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CHAPTER3 Higher-Level Synchronization and Communication

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1 CHAPTER3 Higher-Level Synchronization and Communication
Shortcoming of semaphores and events: Not supporting the elegant structuring of concurrent programs (being Implemented at lower level) Verifying the behavior of programs is difficult Contents: 3.1 Shared memory methods 3.2 Distributed synchronization and communication 3.3 Other classic synchronization problems

2 Monitors The principles of abstract data types: The monitor construct:
A set of operations The monitor construct: Access to the resource (CS) is possible only via one of the monitor procedures; Procedures are mutually exclusive; Condition variable is used to manipulate processes’ communication and synchronization

3 Condition variable C.wait:
causes the executing process to be suspended and placed on a queue associated with the CV c. C.signal: wakes up one of the processes waiting on c, placing it on a queue of processes wanting to reenter the monitor

4 Directions of CV No value associated with CV
Referring to a specific event, state of a computation, or assertion Used inner of monitors

5 Example: monitor solution to the bounded-buffer problem
Monitor bounded_buffer{ char buffer[n]; int nextin=0, nextout=0,full_cnt=0; condition notempty,notfull; Deposit(char c){ if(full_cnt==n) notfull.wait; buffer[nextin]=c; nextin=(nextin+1)%n; full_cnt=full_cnt+1; notempty.signal; } Remove(char c){ if(full_cnt==0) notempty.wait; c=buffer[nextout]; nextout=(nextout+1)%n; full_cnt=full_cnt-1; notfull.singal;

6 Priority waits c.wait(p)
C: condition variable on which the process is to be suspended P: an integer expression defining a priority when the condition c is signaled and there is more than one process waiting, the one which specified the lowest value of p is resumed.

7 Monitor alarm_clock{ int now=0; condition wakeup; Wakeme(int n){ int alarmsetting; alarmsetting=now+n; while(now<alarmsetting) wakeup.wait(alarmsetting); wakeup.signal;/*in case more than one process is to wake up at the same time*/ } Tick(){ now=now+1; wakeup.signal;

8 Protected types Implicit wait at the beginning of the procedure
Implicit signal at the ending of the procedure Mutual exclusive between protected types’ procedures

9 Distributed synchronization and communication
Surroundings: For centralized systems where process isolation and encapsulation is desirable For distributed systems where processes may reside on different nodes in a network Message-based communication Procedure-based communication distributed mutual exclusion

10 Message-based communication
Some fundamental questions: When a message is emitted, must the sending process wait until the message has been accepted by the receiver or can it continue processing immediately after emission? What should happen when a receive is issued and there is no message waiting? Must the sender name exactly one receiver to which it wishes to transmit a message or can messages be simultaneously sent to a group of receiver processes? Must the receiver specify exactly one sender from which it wishes to accept a message or can it accept messages arriving from any member of a group of senders?

11 Named-channel system Syntax:
Send(channel, var); receive(channel, var) The problem of blocking receive with explicit naming: don’t permit the process executing receive to wait selectively for the arrival of one of several possible requests. Nondeterministic selective input: when(C) S

12 Procedure-based communication
Asymmetric RPC Symmetric RPC client: q.f(params) server: accept f(params) S

13 Rendezvous p q p q accept f() q.f() wait wait q.f() accept f() S S
called process is delayed Calling process is delayed

14 ADA’s select statement
[when B1:] accept E1(…) S1; or [when Bn:] accept En(…) Sn; [else R] } Mutual exclusive only one of the embedded accepts to be executed Nondeterministic choosing among eligible accept statements according to a fair internal policy

15 Distributed mutual exclusion
Centralized controller --relying on the correct operation of the controller --potential performance bottleneck Fully distributed --large amount of message passing --accurate time stamps --difficulty of managing node or process failures Token ring

16 Token ring Process controller [i] { while(1) { accept token; select {
accept Request_CS() {busy=1;} else null; } if(busy) accept Release_CS() {busy=0;} controller[(i+1)%n].Token; Process p [i] { controller [i].Request_CS(); CSi; controller [i].Release_CS(); programi;

17 Classic synchronization problems
The Readers/Writers problem The Dining Philosophers Problem

18 The Readers/Writers problem
Writers are permitted to modify the state of the resource and must have exclusive access; Readers only can interrogate the resource state and , consequently, may share the resource concurrently with an unlimited number of other readers; Fairness policies must be included.

19 Semaphore writelock=1;
Cobegin Reader: while(1){ reading; } // Writer: while(1){ writing; coend Int readcount=0; Semaphore countlock=1; Exclusive P(countlock); if(readcount==0) P(writelock); readcount++; V(countlock); Writer Writer Exclusive Writer Reader P(countlock); readcount--; if(readcount==0) V(writelock); V(countlock); Concurrent Reader Reader P(writelock); V(writelock);

20 Fairness Policies A new reader should not be permitted to start during a read sequence if there is a writer waiting All readers waiting at the end of a write operation should have priority over the next writer

21 Monitor readers/writers{
int read_cnt=0, writing=0; condition OK_to_read, OK_to_write; Start_read(){ if(writing|| !empty(OK_to_write)) OK_to_read.wait; read_cnt=read_cnt+1; OK_to_read.signal; } End_read(){ read_cnt=read_cnt-1; if(read_cnt==0) OK_to_write.signal; Start_write(){ if((read_cnt!=0)||writing) OK_to_write.wait; writing=1; End_write(){ writing=0; if(!empty(OK_to_read))OK_to_read.signal; else OK_to_write.signal;

22 The Dining Philosophers Problem
spaghetti P4 P3

23 Concerns about the problem
Deadlock: A situation must be prevented where each philosopher obtains one of the forks and is blocked forever waiting for the other to be available Fairness: It should not be possible for one or more philosophers to conspire in such a way that another philosopher is prevented indefinitely from acquiring its fork Concurrency: When one philosopher, e.g., p1, is eating, only its two immediate neighbors (p5 and p2) should be prevented from eating. The others (p3 and p4) should not be blocked; one of these must be able to eat concurrently with p1

24 Semaphore f[5]={1,1,1,1,1,}; Cobegin{ P(i): while(1){ think(i); P(f(i)); P(f(i+1)%5);// grab_forks(i); eat(i); V(f[i]); V(f[i+1]);// return_forks(i); } // …… coend

25 P1 P5 P2 spaghetti P4 P3

26 Semaphore f[5]={1,1,1,1,1,}; Cobegin{ P(i): while(1){ think(i); P(f[i]); P(f[(i+1)%5]);// grab_forks(i); eat(i); V(f[i]); V(f[(i+1)%5]);// return_forks(i); } // …… P(j): while(1){ think(j); P(f[j+1]%5); P(f[j]); // grab_forks(j); eat(j); V(f[(j+1)%5]); V(f[j]); // return_forks(j); coend

27 P1 P5 P2 spaghetti P4 P3

28 Semaphore f[5]={1,1,1,1,1,}; Cobegin{ P(i): while(1){ think(i); if(i%2==1) P(f(i)); P(f(i+1)%5);// grab_forks(i); else P(f(i+1)%5); P(f(i)); // grab_forks(i); eat(i); V(f[i]); V(f[i+1]);// return_forks(i); } // …… coend

29 P1 P5 P2 spaghetti P4 P3

30 FAQs Rewrite the program below using cobegin/coend statements. Make sure that it exploits maximum parallelism but produces the same result as the sequential execution. Hint: Draw first the process flow graph where each line of the code corresponds to an edge. Start with the last line. W=X1 * X2; V=X3 * X4; Y= V * X5; Z= V * X6; Y= W * Y; Z= W * Z; A= Y + Z;

31 S Cobegin{ W=X1*X2; // V=X3* X4; cobegin{ Y=V*X5; Z=V*X6; } coend Coend Y=W* Y; Z=W*Z; A=Y+Z; V= X3* X4 W=X1 * X2 Y=V * X5 Z=V * X6 Y=W * Y Z=W * Z A=Y+Z E

32 Generalize the last software solution to the mutual exclusion problem(Section2.3.1) to work with three processes. Int c1=0,c2=0,c3=0,will_wait; Cobegin P1: while(1){ c1=1; will_wait=1; while((c2||c3)&&(will_wait==1)); cs1; c1=0;program1; } // coend

33 Int c1=0,c2=0,c3=0,will_wait; Cobegin P1: while(1){ c1=1; will_wait=1; while(c2&&(will_wait==1)); while(c3&&(will_wait==1)); CS1;c1=0; program1; }// P2: while(1){ c2=1; will_wait=2; while(c1&&(will_wait==2)); while(c3&&(will_wait==2)); CS2;c2=0; program2; P3: while(1){ c3=1; will_wait=3; while((c1||c2)&&(will_wait==3); CS3; c3=0; program3; } coend

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