped / agregat tanah mempunyai bermacam-macam bentuk.
4STRUKTUR TANAHStructure – the way soil particles clump together into large units called aggregates or peds
5STRUKTUR TANAH Structure can alter the effects of texture e.g. a fine-textured silty clay with good structure can be permeable!
6STRUKTUR TANAH Structure is classified by three groups of traits: Type – refers to shape of aggregatese.g. Granular, Platy, Blocky, Prismatic, ColumnarClass – refers to size of pedse.g. very fine, fine, medium, coarse, very coarseGrade – refers to strength and distinction of pedse.g. weak/not visible vs. strong/easily distinguished
7PEMBENTUKAN STRUKTUR TANAH Dua-tahap Pembentukan Struktur:Individual soil particles loosely aggregateWeak aggregates are cemented to strengthen- clay- iron oxides- organic matter- microorganism gums
9Granular StructureResembles cookie crumbs and is usually less than 0.5 cm in diameter.Commonly found in surface horizons where roots have been growing.
10Struktur Kubus: Blocky Structure Irregular blocks that are usually cm in diameter.Can be subangular or angular blocky.
11Struktur PrismatikVertical columns of soil that might be a number of cm long.Usually found in lower horizons.
12Struktur ColumnarVertical columns of soil that have a salt "cap" at the top.Found in soils of arid climates.
13Struktur Pipih Thin, flat plates of soil that lie horizontally. Usually found in compacted soil.
14Struktur berbutir tunggal Soil is broken into individual particles that do not stick together.Always accompanies a loose consistence.Commonly found in sandy soils.
15Massive StructureSoil has no visible structure, is hard to break apart and appears in very large clods.
16Grade of Soil Structure The terms weak, moderate, or strong are used to describe the grade or how stable the peds are and how hard they are to break apart.What do you thinkthe grade would befor this picture?
17The size or class of the peds is described as fine, medium, or coarse. Kelas Struktur TanahThe size or class of the peds is described as fine, medium, or coarse.
18Struktur tanah mempengaruhi pergerakan air dalam tanah In soils with good structure, the pore space that occurs between peds is relatively large and facilitates water and air movement.Struktur yang berkembang baik, sangat penting dalam tanah-tanah liatTanah-tanah liat yang strukturnya jelek, pergerakan udara dan airnya sangat terbatas.
20Mengubah Struktur Tanah Struktur tanah dapat diubah dengan jalan pengolahan tanah.Tilling soils that are too wet, or compacting soils with heavy equipment can break down the natural structural units.
21DENSITAS & PERMEABILITAS TANAH DENSITY:MASS per VOLUMED = MV
22DENSITAS & PERMEABILITAS TANAH Two densities in Soil:Particle Density – PDBulk Density - BD
23DENSITAS & PERMEABILITAS TANAH PD average soils ~ 2.65 gm/cu cmBD average range from 1.0 – 1.8 gm/cu cmDepends on amount of pore spaceBD = wt. dry soil = _g_vol. dry soil cu cme.g. BD = 650 g = g/cu cm500 cu cme.g.
24Bobot Isi Tanah = Bulk Density Soil bulk density is the mass per unit bulk volume of soil that has been dried to a constant weight at 105 °C.
25Bobot IsiIf we have a soil that weighs 50 grams after being oven-dried and has a volume of 30 cm3, what will be the bulk density?Nilainya BI sebesar 50 g/30 cm3 atau 1.67 g/ cm3.
26Bobot Isi tanah di lapangan Bobot isi tanah-tanah organik sangat rendah, misalnya 0.5 g/cm3.Tanah liat mempunyai BI lebih tinggi.Tanah liat yang dipadatkan mempunyai bobot isi sangat tinggi, antara 1.6 dan 1.8 g/cm3.
27Bobot Jenis = Berat Jenis = Kerapatan Partikel dan Porositas Tanah Kerapatan partikel merupakan massa per satuan volume partikel tanah.Particle density is a relatively constant parameter and is sometimes assumed to be 2.65 g/cm3.
28Bobot Isi vs. Bobot Jenis Bulk Density vs. Particle Density
29Porositas TanahSoil porosity is the percentage of a soil that is pore space or voids.The average soil has a porosity of about 50%, and the pores are filled with air or water depending on the moisture content.Sands have larger pores, but less total pore space than clays.If both bulk density and particle density are known, the total porosity can be calculated using these values.
30Permeabilitas TanahPermeabilitas tanah mencerminkan kemudahan udara, air atau akar tanaman menembus ke dalam massa tanah.Tanah-tanah dengan ruang pori besar dan saling berhubungan biasanya lebih permeabel.Rainwater soaks in readily and moves down through the soil profile.Clayey soils can have greater total porosity than sand and still be less permeable than sand since the pores are small.
31Soil Strength = Kekuatan Tanah Kekuatan tanah didefinisikan sebagai banyaknya gaya yang diperlukan untuk menggerakkan atau menata partikel-partikel tanah.Soil strength is an important physical property affecting plant growth and seedling emergence.Kekuatan tanah dipengaruhi oleh tiga faktor: kandungan lengas tanah, tekstur tanah, dan bobot isi tanah.
32Kadar Air & Kekuatan Tanah Water content is the most important factor determining soil strength.The lower the soil water content, or the drier the soil, the greater the soil strength.Tanah-tanah yang jenuh atau tanah-tanah tergenang mempunyai nilai kekuatan-tanah yang rendah.
33Kadar Air Tanah (Lengas Tanah) Mana tanah yang kekuatannya lebih besar?
34Tekstur & Kekuatan Tanah Tekstur tanah mempengaruhi kekuatan tanah.Kekuatan tanah-tanah yang agregasinya bagus akan semakin besar kalau kandungan liatnya semakin banjyak.Tanah-tanah yang agregasinya buruk atau tanah butir tunggal (sands, loamy sands, sandy loams) biasanya mempunyai kekuatan paling lemah, kecuali kalau mereka dipadatkan.Individual particles of single grain (sandy) soils are easy to rearrange, but these soils are susceptible to compaction, sometimes resulting in the formation of hard pans.
35Bobot Isi & Kekuatan Tanah Bulk density is the third factor affecting soil strength.As bulk density of a given soil increases soil strength also increases.Remember that soil is composed of solids and pores, and the greater the bulk density the greater the amount of solids, and the smaller the amount of pore space.
36Problem Pengelolaan Tanah Two examples of management problems caused by increasing soil strength are soil crusts and tillage pans.A soil crust is a thin soil layer that forms at the soil surface following heavy rains.Tillage or hard pans are high bulk density (>1.7 g/cm3) layers that occur within the Ap and E horizons.Compaction caused by traffic of equipment, vehicles, or even foot traffic often increases soil strength to levels that restrict root penetration and plant growth.
37PenetrometersGaya yang diperlukan untuk mendorong “a rod” menembus tanah merupakan ukuran bagi kekuatan tanah.Penetrometer merupakan peralatan yang digunakan untuk mengukur resistensi suatu tanah terhadap penetration, untuk memperkirakan efek pemadatan tanah terhadfap pertumbuhan tanaman, dan untuk mendeteksi lap[isan-lapisan yang kekuatan tanahnya berbeda.
38Diunduh dari: ….. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porosity POROSITASPorosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e., "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term is used in multiple fields including pharmaceutics, ceramics, metallurgy, materials, manufacturing, earth sciences, soil mechanics and engineering.Porosity of soilPorosity of surface soil typically decreases as particle size increases. This is due to soil aggregate formation in finer textured surface soils when subject to soil biological processes. Aggregation involves particulate adhesion and higher resistance to compaction. Typical bulk density of sandy soil is between 1.5 and 1.7 g/cm³. This calculates to a porosity between 0.43 and Typical bulk density of clay soil is between 1.1 and 1.3 g/cm³. This calculates to a porosity between 0.58 and This seems counterintuitive because clay soils are termed heavy, implying lower porosity. Heavy apparently refers to a gravitational moisture content effect in combination with terminology that harkens back to the relative force required to pull a tillage implement through the clayey soil at field moisture content as compared to sand.Porosity of subsurface soil is lower than in surface soil due to compaction by gravity. Porosity of 0.20 is considered normal for unsorted gravel size material at depths below the biomantle. Porosity in finer material below the aggregating influence of pedogenesis can be expected to approximate this value.Soil porosity is complex. Traditional models regard porosity as continuous. This fails to account for anomalous features and produces only approximate results. Furthermore it cannot help model the influence of environmental factors which affect pore geometry. A number of more complex models have been proposed, including fractals, bubble theory, cracking theory, Boolean grain process, packed sphere, and numerous other models. See also Characterisation of pore space in soil.Diunduh dari: …..
39Usually expressed as a percentage; e.g. 50% POROSITAS TANAHUsually expressed as a percentage; e.g. 50%Dua cara untuk menentukan porositas:Calculate ratio water volume to total core volumeCalculate from bulk density and particle density
40Water Volume to Core Volume POROSITAS TANAHWater Volume to Core VolumePorosity = wet weight (g) – dry weight (g)soil volume (cu cm) x 100%
41POROSITAS TANAHAn oven-dry soil core, volume 500 cu cm, weighs 650g. When wet, it weighs 900g. Find it’s % porosity.Porosity = 900g – 650g x 100% = 250g x100% = 50%500 cu cm cu cmNote: the unit cancellation is made possible by the metric system which defines 1 cu cm of water as weighing 1g.
42POROSITAS TANAH Bulk Density to Particle Density Defines the percentage of the soil that is solid matterThe percent solid matter is subtracted from 100% to give percent porosity:Porosity = 100% - (BD/PD x 100%)
43POROSITAS TANAHAn undisturbed oven-dry soil, BD of 1.3 g/cu cm, consists of average mineral composition(PD 2.65 g/cu cm).Find its % Porosity:Porosity = 100% - (1.3 g/cu cm/2.65 g/cu cm x 100%)Porosity = 100% - (0.49 x 100%) = 100% - 49% = 51%
44SOIL POROSITY Which has greater porosity, Sand or Clay? Clay at about 50%; Sand is lower at about 30% Why?
46PORI TANAH. Pore spacesSoil particles do not fit together snugly. There are spaces between particles. These spaces are called pore spaces and contain water and air.The pore spaces provide the route for the downward movement of water and allow roots to grow into them. They also provide air space, which is essential for plant growth.The larger the pore spaces the better the drainage of water and the less water retained in the soil. Conversely, the smaller the pore spaces the less water drains away and the more water is retained in the soil.Diunduh dari: …..
47. What actually happens to the soil? Soil needs a balance between large pore spaces for aeration and water infiltration and small pores for water retention. When the soil becomes compacted, soil particles are pushed together and broken down so that pore spaces are reduced and filled in by smaller particles.Smaller pore spaces means less aeration, water infiltration and poorer drainage.Diunduh dari: ….
48STRUKTUR TANAH – PORI TANAH Soil structureOnly about 50% of soil is solid material. The remainder is pore space. It is in these spaces that the action happens. Water is stored there. Organisms live there. Organic matter and nutrients accumulate there. The diagram (magnified about 20 times) demonstrates how solids and pores might arrange in soil to give a porosity of 50 %. Small pores within the aggregates provide storage and refuge. The larger pores (and fissures) between the aggregates are the pathways for liquids, gases, roots and organisms.Diunduh dari: …..
49POROSITAS TANAHPorosity is the pore space in soil between mineral particles (and solid organic matter) filled with either air or water. The pore space both contains and controls most of the functions of soil. It is not just the total amount of pore space that is important, but the size distribution of the pores, and the continuity between them which determines function and behaviour of soil. Size distribution of pores Pores range in diameter from a few millimetres right down to just a fraction of a micron (i.e. one thousandth of a millimeter). The following table gives some detail of this range. Pore sizes in soil (Rowell 1994)Pore diameter (µm)Nature of the pore20000A 20 mm crack4000An earthworm channel (4 mm)300The diameter of a grass root60-30The smallest pore that will be air filled at field capacity10A fungal hypha2The size of a bacterial cell. The largest clay particle. The smallest pore from which a plant can readily obtain water0.2The smallest pore that will give up water to the suction exerted by a plant root. The pore size corresponding to the permanent wilting point0.003The largest pore filled with water in an "air dry" soil. The pore size is approximately ten times the diameter of a water moleculeDiunduh dari: …..
50Transmission pores Transmission pores are the large pores which enable root growth, air movement and water movement. They are visible to the naked eye, indeed even with a x5 hand lens, and range between 30 to 60 µm. They are often called macropores. The volume of a soil occupied by transmission pores should be >10 % if plant roots are to get adequate oxygen. Coarse textured, sandy soils, and well structured soils with a lot of biological activity, have a large proportion of pores in this size class. Storage pores Storage pores retain water (ie. they do not drain under the force of gravity) which is then available for use by plant roots and soil organisms. The proportion of these pores in a soil controls the plant available water capacity. They (along with even smaller pores) are termed micropores. They have diameters between 0.2 and 60 µm. The volume of a soil occupied by them might range from <10% in a loamy sand to >20% in a good loam. Residual pores These hold water so tightly that it cannot be extracted by roots or soil organisms – they are less than 0.2 µm in diameter. Fine textured or clayey soils have the larger proportion of their pores in this class. A heavy clay might well have 25 % of its volume as residual pores.Diunduh dari: …..
52What physical properties are required for soil to “work”? TheseBut also theseStrong: self-supporting & load-bearingPermeable to air and waterConduct water fast to prevent erosionLots of surface area for reactions, microbes, etc.Low thermal conductivity (moderate temps. at depth)Weak enough for roots to penetrateRetaining both air and waterPrevent water from leaving, so plants don’t wiltToo much surface area lowers the permeabilityHigh thermal conductivity (moderate depth of extremes)Soils don’t decide to have certain properties.Their transport properties emerge from other properties.
53TANAH: MEDIUM YANG PORUS What is a porous medium?A composite of solid and fluid (liquid and/or gas)The volume fraction of non-solid is called the porosity (f).Note: Hillel uses f for porosity. f is the Greek f.What solids are not porous?(few if any)
54The f continuum f = 0 f = 1 pure fluid solid Continuous solid PERHATIAN!Porosity isn’t the only thing affecting continuity!There can be fluid continuity at just 0.1% porosity!f = 0f = 1purefluidsolidContinuous solidpermeableporousmediumsuspensionimpermeableporousmediumContinuous fluidIn permeable media (like soils), both the solid and fluid are continuous
56Fractured rockMost porosity is not from fractures, but almost all flow is in fractures.
57Little pores (soil matrix) Soil with drying cracksDual-porosity:Big pores (cracks)Little pores (soil matrix)Nothing in between
58Slice through a 3D packing model with 4 sphere sizes Virtual(Granular)Slice through a 3D packing model with 4 sphere sizes
59Soils are porous media Porosity varies widely (60% > f > 30%) Particle sizes vary widely (sand, clay)Geological and/or organic materials of varying mineralogy and compositionPermeability varies widelyGranular, fractured, and/or amorphousVary spatially & temporallyMost complex & widespread biomaterial on the planetso it is hard to generalize!
60but sometimes it’s useful to think about here Multiple scalesWe concentrate here,but sometimes it’s useful to think about here
61Irwin Fatt asked (Petr. Trans. AIME, 1956): What are the available models for porous media?Capillary tubes are too simplistic.Glass beads are intractable, and they’re still too simple.Real porous media have multiply connected pores (topology & connections again).
63SIFAT FISIKA TANAHSoil Consistence – the behavior of soil when pressure is applied; measured at three different moisture levels: Wet, Moist, Dry (fig 4-15, p. 59)Soil Tilth – ease of tillage, seedbed preparation, and seedling/root movementCompaction – results from pressure applied at the soil surface
64SIFAT FISIKA TANAH Puddling, Clods, and Crusts: Puddling occurs when pressure is applied to very wet soils (esp. plowing)Crusts occur when bare soil is struck by raindrops; disperses soil then dries to a hardened crust
65SIFAT FISIKA TANAH Improving Tilth: Best accomplished by improving structure- tilth relates to texture, structure, permeability, and consistence; however,texture and consistence cannot be altered easilytherefore, improve tilth by improving structure and avoiding compaction.
66SIFAT FISIKA TANAHSoil Channels – continuous macropores leading from surface to deep subsoilSoil Pans – any layer of hardened soil; includes:- claypans- fragipans (clays)- plinthite (tropics)- caliche (Ca cemented)
67SIFAT FISIKA TANAH Soil Temperature (varies w/color, texture, O.M.) Soil ColorMunsell soil color chartHue, Value, Chromae.g. 10YR 3/6