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CITATIONS, FOOTNOTES, ENDNOTES, and REFERENCES

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1 CITATIONS, FOOTNOTES, ENDNOTES, and REFERENCES

2 Definitions of Terms Citations include direct quotation (repeat the words written by someone else), paraphrasing (state other author/s’ idea/s using different words), recognizing or mentioning the existence of other research studies or findings Citations include direct quotation (repeat the words written by someone else), paraphrasing (state other author/s’ idea/s using different words), recognizing or mentioning the existence of other research studies or findings There are two main ways of indicating the sources of literature cited in the text: (1) Author-date (Harvard), and (2) Author-number (Vancouver) There are two main ways of indicating the sources of literature cited in the text: (1) Author-date (Harvard), and (2) Author-number (Vancouver) Other version (Chicago Manual): (1) Author-date system, and (2) Documentary Note style Other version (Chicago Manual): (1) Author-date system, and (2) Documentary Note style

3 Harvard (author-date) style This system uses the author's name and date of publication in the body of the text, and the bibliography is given alphabetically by author. There are many variations on the style - examples are below:

4 Example "The author has discussed the implications of these proposals on the National Health Service in another paper (Loft, 1991). Other writers have commented on related issues, notably Lane (1992, 1994) and Lewis (1995, p.54). " Names and dates are enclosed in parentheses unless the author's name is part of the sentence. If two papers are cited by the same author, and both are published in the same year, the first should be referenced as (Loft 1997a), then (Loft 1997b), and so on.

5 The full citation is listed at the end of the article, which is arranged in alphabetical order by author. Journal names are given in full and are italicised, as are book names. References would be cited as follows: Annas, G.J. (1997a), 'New drugs for acute respiratory distress syndrome', New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 6, pp Grinspoon, L. & Bakalar, J.B. (1993), Marijuana: the forbidden medicine, Yale University Press, London.

6 Variations on the Harvard style Universities (and journals) have many variations for use in their own institutions, a few examples are linked below. Leicester University (UK) Year of publication is not in brackets and is followed by a full stop; article titles are not placed within quotes, volume numbers are in bold and are not spelled out; Monash University (Aus) Article titles are in double quotes; ml University of Western Australia (Aus) In this recommendation, the year of publication is not in brackets; pport/guides/how_to_cite_your_sources ml pport/guides/how_to_cite_your_sources ml pport/guides/how_to_cite_your_sources

7 Vancouver (author-number) style The Vancouver system differs from Harvard by using a number series to indicate references. Bibliographies list these in numerical order as they appear in the text. The main advantage of the Vancouver style is that the main text reads more easily, and some editors consider this to be less obtrusive. Additionally, references in the bibliography are directly correlated to numbers, saving the reader time in searching alphabetically for the first author of a reference.

8 Vancouver (author-number) style Vancouver style is so named as it is based on the work of a group, first meeting in Vancouver in 1978, which became the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The style was developed by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) and adopted by the ICMJE as part of their 'uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals'. The NLM's annual publication 'list of journals indexed in Index Medicus' lists journals and their accepted abbreviations. The NLM abbreviation for a journal title is commonly required by medical journals.

9 Example "The author has discussed the implications of these proposals on the National Health Service in another paper (1). Other writers have commented on related issues, notably Lane (2,3) and Lewis (4). " References in the Vancouver style would be cited in numerical order as below. This is a more economical style than Harvard, and excessive punctuation, spacing and formatting is absent. Journal names are abbreviated. (1) Annas GJ. New drugs for acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1997;337: (2) Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. Marijuana: the forbidden medicine. London: Yale University Press; (3) Feinberg TE, Farah MJ, editors. Behavioural neurology and neuropsychology. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1997.

10 The Chicago Manual of Style The Chicago Manual of Style allows for two different types of reference styles: the Author- Date System and the Documentary-Note Style. Author- Date System Documentary-Note StyleAuthor- Date System Documentary-Note Style

11 Author-Date System Book - single author Citation in Text (Holmlund 2002) Reference List Form Holmlund, C Impossible bodies: feminity and masculinity at the movies. New York: Routledge. Book - more than one author Citation in Text (Craton and Saunders 1992) Reference List Form Craton, M. and G. Saunders Islanders in the Stream: A history of the Bahamian people. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

12 Author-Date System Chapter from a book Citation in Text (Repgen 1992) Reference List Form Repgen, K What is a 'Religious War'? In Politics and society in Reformation Europe, edited by E. I. Kouri and T. Scott, London: Macmillan. Article from journal Citation in Text (Herring 1998) Reference List Form Herring, G The Beguiled: Misogynist myth or feminist fable? Literature Film Quarterly 26 (3):

13 Author-Date System Article from electronic journal - accessed through a database Citation in Text (Yin 2003) Reference List Form Yin, Sandra Color bind. American Demographics 25, (7): Academic Search Premier, via Galileo, Newspaper article – no author Citation in Text (Chicago Tribune 1994) Reference List Form Chicago Tribune Gun injuries take financial toll on hospitals, February 24.

14 Documentary-Note Style Book - single author Footnote form (first footnote) 2. Chris Holmlund, Impossible Bodies: Femininity and Masculinity at the Movies (New York: Routledge, 2002), 159. Bibliographic form Holmlund, Chris. ImpossibleBodies: Femininity and Masculinity at the Movies. New York: Routledge, Book - more than one author Footnote form (first footnote) 1. Michael Craton and Gail Saunders, Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992), 24. Bibliographic form Craton, M. and G. Saunders. Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.

15 Documentary-Note Style Chapter from a book Footnote form (first footnote) 1. Konrad Repgen, "What is a 'Religious War'?" in Politics and Society in Reformation Europe, ed. E. I. Kouri and Tom Scott, 324 (London: Macmillan, 1987). Bibliographic form Repgen, Konrad. "What is a 'Religious War'?" In Politics and Society in Reformation Europe, edited by E. I. Kouri and Tom Scott, London: Macmillan, Article from journal Footnote form (first footnote) 1. Gina Herring, "The Beguiled: Misogynyist Myth or Feminist Fable?" Literature Film Quarterly 26, no. 3 (1998): 216. Bibliographic form Herring, Gina. "The Beguiled: Misogynist Myth or Feminist Fable?" Literature Film Quarterly 26, no. 3 (1998):

16 Documentary-Note Style Article from electronic journal - accessed through a database Footnote form (first footnote) 3. Sandra Yin, "Color Bind," American Demographics, 25, no. 7 (2003). Academic Search Premier, via Galileo, edu Bibliographic form Yin, Sandra. "Color Bind." American Demographics 25, no. 7 (2003): Academic Search Premier, via Galileo, Newspaper article - no author Footnote form (first footnote) 1. Chicago Tribune, "Gun Injuries Take Financial Toll on Hospitals," sec. 1, February 24, Bibliographic form Chicago Tribune, "Gun Injuries Take Financial Toll on Hospitals," February 24, 1994.

17 Form for Additional Footnote References Use this form after the first complete reference if only one work by this author is used: 2. Kelly, 256. Use this form for additional references when more than one work by this author is used: 2. Kelly, "Double Vision," 81.

18 FOOTNOTE AND END-NOTE Footnote or end-note can be used for two different purposes: 1) To provide bibliographical information about the source of literature cited in the text (see the documentary-note style in Chicago Manual of Style) 2) To provide additional information related to the text to ensure smooth flows of ideas expressed in the text

19 Bibliography and Reference There are two main systems of documenting the sources of citations: Bibliography and Reference There are two main systems of documenting the sources of citations: Bibliography and Reference Bibliography includes all the sources reviewed by the author regardless of whether they are cited in the text or not. Bibliography includes all the sources reviewed by the author regardless of whether they are cited in the text or not. Reference only includes the sources reviewed by the author which are cited in the text. Reference only includes the sources reviewed by the author which are cited in the text.

20 VARIATIONS IN WRITING REFERENCE Different styles vary in the way references should be written in terms of Different styles vary in the way references should be written in terms of Names of authors Names of authors Year of publication Year of publication Order of bibliographical information Order of bibliographical information The use of capitals and italics The use of capitals and italics Abbreviations Abbreviations In general, there is a tendency to be more efficient and simpler In general, there is a tendency to be more efficient and simpler

21 Why Citing? To show any possible gaps or discrepancies between/among different research findings about the same topic so that it is clear how the present study contributes to the body of knowledge To show any possible gaps or discrepancies between/among different research findings about the same topic so that it is clear how the present study contributes to the body of knowledge To show the frontiers of the respective knowledge as a result of accumulative research findings (state of the arts) To show the frontiers of the respective knowledge as a result of accumulative research findings (state of the arts)

22 Why Citing? (2) Recognizing the existence of research studies which can be compared with the present study Recognizing the existence of research studies which can be compared with the present study To support ideas and arguments of the author To support ideas and arguments of the author To avoid unintentional plagiarism To avoid unintentional plagiarism

23 WHAT IS PLAGIARISM? Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. (Indiana University, 2004) Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. (Indiana University, 2004) The following is taken from Ministerial Decree on Plagiarism (no 17, 2010)

24 Plagiat meliputi tetapi tidak terbatas pada : mengacu dan/atau mengutip kata dan/atau kalimat dari suatu sumber tanpa menyebutkan sumber dalam catatan kutipan dan/atau tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai; mengacu dan/atau mengutip kata dan/atau kalimat dari suatu sumber tanpa menyebutkan sumber dalam catatan kutipan dan/atau tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai; mengacu dan/atau mengutip secara acak kata dan/atau kalimat dari suatu sumber tanpa menyebutkan sumber dalam catatan kutipan dan/atau tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai; mengacu dan/atau mengutip secara acak kata dan/atau kalimat dari suatu sumber tanpa menyebutkan sumber dalam catatan kutipan dan/atau tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai;

25 menggunakan sumber gagasan, pendapat, pandangan, atau teori tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai; menggunakan sumber gagasan, pendapat, pandangan, atau teori tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai; merumuskan dengan kata-kata dan/atau kalimat sendiri dari sumber kata dan/atau kalimat, gagasan, pendapat, pandangan, atau teori tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai; merumuskan dengan kata-kata dan/atau kalimat sendiri dari sumber kata dan/atau kalimat, gagasan, pendapat, pandangan, atau teori tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai; menyerahkan suatu karya ilmiah yang dihasilkan dan/atau telah dipublikasikan oleh pihak lain sebagai karya ilmiahnya tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai. menyerahkan suatu karya ilmiah yang dihasilkan dan/atau telah dipublikasikan oleh pihak lain sebagai karya ilmiahnya tanpa menyatakan sumber secara memadai.

26 HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM? GIVE CREDIT WHENEVER YOU USE another person’s idea, opinion, or theory; another person’s idea, opinion, or theory; any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings— any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge; any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings— any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge; quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words. (Indiana University, 2004) paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words. (Indiana University, 2004)

27 QUOTING Direct quoting as part of citation intended to provide original evidence in the forms of words, phrases, or sentences written by other author/s Direct quoting as part of citation intended to provide original evidence in the forms of words, phrases, or sentences written by other author/s There are two ways, depending on the length of the words quoted: (1) fewer than 40 words, or (2) 40 words or more There are two ways, depending on the length of the words quoted: (1) fewer than 40 words, or (2) 40 words or more

28 QUOTING (2) Incorporate a short quotation in a text and enclose the quotation in double quotation marks, if fewer than 40 words (fewer than 4 lines) Incorporate a short quotation in a text and enclose the quotation in double quotation marks, if fewer than 40 words (fewer than 4 lines) Display the quotation in a free-standing block of lines, without quotation marks, if 40 words or more (4 lines or more) Display the quotation in a free-standing block of lines, without quotation marks, if 40 words or more (4 lines or more)

29 HOW TO PREPARE DRAFTS Decide which journals your manuscripts will be sent. Decide which journals your manuscripts will be sent. Study the Guidelines for Authors in the journals (which may be attached at the end of each issue, or separately published) Study the Guidelines for Authors in the journals (which may be attached at the end of each issue, or separately published) Study also how the guidelines have been implemented in the published issues Study also how the guidelines have been implemented in the published issues

30 FOR NATIONALLY ACCREDITED JOURNALS Sources to be cited should include: Sources to be cited should include: Primary sources (=journal) >80% Primary sources (=journal) >80% Up-to-date (= published in the last 10 years) >80% Up-to-date (= published in the last 10 years) >80% Other than those are subject to the policy of the editors; different journals may have their own styles. Other than those are subject to the policy of the editors; different journals may have their own styles.

31 BIBLIOGRAPHY American Psychological Association Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th Ed.). Washington, D.C.: APA. Rifai, M.A Pegangan Gaya Penulisan, Penyuntingan, danPenerbitan: Karya Ilmiah Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Universitas Negeri Malang Pedoman Penulisan Karya Ilmiah. Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang Internet sources (see a separate sheet)

32 THANK YOU


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