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Chelsea Braun Image: (NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hurt, R, 2003)

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Presentation on theme: "Chelsea Braun Image: (NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hurt, R, 2003)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chelsea Braun Image: (NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hurt, R, 2003)

2 Overview The Mission The Launch Telescope Instruments Projects and Research Interesting Images Interesting Facts Image: (NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hurt, R, 2003)

3 The Mission It is the fourth and final telescope of NASA’s Great Observatories program The Hubble Telescope (HST) The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) Spitzer Space Telescope a family of four space-based observatories, each observing the Universe in a different kind of light (Mission Overview, 2003)

4 The Spectrum Primarily gamma rays extended to hard x-rays Soft x-rays Visible light and near- ultraviolet Infrared Image: (Great Observatories, 2003)

5 Launch Launch Date25 Aug, 2003 Launch VehicleDelta 7920H ELV Launch SiteCape Canaveral, Florida Mission Length2.5 yrs – 5+ yrs Launch mass950 kg OrbitHeliocentric, earth- trailing (Fast Facts, 2012) image: (Launch, 2003)

6 Why in Space? Outside the Earth’s Atmosphere Atmosphere is opaque at infrared wavelengths => long exposure time => greatly reduces ability to detect faint objects Earth trailing, heliocentric orbits Keeps the observatory far away from the Earth’s heat Lets nature cool the observatory, saving liquid helium Wider view of the sky View is only limited by the Sun, instead of the Sun and Earth Can observe in the “day” :D (Spitzer Science Center, 2012)

7 Telescope Ritchey-Chrétien design Weighs less than 50kg Made almost purely out of beryllium (except for the mirror) Low heat capacity at low temperature Telescope is attached to the cryostat to keep it very cold (Spitzer Space Center, 2012) Image: (Telescope, 2012; Cryostat, 2012; MIP, 2012)

8 Telescope Specs Telescope styleRitchey-Chretien Mirror diameter/ Aperture85 cm Wavelength3-180 micrometers (Infrared) Focal Length10.2 m Focal Ratiof/12 InstrumentsInfrared Array Camera (IRAC) Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) (Spitzer Space Center, 2012) Image: (Spitzer, 2003)

9 Instruments Image: (Instruments, 2012)

10 Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Imaging camera designed to detect light at near- & mid-infrared wavelengths 4 channel camera -> it has 4 detectors, each measuring light simultaneously at the wavelengths 3.6 microns 4.5 microns 5.8 microns 8.0 microns FOV : 5.2’x5.2’ Angular resolution : ~ 2’’ (IRAC Instruments and Instrument Support team, 2012)

11 ESO’s VISTA camera in the infrared (Chile) (ESO, VISTA, Emerson, J. 2012)

12 ESO’s WFI 2.2m telescope in visible light (Chile) DSS coloured image (32.1’x30.36’) (ESO, 2009)(Digital Sky Survey)

13 Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) Provides both high and low spectroscopy at mid-infrared range 4-40 microns The spectrograph picks up light from distant objects and breaks it up into a spectrum Useful for determining the elements and molecules that make up an object Has four different modules Long-wavelength, high-resolution ( microns) FOV: 11.1”x22.3” Resolution: ~ 600 Short-wavelength, low-resolution ( microns) FOV: 3.6”-3.7”x57” Resolution: Long-wavelength, low-resolution ( microns) FOV: 13.9”x39.90” Resolution: Short-wavelength, high-resolution ( microns) FOV: 4.7”x11.3” Resolution: ~600 (IRS Instrument Handbook, 2012)

14 Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) Imaging Camera in the far infrared wavelengths Capable of simple low resolution spectroscopy microns Broad Spectral Bands FOVResolution 24 microns5’x5’6” 70 microns2.5’x5’18” 160 microns0.5’x5’40” (MIPS Instruments and MIPS Instrument Support Team, 2011) (Rieke G H, Young E T, Engelbracht C W, et al., 2004)

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16 (CDS, Coloured Digital Sky Survey)

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19 Project Proposal In order to apply for Spitzer time, proposers are required to submit three items in their proposal BEFORE THE DEADLINE: Cover sheet information Scientific and technical justification (template provided) Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs template) How a proposal gets chosen: Peer reviewed by topical science panels and a Time Allocation Committee (TAC) that uses a set evaluation criteria (Rated and Ranked) The Spitzer Space Center director makes the final decision (IPAC, Caltech, 2000)

20 Spitzer’s Specialties Its unprecedented infrared sensitivity allowed astronomers to capture the “old, cold, and dirty” The oldest, coldest, and most dust obscure objects and processes in the universe Low-temperature objects Aids in the search for planetary systems in the making Cornerstone of NASA’s Origins Program (Spitzer Space Center, 2012)

21 Survey GLIMPSE (the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire) Survey spanning 300° of the inner Milky Way galaxy images at 4 separate wavelengths using the IRAC MIPSGAL (Micron Survey of the Intergalactic Disk with MIPS) Similar survey covering 278° of the galactic disk at longer wavelengths (NASA, IRAC, SSC. 2010) (Bressert, E, IPAC, SSC, 2004)

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23 Spitzer Highlights Exoplanet detection, the Hot Jupiters 2007, the SST captured the 1 st light from exoplanets Even enough light to identify the molecules in their atmosphere Discovered the “missing universe” The missing population of hungry black holes known as quasars Largest Milky Way image (GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL) Stitched together with 800,000 images in Infrared (Spitzer Space Center, 2012)

24 Interesting Images (NASA, JPL-Caltech, 2011)

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26 Fun Facts The Spitzer ran out of liquid helium on May 15, 2009 Only IRAC instrument is functional Spitzer Warm Mission The only one of the Great Observatories not launched by the Space Shuttle The naming of the telescope was done by a contest given out to the general public Named after Lyman Spitzer, theoretical physicist and astronomer Developed the idea of telescopes in spaaaaace (Spitzer Space Center, 2012)

27 Resources The CDS portal IRS instrument handbook Bressert, E, IPAC, SSC. MIPSGAL. ESO, VISTA, Emerson, J VISTA`s look at the helix nebula. IPAC C Calls for proposals. es/ IRAC Instrument and Instrument Support Teams IRAC instrument handbook. Marengo M The spitzer space telescope and IRAC. https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~mmarengo/me/irac.html MIPS Instrument and MIPS Instrument Support Teams MIPS instrument handbook. NASA, ESA, CXC, JPL, Caltech and STScI Spiral galaxy M101. Celebrate-the-International-Year-of-Astronomy

28 NASA I, SSC GLIMPSE. NASA J Stars gather in downtown milky-way. Downtown-Milky-Way NASA J, Harvard-Smithsonian CFA Goings on around star forming town. ssc b-Goings-On-Around-Star-forming-Towns NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hora, J (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA) The infrared helix. ssc a-The-Infrared-Helix NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hurt R (SSC) Dust cover. of-Spitzer-Ejecting-its-Dust-Cover NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hurt R (SSC) SIRTF departure. Departing-the-Earth-Soon-After-Launch NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hurt, R (SSC) Spitzer space telescope and earth. dust_cover-Artist-s-Conception-of-Spitzer-Ejecting-its-Dust-Cover NASA, JPL-Caltech, Hurt, R (SSC) Spitzer space telescope and earth. SIRTF_departure-Spitzer-Departing-the-Earth-Soon-After-Launch NASA, JPL-Caltech, Teixeira, P S NGC Cluster NASA/JPL-Caltech/K. Gordon (University of Arizona) & S. Willner (CfA), N.A. Sharp (NOAO/AURA/NSF) Spiral galaxy M81. Rieke G H, Young E T, Engelbracht C W, et al THE MULTIBAND IMAGING PHOTOMETER FOR SPITZER (MIPS). ASTRON ASTROPHYS SUP. 154 : 25-9 Rieke G H, Young E T, Engelbracht C W, et al The multiband imaging photometer for spitzer (MIPS). ASTRON ASTROPHYS SUP. 154 : 24-9 Ryba J NASA. Spitzer Science Center Mission overview. Spitzer Science Center Spitzer space telescope. X-ray: NASA/UMass/Q.D.Wang et al., Optical: NASA/STScI/AURA/Hubble Heritage, Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. AZ/R.Kennicutt/SINGS Team Sombrero galaxy: A great observatories view.


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