Presentation on theme: "Wind Cube Construction & Blade Design Construction & Blade Design Simulation of The Project Simulation of The Project Results & Future Modification."— Presentation transcript:
Wind Cube Construction & Blade Design Construction & Blade Design Simulation of The Project Simulation of The Project Results & Future Modification Results & Future Modification
Introduction Renewable energy: is energy which comes from natural resourcesenergynatural resources Renewable energy can be used again and again, and will never run out About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity, New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuel) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly.biomass hydroelectricity
The types of renewable sources of energy :- 1- Hydropower Hydro-power is the capture of the energy of moving water to generate electric power.
2- Tidal power Is a form of hydropowerhydropower that converts the energy of tides to generate electricitytides 3- Solar energy:- A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV),solar cell is a device that converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. photoelectric effect
4- Biomass Biomass, as a renewable energyrenewable energy source source, is biological materialbiological material from living, or recently living organisms. 5- Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is thermal energythermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
6- Wind power Wind energy is energy collected from motion caused by heavy winds. wind blows and turn the motion of the propeller into energy that can be used in the electrical grid.
Advantages of wind power:- clean fuel source. don't produce atmospheric emissions relies on the renewable power of the wind lowest running priced renewable energy technologies can be built on farms or ranches where most of the best wind sites are found
Why Wind Cube ?? Can be installed and operational quickly Scalability (install one now and others later) Easier to maintain than large wind turbines (all components easily accessible) Unique design increases power generation Smaller footprint No land needed
Construction Main parts: up-frame Nozzle Generator chair:
The base: The base designed to bear the up-frame and the generator chair and also have the availability of rotation (as wind direction is variable).
blade design Types Of Blades : 1.Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines: are wind turbines whose axis of rotation is parallel to the ground. 2.Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines:. They have rotor blades that spin parallel to the ground 3. Savonius wind turbineSavonius wind turbine 4. Giromill:Giromill 5.Darrieus wind turbine :Darrieus wind turbine
Differences between VAWT & HAWT : Installation: Coefficient of wind power use : Theoretically proved that the coefficient of wind power use of ideal wind rotor (wheel) of any wind turbine (both HAWT and VAWT) is It can be explained by the fact that rotors of both turbine types use the same effect of lifting force appearing when the wind is flowing around the profiled blade. The maximum coefficient of wind energy use on HAWT has reached 0.4 recently. START OF OPERATING (SELF START)
DESIGN OF BLADE: SWEPT AREA ON THE UNIT OF BLADE LENGTH : is the area of circle made by rotating blade ends. HIGH-SPEED DEGREE: HAWTs, are the high-speed turbines (up to 5-7 modules), with less than 4 blades. Vertical Axis the high-speed didn’t increase 2.5 – 2.8 modules Maintenance: For the same reason as above, VAWTs are easier to maintain since most of them are installed near the ground. HAWTs should also be checked constantly so that it faces against the wind, unlike VAWTs which require less maintenance. Automatic yaw-adjustment mechanisms have eliminated this need of constant maintenance on HAWTs though
Advantages of vertical wind turbines Easier to maintain have a higher airfoil pitch angle, giving improved aerodynamics while decreasing drag at low and high pressures can be much easier to transport and install. Does not need a free standing tower Disadvantages of vertical wind turbines produce energy at only 50% of the efficiency of HAWTs installed on a relatively flat piece of land Most VAWTs have low starting torque.
Advantages of horizontal wind turbines stable. Ability to wing warp, which gives the turbine blades the best angle of attack. Ability to pitch the rotor blades in a storm, to minimize damage. Tall tower allows access to stronger Can be cheaper Disadvantages of horizontal wind turbines : --> difficulty operating in near ground difficult to transport on the sea and on land Increase In Turbine Price
Computational fluid dynamics Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flowsfluid mechanicsnumerical methodsalgorithms Background : 1- viscosity to yield the Euler equationsEuler equations 2- removing terms describing vorticity 3- linearized potential equations.linearized potential equations 4- Steady state Flow 5- incompressible
Advantages of CFD Relatively low cost. Speed. Ability to simulate real conditions CFD PROCESS: 1- Create Mesh 2-boundry conditions 3-solve equations 4-iteratation
CFD for a nozzle with three blades
CFD for a nozzle with 5 blades
Advantages of 5-blade wind turbines over 3-blade wind turbines: 1) greatly improve annual energy 2) safe in high speed 3) lower wind turbine noise
Effect of tunnel with nozzle
Generator Cooling System : 1- Air Cooling 2- Water Cooling Gearbox Increase rpm ---- (n1/n2)=(z2/z1) - with out gear box we can reduce initial cost, eliminate the gearbox reduces maintenance costs and enhances reliability as gearboxes are failure prone.
Results Measurement devices Wind speed & Direction devices : Cup Anemometer Digital Anemometer
RPM Measurement A sensor is to sense shaft speed and sends speed data in the form of pulses factors affect the quality of this data: 1. Number of pulses per revolution of the shaft Higher PPR values result in better resolution. 2. Symmetry of pulses. give more accurate data.
RPM Measurement Types Of Sensors shaft encoders (rotary pulse generators) - offer high resolution - (typically 1 to 5000 PPR) - symmetrical pulses. Proximity Sensors provide medium- or low-resolution sensing, depending on the number of pulses measured per revolution.
Photoelectric Sensors usually provide low resolution, due to the low number of pulses measured per revolution. Methods of Determining RPM Frequency measurement Period measurement
Volt & Ampere measurement device: Digital Multimeters Analog voltmeters
Power = 0.5 x Swept Area x Air Density x (Velocity)3 Where Power is given in Watts (i.e. joules/second), the Swept area in square meters, the Air density in kilograms per cubic meter, and the Velocity in meters per second. Betz' Law ( The theoretical maximum power efficiency ) : The rotors swept area = PI x (0.48/2)2 = m2 The air density = 1.23 kg/m3
Future modifications to achieve the optimum design 1.Control system: 2.Safety system must happen on steps, at the beginning the pitch control will rotate the blades to minimize the lift force, then the control system should rotate the whole mechanism (cube) in a direction away from the wind direction, Finally the brake will operate to stop the rotor.
3.Electric system: -> Blocking diode -> Battery -> Charge controller -> Dummy load -> Electric inverter 4. Nozzle on large scale
5. Adding scoop to the Tunnel The scoop improves the power output of the wind turbine by accelerating the airflow in the cylindrical section.
MOST EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGY WindTamer Use the diffuser to separates the air, creating two vacuums, vacuums pull the air through, turning the rotors faster and generating more power more than double the energy of conventional turbines. Advantages of the WindTamer : -->Clean energy -->Silent and vibration free -->Safe for birds — and people -->MINIMAL MAINTENANCE -->EASY ACCESS