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Prof Dr / Osama Ezzat Abd ElLatif

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1 Prof Dr / Osama Ezzat Abd ElLatif
Benha University Shoubra Faculty of Engineering Wind Cube Project Supervised by : Prof Dr / Osama Ezzat Abd ElLatif Assistant Professor / Eng.Amgad Executors : 1.Mahmoud Hussein Mahmoud 2.Eslam Mohamed Awad 3.Mahmoud Khairy Elshafei

2 Wind Cube  Construction & Blade Design  Simulation of The Project
 Results & Future Modification

3 Introduction Renewable energy:
is energy which comes from natural resources Renewable energy can be used again and again, and will never run out About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable , with 10% coming from traditional biomass , and 3.4% from hydroelectricity , New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuel) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly.


5 The types of renewable sources of energy :-
1- Hydropower Hydro-power is the capture of the energy of moving water to generate electric power.

6 2- Tidal power 3- Solar energy:- Is a form of hydropower
 that converts the energy of tides to generate electricity 3- Solar energy:- A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. 

7 Biomass, as a renewable energy
source, is biological material  from living, or recently living organisms.  5- Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.

8 6- Wind power Wind energy is energy collected from motion caused by heavy winds. wind blows and turn the motion of the propeller into energy that can be used in the electrical grid.

9 Advantages of wind power:-
clean fuel source. don't produce atmospheric emissions relies on the renewable power of the wind lowest running priced renewable energy technologies  can be built on farms or ranches where most of the best wind sites are found

10 Why Wind Cube ?? Can be installed and operational quickly
Scalability (install one now and others later) Easier to maintain than large wind turbines (all components easily accessible) Unique design increases power generation Smaller footprint  No land needed

11 Construction Main parts:  up-frame Nozzle  Generator chair:

12 The base: The base designed to bear the up-frame and the generator chair and also have the availability of rotation (as wind direction is variable).

13 blade design Types Of Blades :  3. Savonius wind turbine
 1.Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines: are wind turbines whose axis of rotation is parallel to the ground.  2.Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines: . They have rotor blades that spin parallel to the ground  3. Savonius wind turbine  4. Giromill:  5.Darrieus wind turbine :

14 Differences between VAWT & HAWT :  Installation:
 Coefficient of wind power use : Theoretically proved that the coefficient of wind power use of ideal wind rotor (wheel) of any wind turbine (both HAWT and VAWT) is It can be explained by the fact that rotors of both turbine types use the same effect of lifting force appearing when the wind is flowing around the profiled blade. The maximum coefficient of wind energy use on HAWT has reached 0.4 recently.   START OF OPERATING (SELF START)

is the area of circle made by rotating blade ends.  HIGH-SPEED DEGREE: HAWTs, are the high-speed turbines (up to 5-7 modules), with less than 4 blades.  Vertical Axis the high-speed didn’t increase 2.5 – 2.8 modules  Maintenance: For the same reason as above, VAWTs are easier to maintain since most of them are installed near the ground. HAWTs should also be checked constantly so that it faces against the wind, unlike VAWTs which require less maintenance. Automatic yaw-adjustment mechanisms have eliminated this need of constant maintenance on HAWTs though

16 Advantages of vertical wind turbines
Easier to maintain  have a higher airfoil pitch angle, giving improved aerodynamics while decreasing drag at low and high pressures  can be much easier to transport and install.   Does not need a free standing tower Disadvantages of vertical wind turbines  produce energy at only 50% of the efficiency of HAWTs  installed on a relatively flat piece of land  Most VAWTs have low starting torque. 

17 Advantages of horizontal wind turbines
 stable.  Ability to wing warp, which gives the turbine blades the best angle of attack.  Ability to pitch the rotor blades in a storm, to minimize damage.  Tall tower allows access to stronger  Can be cheaper Disadvantages of horizontal wind turbines : --> difficulty operating in near ground  difficult to transport on the sea and on land  Increase In Turbine Price




21 Computational fluid dynamics
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows Background : 1- viscosity to yield the Euler equations 2- removing terms describing vorticity 3- linearized potential equations. 4- Steady state Flow 5- incompressible

22 Applications:  AutoMotive
 Turbo Machinery Aerospace Air Foils.

23 Advantages of CFD Relatively low cost. Speed. Ability to simulate real conditions CFD PROCESS: 1- Create Mesh 2-boundry conditions 3-solve equations 4-iteratation


25 CFD for a nozzle with three blades


27 CFD for a nozzle with 5 blades


29 Advantages of 5-blade wind turbines over 3-blade wind turbines:
1) greatly improve annual energy 2) safe in high speed 3) lower wind turbine noise

30 Effect of tunnel with nozzle


32 Generator Choosing

33 Generator Cooling System :
1- Air Cooling 2- Water Cooling Gearbox Increase rpm  (n1/n2)=(z2/z1) - with out gear box we can reduce initial cost, eliminate the gearbox reduces maintenance costs and enhances reliability as gearboxes are failure prone.

34 Results Measurement devices Wind speed & Direction devices :
Cup Anemometer Digital Anemometer

35 RPM Measurement A sensor
is to sense shaft speed and sends speed data in the form of pulses factors affect the quality of this data:  1. Number of pulses per revolution of the shaft Higher PPR values result in better resolution.  2. Symmetry of pulses.  give more accurate data.

36 RPM Measurement Types Of Sensors
 shaft encoders (rotary pulse generators) - offer high resolution - (typically 1 to 5000 PPR) - symmetrical pulses.  Proximity Sensors provide medium- or low-resolution sensing, depending on the number of pulses measured per revolution.

37 usually provide low resolution,
 Photoelectric Sensors usually provide low resolution, due to the low number of pulses measured per revolution. Methods of Determining RPM  Frequency measurement Period measurement

38 Volt & Ampere measurement device:
Digital Multimeters Analog voltmeters

39 Results

40 Betz' Law (The theoretical maximum power efficiency ) :
Power = 0.5 x Swept Area x Air Density x (Velocity)3 Where Power is given in Watts (i.e. joules/second), the Swept area in square meters, the Air density in kilograms per cubic meter, and the Velocity in meters per second. Betz' Law (The theoretical maximum power efficiency ) : The rotors swept area = PI x (0.48/2)2 = m2 The air density = 1.23 kg/m3


42 to achieve the optimum design
Future modifications to achieve the optimum design 1.Control system: 2.Safety system must happen on steps, at the beginning the pitch control will rotate the blades to minimize the lift force, then the control system should rotate the whole mechanism (cube) in a direction away from the wind direction, Finally the brake will operate to stop the rotor.

43 3.Electric system: 4. Nozzle on large scale -> Blocking diode
-> Battery -> Charge controller -> Dummy load -> Electric inverter 4. Nozzle on large scale

44 5. Adding scoop to the Tunnel
The scoop improves the power output of the wind turbine by accelerating the airflow in the cylindrical section.


WindTamer Use the diffuser to separates the air, creating two vacuums, vacuums pull the air through, turning the rotors faster and generating more power more than double the energy of conventional turbines. Advantages of the WindTamer : -->Clean energy -->Silent and vibration free -->Safe for birds — and people -->MINIMAL MAINTENANCE -->EASY ACCESS

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