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The Human Body The Skeleton provides … Support/ShapeMovement Produces [White blood cells]Protects Bones Upper Body: Clavicle, Scapula, Sternum, Ribs, Humerus,

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Presentation on theme: "The Human Body The Skeleton provides … Support/ShapeMovement Produces [White blood cells]Protects Bones Upper Body: Clavicle, Scapula, Sternum, Ribs, Humerus,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Human Body The Skeleton provides … Support/ShapeMovement Produces [White blood cells]Protects Bones Upper Body: Clavicle, Scapula, Sternum, Ribs, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, (Spine, Cranium, Metacarpals, Phalanges) Lower Body: Pelvis, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Patella Bone Types/Shapes: Flat, Long, Short, Irregular Skeleton & Bones A joint is a point at which two, or more, bones meet. Types of Joint Fixed Slightly Moveable Synovial Joints The Human Body Synovial Joints Ball and Socket Hinge Pivot Saddle Gliding Joints are cushioned by cartilage. Cartilage also reduces friction, and acts as a shock absorber. Joints The Human Body Match the following joints to the joint type… Neck Shoulder Knee Ankle Thumb Ball and Socket Hinge Gliding Saddle Condyloid Wrist Pivot Joints Neck-Pivot; Shoulder-Ball & Socket; Knee-Hinge; Ankle-Gliding; Thumb- Saddle; Wrist-Condyloid The Human Body Skeleton & Bones Q1: Name the three bones in action when throwing a cricket ball Q2: If someone was said to have broken the longest bone in their body, which bone would they have broken? Q3: Name two long bones, and two flat bones Q4: In which area of a bone is bone marrow situated? a. Outside, b. Centre, c. Spread throughout the bone structure A: Q1 Ulna, Radius, Humerus Q2 Femur Q3 See front Q4 b FrontBack

2 The Human Body Muscles -Involuntary: Work without conscious control -Voluntary/Skeletal: All conscious movement - Cardiac: Found only in the walls of the heart Muscles are attached to the skeleton by tendons. The point at which the muscle tendon attaches to a fixed bone is the ORIGIN. The point at which the muscle attaches to a moving bone is the INSERTION. Soft Tissues When a muscle contracts, the insertion moves toward the origin. The Human Body Body Systems Respiratory System: Lungs (Bronchus, Alveoli) Nose, Mouth, Trachea Circulatory System: Heart, Arteries, Veins, Capillaries [The pulse rate can be taken at: wrist, neck, groin] Digestive System: Stomach, Intestines, Esophagus, Liver Endocrine System: Hormones, Hypothalamus, Glands Reproductive System: Testes, Ovaries, Male and Female genetalia Nervous System: Nerves, (Spinal Cord, Brain – Central Nervous System) Q1: Name 10 muscles Q2: Give another example of antagonistic effectors Q3: Give another example of where fast twitch fibres are used Q4: If the hamstring concentrically contracts, what does the quadriceps do? Q5: Is the insertion for the gastronemius at the knee, or ankle? Soft Tissues The Human Body A: Q2 hamstrings and quadriceps Q3 clean and jerk weightlifting Q4 eccentrically contracts Q5 ankle Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour are all exchanged in the alveoli Tidal Volume = the volume of air you inhale/exhale witch each breath Respiratory Rate = how many breaths you take in a minute Minute volume = the volume of air inhaled or exhaled in a minute (min. vol. = tidal vol. x respiratory rate) Vital Capacity = the maximum amount of air which can be forced in exhalation VO 2 Max =the maximum amount of oxygen your body can use in 1 minute. The fitter you are, the higher your VO2 Max The Human Body Gas Exchange FrontBack

3 Muscles: Isometric & Isotonic Contraction Isometric Muscle stays the same length. Isotonic Muscle changes length as it works, Concentric contraction = muscle shortens Eccentric contraction = muscle lengthens Tendons & Ligaments Tendons attach muscle to bone Ligaments attach bone to bone eg. The cruciate ligament- behind the patella The Human Body Soft Tissues Training Principles of Training S.P.O.R.T. Specificity- Make the training specific to your sport Progression- Ensure that each session, you further your ability Overload- Concentrate on one aspect, and improve on it Reversibility- Know that if you stop training, your muscles will go into atrophy, and your fitness levels will decrease Tedium- Ensure the training you are doing is mentally and physically stimulating F.I.D. Frequency- How often do you train? Intensity- How hard do you train? Duration- How long do you train for? The Human Body Soft Tissues Antagonistic Effectors Muscles work in opposition, ie, one contracts, the other relaxes. -Contractor = Agonist -Relaxer = Antagonist Eg. During a bicep curl The bicep is the agonist, while the tricep is the antagonist Fast Twitch fibres - Muscles work powerfully, in short ‘explosions’ anaerobically for short periods, they fatigue easily. Eg’s, Sprinting, fast bowling Slow Twitch fibres- Produce less powerful, slower contractions, can work for long periods of time. Eg’s, marathon running, long distance cycling Training Principles of Training Q1: If I wanted to increase my bicep size, which principle would I use? Q2: How is atrophy part of the reversibility principle? Q3: Without turning over, name the five principles, and what they involve Q4: If I ran 2km in one session, what could I change, to ensure I progress in the next session? A: Q1 Overload Q2 atrophy is the decrease in muscle size, when training decreases Q3 see overleaf Q4 run further, ie 3km FrontBack

4 Training S peed- The ability to perform quickly and efficiently -Timed 100m sprint S tamina- The ability to perform aerobically for long periods of time -Bleep test S trength- To be able to move an object of resistance -Hand grip dynameter S uppleness- The range of mobility around all joints is good -Sit and Reach test S omatotype- Body shape, ie, en d omorph – d for dumpy, ec t omorph – t for thin, m esomorph – m for muscles -fat callipers The 5S’s (Tests in italics) Training Agility- the ability to change the body’s position fast and effectively [Compass Run] Balance- the ability to maintain the body’s centre of gravity, with minimal ‘postural sway’ [Stork Stand] Coordination- the ability to make different parts of the body work together, efficiently [Ball Bounce] Power- speed x strength [sergeant jump] Reaction Time- the time taken from the presentation of a stimulus, to the onset of a response [ruler drop] Timing- the ability to combine all of the above, to produce an effective response [hitting a cricket ball] Skill Related Fitness [test’s in brackets] Training State which man is: mesomorphic, ectomorphic, endomorphic The 5S’s Training Skill Related Fitness Q1: Name an event in which optimum balance is required Q2: Which components of skill related fitness would a rugby player need, to be at the top of his game? Q3: Which component(s) does a sprinter use, as she hears the starting gun? A: Q1 eg, the beam Q2 all of them! Q3 reaction time, power, balance FrontBack

5 Training Interval- Involves alternating between fixed periods of exercise and fixed periods of rest. Eg, run 10m, walk 5m, run 10m etc. Fartlek- The intensity and type of exercise is varied (ie, through changes in pace, terrain, style…) eg. Walk 10m, Jog 5m, Sprint 15m… Continuous- Long, slow, distance exercises, at a constant rate, without rest Weight- Each exercise focuses on a specific muscle group, using machine or free weights. Circuit- Involves a series of exercises, each taking place at a different station, alternating the muscle groups worked Training Methods Training Effects of Training Short Term SweatingRedness (Blood rises to skin to cool) DehydrationHeavy/Faster Breathing FatigueLactic acid build up/Cramp ‘Stitch’Tightness/Soreness in muscles Long Term Weight loss ~ Muscle:Fat ratio increases ~ Aerobic/Anaerobic fitness improves ~ Speed, Stamina, Strength, Suppleness improve ~ Somatatype Changes Training Training Methods Needs specialist, expensive equipment Improves strength, tone, posture Weight Tedious Non-specific Improves aerobic fitness Decreases body fat Little specialist equipment needed Continuous Tedious Non-specific Improves aerobic & anaerobic fitness Increases metabolic rate Fartlek & Interval DisadvantagesAdvantagesMethod Training Effects of Training Q1: What effect(s) will lifting weights increase? Q2: If a runner sweats a lot, what must he do in order for him to counteract the sweating? Q3: To increase aerobic fitness, how much effort should you be expiring (in terms of the percentage of your maximum workrate)? A: Q1 Sweating, hotness, muscle size/strength Q2 Drink lots of water/fluid Q3 60-80% FrontBack

6 Issues in Sport Types of Sponsorship -Shirt Sponsors (Adidas, Nike, Fly Emirates) -Stadium Sponsors (Reebok, Emirates) -Event Sponsors (Bupa, Flora, McDonalds) -Sport Sponsor (Amateur Swimming) -Series Sponsor (RBS, Norwich Union) -An Individual (Adidas, Gillette, Police) Sponsorship Issues in Sport Amateurs/Professionals Professional players keep fit to take part are paid to take part compete for a career Amateur players take part to keep fit receive no financial rewards compete for pleasure Issues in Sport Q1: Name three advantages of sponsorship for; a team/performer the company Q2: Name three disadvantages of sponsorship for: a team/performer a company Q3: Give 5 examples of sponsors in sport Sponsorship A: Q1 equipment, travel, scholarships, money/publicity, advertising, reputation Q2 over dependence on sponsor, exploitation, minority sports decline/risk (success isn’t guaranteed), media coverage may reduce, wrong image presented Q3 see overleaf Issues in Sport Amateurs/Professionals Add these labels to the diagram: Few fulltime professionals, some part time semi-pro’s, many amateurs performing at various levels FrontBack

7 Issues in Sport Media Issues in Sport Etiquette A set of unwritten rules, concerning a participants ability to respect and honour their opponent and the game. Eg’s. Acknowledging opponents good play, shaking hands after a game, replacing divots on the golf course Gamesmanship ‘Winding up’ an opponent. Through comments in the media (Eg. Ferguson vs. Wenger), diving, timewasting, employing other tactics, eg, war dances (the Haka) Sporting Behaviour Issues in Sport Q1: How can the internet be helpful to a team wanting to know more about their opposition? Q2: How can media coverage be detrimental to a sport? Give an example Q3: How can the media influence more children to uptake a sport? Media A: Q1 find out past results, players, statistics, videos Q2 decline in coverage, eg, hockey, netball Q3 more sport coverage, coverage more suitable for children, more websites, games Issues in Sport Q1: Give two further examples of good etiquette in the sporting world Q2: Give an example of poor sporting behaviour in football, and explain how officials clamp down on it Q3: What was the ‘Turner report’, and what changes did it suggest? Sporting Behaviour A: Q1 cheering the opponent after a rugby game, swapping shirts, throwing rice into the ring before a sumo game Q2 goalkeeper taking time over goal kick, yellow card; diving, yellow card Q3 after Hillsborough/ Heysel disasters, the government produced an enquiry, it suggested all top league stadiums were all seater, clubs installed CCTV, segregation of fans, removal of perimeter fences FrontBack

8 GCSE Physical Education Flash Cards Contents The Human Body [ x5 Cards] Training [ x5 Cards] Issues in Sport [ x4 Cards] Aspects of Sport [ x4 Cards] GCSE Physical Education Aspects of Sport Various Roles PlayerReferee/Official Administrator/OrganiserCoach MediaChairman CaretakerMedical Care Factors affecting participation FamilyGender AgePeer Group PopularityRace/Culture EducationDisability Environment Participation In Sport Q1: How are children living in the Alps more likely to take up a snowsport, rather than beach volleyball? Q2: How has communist Russia dictated as to how the county’s population participate in sport? Q3: What have the government done in the UK, to try and improve sports provision for the whole population? Aspects of Sport Participation In Sport Opening Cards FrontBack

9 Aspects of Sport Warm Up & Cool Down Warm Up is essential to… -Prepare the body psychologically -To improve blood flow to the working muscles -To, literally, warm up; to avoid injury – muscles that are warm can flex and stretch rather than snap or tear. Cool Down is essential to… -To bring the body’s systems (heart & respiration rates) gradually back to a resting rate -To rid the body of lactic acid -Help prevent soreness, and aid recovery Aspects of Sport Factors Affecting Performance Q1: How should a warm-up be carried out (structure) Q2: What type of stretching is more effective (and safer) to carry out at the start of a session; static or or dynamic? Q3: Suggest a simple and effective way of cooling down Aspects of Sport A: Q1 cardio-vascular/aerobic, dynamic stretching, sport specific Q2 dyamic- still keeps blood flow to working muscles up, whilst gradually stretching the muscles Q3 Run 10m, walk 5m, Run 10m, Stretch, etc Warm Up & Cool Down Q1: How can altitude affect performance? Q2: Which factors do not affect a closed skill? Q3: Give another two factors which may affect performance Aspects of Sport Factors Affecting Performance A: Q1 the amount of oxygen in the air decreases as altitude increases Q2 opposition, surface, weather Q3 surface, body composition FrontBack

10 Alcohol- loss of coordination, lack of responsibility Anabolic Steroids -Accelerate growth of muscles Beta Blockers -Help performers to relax Blood Doping -red blood cells are removed, and then reinjected prior to a competition- increases the amount of oxyhaemoglobin in the blood Diuretics -make a competitor lose water by urination Peptide Hormones- increase muscle growth (Human Growth Hormone) Narcotics -Painkillers (Heroin, morphine) Stimulants -increase activity of the nervous and cardiovascular systems Tobacco -can help people relax Aspects of Sport Substance Abuse Q1: In which sport would beta blockers be beneficial to the competitor? Q2: Human Growth Hormones can only be detected up to 24hours after use, how does this drug have an advantage over others will similar affects? Q3: Name two effects on the body caused by smoking Aspects of Sport A: Q1 darts, snooker Q2 if a competitor takes the HGH more than 24hours before a drug test, it will go undetected Q3 increased chance of heart disease- due to cholesterol in the coronary arteries; ‘smokers cough’ due to the hot air burning the trachea and lungs Substance Abuse FrontBack GCSE Physical Education Flash Cards Drew Harding 2008 Other Tips -Constantly recap on things you’ve learnt – just simple things like naming the muscles, etc. -Have confidence in yourself! +Aim to be the best -Revision = Relaxed, the more you revise, the more relaxed you will be come the exams -talk to people, gain knowledge, and wisdom End Cards

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