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Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition Chapter 9: The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties

2 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 2 of 35 Contents 9-1Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table 9-2Metals and Nonmetals and Their Ions 9-3The Sizes of Atoms and Ions 9-4Ionization Energy 9-5Electron Affinity 9-6Magnetic Properties 9-7Periodic Properties of the Elements Focus on The Periodic Law and Mercury

3 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 3 of Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table 1869, Dimitri Mendeleev Lothar Meyer When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically.

4 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 4 of 35 Periodic Law

5 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 5 of 35 Mendeleev’s Periodic Table 1871 — = 44 — = 72 — = 68 — = 100

6 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 6 of 35 Predicted Elements were Found

7 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 7 of 35 X-Ray Spectra H.G.J. Moseley 1913 –X-ray emission is explained in terms of transitions in which e - drop into orbits close to the atomic nucleus. –Correlated (K   frequencies to atomic number Z: (K   = a (Z – 1) 2 –Used to predict new elements (43, 61, 75) later discovered.

8 Bohr atom and Moseley empirical formula Bohr: 1913: Z-1 because one 1s electron is there. Moseley’s empirical formula: General Chemistry G. I. Csonka Slide 8 of 35

9 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 9 of 35 The Periodic table Alkali MetalsAlkaline EarthsTransition MetalsHalogensNoble Gases Lanthanides and Actinides Main Group

10 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 10 of Metals and Nonmetals and Their Ions Metals –Good conductors of heat and electricity. –Malleable and ductile. –Moderate to high melting points. Nonmetals –Nonconductors of heat and electricity. –Brittle solids. –Some are gases at room temperature.

11 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 11 of 35 Metals Tend to Lose Electrons

12 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 12 of 35 Nonmetals Tend to Gain Electrons

13 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 13 of 35 Electron Configuration of Some Ions

14 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 14 of The Sizes of Atoms and Ions

15 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 15 of 35 Atomic Radius

16 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 16 of 35 Screening and Penetration Z eff = Z – S E n = - RHRH n2n2 Z eff 2

17 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 9Slide 17 of 50 Penetration and Shielding Slater rules: For a 1s electron, S = 0.3. For electrons in an s or p orbital with n > 1, the screening constant is given by S = 1.00·N ·N ·N0 N0 represents the number of other electrons in the same shell, N1 represents the number of electrons in the next smaller shell (n-1), and N2 is the number of electrons in other smaller shells (n-2 and smaller). The effective nuclear charge is Z eff = Z - S

18 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 18 of 35 Cationic Radii Ne  131 pm

19 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 19 of 35 Anionic Radii

20 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 20 of 35 Atomic and Ionic Radii

21 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 21 of Ionization Energy Mg(g) → Mg + (g) + e - I 1 = 738 kJ Mg + (g) → Mg 2+ (g) + e - I 2 = 1451 kJ I 1 = R H n2n2 Z eff1 2 S 1 = · = 9.15 Z eff1 = 2.85 S 2 = · 0.85 = 8.80 Z eff2 = 3.2 I 2 = R H n2n2 Z eff2 2 Where n is the main quantum number, here it is 3. (3s 2 )

22 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 22 of 35 First Ionization Energy

23 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 23 of 35 Table 10.4 Ionization Energies of the Third-Period Elements (in kJ/mol) I 2 (Mg) vs. I 3 (Mg) I 1 (Mg) vs. I 1 (Al) I 1 (P) vs. I 1 (S)

24 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 24 of Electron Affinity F(g) + e - → F - (g) EA = -328 kJ F(1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 ) + e - → F - (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) Li(g) + e - → Li - (g) EA = kJ

25 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 25 of 35 First Electron Affinities

26 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 26 of 35 Second Electron Affinities O(g) + e - → O - (g) EA = -141 kJ O - (g) + e - → O 2- (g) EA = +744 kJ

27 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 27 of Magnetic Properties Diamagnetic atoms or ions: –All e - are paired. –Weakly repelled by a magnetic field. Paramagnetic atoms or ions: –Unpaired e -. –Attracted to an external magnetic field.

28 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 28 of 35 Paramagnetism

29 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 29 of Periodic Properties of the Elements

30 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 30 of Boiling Point ? ?

31 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 31 of 35 Melting Points of Elements

32 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 32 of 35 Melting Points of Compounds

33 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 33 of 35 Reducing Ability of Group 1 and 2 Metals 2 K(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) → 2 K OH - + H 2 (g) Ca(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) → Ca OH - + H 2 (g) I 1 = 419 kJ I 1 = 590 kJ I 2 = 1145 kJ

34 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 34 of 35 Oxidizing Abilities of the Halogens 2 Na + Cl 2 → 2 NaCl Cl I - → 2 Cl - + I 2

35 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 35 of 35 Acid Base Nature of Element Oxides Basic oxides or base anhydrides: Li 2 O(s) + H 2 O(l) → 2 Li + (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) Acidic oxides or acid anhydrides: SO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → H 2 SO 3 (aq) Na 2 O and MgO yield basic solutions Cl 2 O, SO 2 and P 4 O 10 yield acidic solutions SiO 2 dissolves in strong base, acidic oxide.

36 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 36 of 35 Focus on The Periodic Law and Mercury Should be a solid. Relativistic shrinking of s-orbitals affects all heavy metals but is maximum with Hg.

37 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 10Slide 37 of 35 Chapter 10 Questions 1, 2, 18, 21, 27, 33, 39, 43, 51, 55


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