Presentation on theme: "Prof Dr / Osama Ezzat Abd ElLatif"— Presentation transcript:
1Prof Dr / Osama Ezzat Abd ElLatif Benha UniversityShoubra Faculty of EngineeringWind Cube ProjectSupervised by :Prof Dr / Osama Ezzat Abd ElLatifAssistant Professor / Eng.AmgadExecutors :1.Mahmoud Hussein Mahmoud2.Eslam Mohamed Awad3.Mahmoud Khairy Elshafei
2Wind Cube Construction & Blade Design Simulation of The Project Results & Future Modification
3Introduction Renewable energy: is energy which comes from natural resourcesRenewable energy can be used again and again, and will never run outAbout 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable , with 10% coming from traditional biomass , and 3.4% from hydroelectricity , New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuel) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly.
5The types of renewable sources of energy :- 1- HydropowerHydro-power is the capture of the energy of moving water to generate electric power.
62- Tidal power 3- Solar energy:- Is a form of hydropower that converts the energyof tides to generate electricity3- Solar energy:-A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV),is a device that converts lightinto electric current usingthe photoelectric effect.
7Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is biological material from living, or recentlyliving organisms. 5- Geothermal energyGeothermal energy is thermal energygenerated and stored in the Earth.
86- Wind powerWind energy is energy collected from motion caused by heavy winds.wind blows and turn the motion of the propeller into energy that can be used in the electrical grid.
9Advantages of wind power:- clean fuel source.don't produce atmospheric emissionsrelies on the renewable power of the windlowest running priced renewable energy technologies can be built on farms or rancheswhere most of the best wind sites are found
10Why Wind Cube ?? Can be installed and operational quickly Scalability (install one now and others later)Easier to maintain than large wind turbines (all components easily accessible)Unique design increases power generationSmaller footprint No land needed
12The base:The base designed to bear the up-frame and the generator chair and also have the availability of rotation (as wind direction is variable).
13blade design Types Of Blades : 3. Savonius wind turbine 1.Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines:are wind turbines whose axisof rotation is parallel to the ground. 2.Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines:. They have rotor blades thatspin parallel to the ground 3. Savonius wind turbine 4. Giromill: 5.Darrieus wind turbine :
14Differences between VAWT & HAWT : Installation: Coefficient of wind power use :Theoretically proved that the coefficient of wind power use of ideal wind rotor (wheel) of any wind turbine (both HAWT and VAWT) is It can be explained by the fact that rotors of both turbine types use the same effect of lifting force appearing when the wind is flowing around the profiled blade. The maximum coefficient of wind energy use on HAWT has reached 0.4 recently. START OF OPERATING (SELF START)
15DESIGN OF BLADE: SWEPT AREA ON THE UNIT OF BLADE LENGTH : is the area of circle made by rotating blade ends. HIGH-SPEED DEGREE:HAWTs, are the high-speed turbines (up to 5-7 modules), with less than 4 blades. Vertical Axisthe high-speed didn’t increase 2.5 – 2.8 modules Maintenance:For the same reason as above, VAWTs are easier to maintain since most of them are installed near the ground.HAWTs should also be checked constantly so that it faces against the wind, unlike VAWTs which require less maintenance. Automatic yaw-adjustment mechanisms have eliminated this need of constant maintenance on HAWTs though
16Advantages of vertical wind turbines Easier to maintain have a higher airfoil pitch angle, giving improved aerodynamics while decreasing drag at low and high pressures can be much easier to transport and install. Does not need a free standing towerDisadvantages of vertical wind turbines produce energy at only 50% of the efficiency of HAWTs installed on a relatively flat piece of land Most VAWTs have low starting torque.
17Advantages of horizontal wind turbines stable. Ability to wing warp, which gives the turbine blades the best angle of attack. Ability to pitch the rotor blades in a storm, to minimize damage. Tall tower allows access to stronger Can be cheaperDisadvantages of horizontal wind turbines :--> difficulty operating in near ground difficult to transport on the sea and on land Increase In Turbine Price
21Computational fluid dynamics Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flowsBackground :1- viscosity to yield the Euler equations2- removing terms describing vorticity3- linearized potential equations.4- Steady state Flow5- incompressible
33Generator Cooling System : 1- Air Cooling2- Water CoolingGearboxIncrease rpm (n1/n2)=(z2/z1)- with out gear box we can reduceinitial cost, eliminate the gearbox reduces maintenance costs and enhances reliability as gearboxes are failure prone.
34Results Measurement devices Wind speed & Direction devices : Cup Anemometer Digital Anemometer
35RPM Measurement A sensor is to sense shaft speed and sends speed data in the form of pulsesfactors affect the quality of this data: 1. Number of pulses per revolution of the shaftHigher PPR values result in better resolution. 2. Symmetry of pulses. give more accurate data.
36RPM Measurement Types Of Sensors shaft encoders (rotary pulse generators)- offer high resolution- (typically 1 to 5000 PPR)- symmetrical pulses. Proximity Sensorsprovide medium- or low-resolution sensing,depending onthe number of pulses measured per revolution.
37usually provide low resolution, Photoelectric Sensorsusually provide low resolution,due to the low number of pulsesmeasured per revolution.Methods of Determining RPM Frequency measurementPeriod measurement
38Volt & Ampere measurement device: Digital Multimeters Analog voltmeters
40Betz' Law (The theoretical maximum power efficiency ) : Power = 0.5 x Swept Area x Air Density x (Velocity)3Where Power is given in Watts (i.e. joules/second), the Swept area in square meters, the Air density in kilograms per cubic meter, and the Velocity in meters per second.Betz' Law (The theoretical maximum power efficiency ) :The rotors swept area = PI x (0.48/2)2 = m2The air density = 1.23 kg/m3
42to achieve the optimum design Future modificationsto achieve the optimum design1.Control system:2.Safety systemmust happen on steps,at the beginning the pitch controlwill rotate the blades tominimize the lift force,then the control system should rotatethe whole mechanism (cube)in a direction away from the winddirection, Finally the brakewill operate to stop the rotor.
433.Electric system: 4. Nozzle on large scale -> Blocking diode -> Battery-> Charge controller-> Dummy load-> Electric inverter4. Nozzle on large scale
445. Adding scoop to the Tunnel The scoop improves the power output of the wind turbine by accelerating the airflow in the cylindrical section.
46MOST EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGY WindTamerUse the diffuser to separates the air,creating two vacuums,vacuums pull the air through,turning the rotors faster andgenerating more power more than doublethe energy of conventional turbines.Advantages of the WindTamer :-->Clean energy-->Silent and vibration free-->Safe for birds — and people-->MINIMAL MAINTENANCE-->EASY ACCESS