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General Astrophysics with TPF-C David Spergel Princeton.

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1 General Astrophysics with TPF-C David Spergel Princeton

2 Please, Chas…. Ability to point at alternative targets Ability to point at alternative targets Wide (but not ultra-wide field imaging) Wide (but not ultra-wide field imaging) 5’ x 5’ 5’ x 5’ Astrometry well-sampled pixels Astrometry well-sampled pixels Variable Objects (SN) large area/near-IR Variable Objects (SN) large area/near-IR Ability to observe in parallel mode while doing planet finding (control of scattered light) Ability to observe in parallel mode while doing planet finding (control of scattered light) GRISM capability? GRISM capability?

3 Division of Focal Plane GENERAL ASTROPHYSICS Planet finding

4 Discovery Space UNIQUE CAPABILITY Coronagraphy Coronagraphy Polarimetry Polarimetry High resolution/wide field (10 mas/5’) High resolution/wide field (10 mas/5’) IFU + high spatial resolution IFU + high spatial resolution Stable PSF Stable PSF Astrometry Astrometry Photometry Photometry OTHER INSTRUMENTS JWST SIM GAIA Ground-based 20/30-m LSST Many 8-m class telescopes

5 Astrometric Capabilities Able to get  as astrometry for faint objects Able to get  as astrometry for faint objects Tie to SIM references Tie to SIM references Distance to faint galactic objects Distance to faint galactic objects Proper motions for main sequence stars in Baade’s window and in tidal tails Proper motions for main sequence stars in Baade’s window and in tidal tails

6 Key Science Questions What is the dark energy? What is the dark energy? What is the dark matter? What is the dark matter? How do black holes form? What feeds them? How do they affect their environment? How do black holes form? What feeds them? How do they affect their environment? How do galaxies form and evolve? How do galaxies form and evolve? How do stars and planetary systems form and evolve? How do stars and planetary systems form and evolve? Explore diversity of worlds that might harbor life Explore diversity of worlds that might harbor life

7 What is the dark energy? Measure angular diameter distance Measure angular diameter distance Supernova as standard candles Supernova as standard candles Search for supernova in parallel observing mode (and other variable objects) TPF-C has ~8 x collecting area of SNAP Growth rate of structure Growth rate of structure Strong lensing (Survey rich cluster arcs to measure their mass). Much higher arc density that ACS+HST [see Dedeo’s talk] Strong lensing (Survey rich cluster arcs to measure their mass). Much higher arc density that ACS+HST [see Dedeo’s talk] Weak lensing of galaxies observed in parallel mode ( pencil beams) Weak lensing of galaxies observed in parallel mode ( pencil beams)

8 Parallel Extreme Deep Fields 50 target stars (50% of time [5 yr mission]) 50 target stars (50% of time [5 yr mission]) 18 days of integration per field with 6 x HST collecting area > UDF sensitivity on 50 fields 18 days of integration per field with 6 x HST collecting area > UDF sensitivity on 50 fields Multiple visits: variability studies Multiple visits: variability studies Very complementary to LSST program Very complementary to LSST program Complement with repeat return visits? Complement with repeat return visits? 200 comparative planetology targets (25% of mission time) 200 comparative planetology targets (25% of mission time) 3 days of integration ~ HDF sensitivity 3 days of integration ~ HDF sensitivity

9 NICMOS + ACS JWST + TPF-C

10 Comparison with HST Supernova search HST study HST study Riess et al Riess et al epochs at intervals of 45 days (0.1 square degrees) in Z band (2000 s exposures) 5 epochs at intervals of 45 days (0.1 square degrees) in Z band (2000 s exposures) Limiting mag of 26 Limiting mag of 26 Parallel fields Parallel fields 10x area (50 5’ x5’ field) 10x area (50 5’ x5’ field) Longer time-baseline Longer time-baseline Out to 1.7 micron, SNIa to z~3 (SNII to higher z) Out to 1.7 micron, SNIa to z~3 (SNII to higher z) ~100 x HST Supernova sample ~100 x HST Supernova sample Riess et al. 2004

11 What is the dark matter? Measure clustering properties of dark matter Measure clustering properties of dark matter In our own Galaxy: Tidal tails--- extend SIM tidal tail program by obtaining proper motions for stars in tidal streams (requirement: 10 km/s at 20 kpc -> 100  as) In our own Galaxy: Tidal tails--- extend SIM tidal tail program by obtaining proper motions for stars in tidal streams (requirement: 10 km/s at 20 kpc -> 100  as) In clusters of galaxies: strong lensing In clusters of galaxies: strong lensing

12 Strong Lensing: Detailed Studies of Arcs Resolve substructure in arcs Resolve substructure in arcs Detect many more arcs Detect many more arcs Use surface brightness constraints to limit lens models Use surface brightness constraints to limit lens models Use features in arcs to constrain lumpiness in cluster halos Use features in arcs to constrain lumpiness in cluster halos  = 0.01 (M/10 6 Msun) 1/2 See Dedeo’s talk

13 How Are Galaxies Assembled? Galaxies far away Galaxies far away Extreme deep field imaging (complemented by JWST imaging of same fields and spectroscopy with the 20/30-meters) Extreme deep field imaging (complemented by JWST imaging of same fields and spectroscopy with the 20/30-meters) Galaxies nearby Galaxies nearby Stellar population studies in M31 Stellar population studies in M31 White dwarf sequences in GCs [M4 study can be extended further out and combined with SIM distances] White dwarf sequences in GCs [M4 study can be extended further out and combined with SIM distances] Orbits for stars down to main sequence in Baade’s window [SIM astrometry + multi-epoch imaging] (e.g., Kuijken & Rich’s HST program) Orbits for stars down to main sequence in Baade’s window [SIM astrometry + multi-epoch imaging] (e.g., Kuijken & Rich’s HST program)

14 Black Holes and Their Environments Extend studies of black hole properties in nearby galaxies (IFU with higher resolution?) Extend studies of black hole properties in nearby galaxies (IFU with higher resolution?) Coronagraphic Imaging of Host Galaxies Coronagraphic Imaging of Host Galaxies Image M31 nucleus Image M31 nucleus Resolve nature of double nucleus Resolve nature of double nucleus Follow orbits around black hole Follow orbits around black hole Probe black holes near “hang-up radius” (Yu 2002) Probe black holes near “hang-up radius” (Yu 2002) Imaging or astrometry Imaging or astrometry

15 Imaging of fine details of low surface brightness host/lens galaxies of gravitationally lensed quasars Host galaxy of a bright & low redshift quasar. ----> Change with redshift? <---- Optical Einstein Ring gravitational lens. Reconstructed 0.01” resolution image of a high z star formation burst galaxy. ----> The details of low surface brightness resolved objects are often key to constraining lens models but nearly superimposed bright quasar images make their detection difficult. E. Turner 4/14/04 TPF Ancillary Science

16 Requirements Pointing without bright target star Pointing without bright target star Parallel mode operation (data download + scattered starlight) Parallel mode operation (data download + scattered starlight) Wide field imaging capability (5’x5’)? Wide field imaging capability (5’x5’)? Small pixels on some of field for better astrometric capability Small pixels on some of field for better astrometric capability Spectroscopy? GRISM Spectroscopy? GRISM

17 THE END

18 Origins Roadmap


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