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Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1 H2 & Fuel Cell System Technology at Airbus 26 Sept 08 Prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1 H2 & Fuel Cell System Technology at Airbus 26 Sept 08 Prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1 H2 & Fuel Cell System Technology at Airbus 26 Sept 08 Prepared by Alain Chevalier Head of Policy & Development Powerplant CoC Marc Maurel Head of Powerplant & Environment R&T Airbus Research Directorate

2 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 2 Agenda Airbus Vision : Greener Aircraft Air Traffic Growth Oil Price per Barrel The Cost Increase in Energy Resource Alternative Fuels : A Necessity Alternative Fuel Road Map H2 & LNG Technologies : History Outcome of EC Cryoplane Project Fuel Cells Systems at Airbus : Motivation The Fuel Cell System Functional Principle Airbus Fuel Cell System Stepwise Strategy Benefits from Multi-Functional Fuel Cell Application Low Emission System : Fully Integrated Fuel Cells Airbus Fuel Cell Emergency Power System Other Applications : H2 Injection into Engines Other Applications : FCS Architecture Studies Conclusion

3 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 3 Airbus Vision – Greener Aircraft EADS CEO Louis Gallois at Airbus ISO14001 Certification in Paris, 14 June 2007: 'We have to increase our efforts in other research areas… Airbus has accumulated significant experience in hydrogen technology... We also need to consider fuel cell technology to power ground operations at airports. Eliminating CO2 emissions on the ground is a concrete vision I have and I believe there is huge potential. We can’t afford to miss a single opportunity.’ BDLI Technologieforum mit Airbus CEO Dr. Thomas Enders am 11. Oktober 2007 in Berlin: „.. Wir wollen unsere Flugzeuge noch sauberer, noch sparsamer, noch leiser machen und damit natürlich auch unsere Chancen am Markt erhöhen...Wir werden die Öko-Effizienz unserer Produkte zu einem bestimmenden Maßstab machen, an dem wir unsere Forschung messen.“ The four ACARE GOALS 2020 for the Environment: - To reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 50% - To reduce perceived external noise by 50% - To reduce NOX by 80% - To make substantial progress in reducing the environmental impact of the manufacture, maintenance and disposal of aircraft and related products.

4 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. June 2008Alternative Fuels For Aircraft - Presentation to JMT - EEDR - Ref. X71PR0809987 - Issue 1Page 4 1st Gulf War Terrorist attacks against US What will be the future with oil crisis ? RPK : Revenue Passenger Kilometres Air Traffic Growth

5 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. June 2008Alternative Fuels For Aircraft - Presentation to JMT - EEDR - Ref. X71PR0809987 - Issue 1Page 5 Oil Price per Barrel Kerosine cost approx. 1.5 * Crude Oil cost Source : NYMEX (New York Mercantile Exchange

6 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. June 2008Alternative Fuels For Aircraft - Presentation to JMT - EEDR - Ref. X71PR0809987 - Issue 1Page 6 Unavoidable due to  Crude Oil price increase  Expected CO 2 Tax from the European Trading Scheme  Expected cost for CO 2 Capture & Sequestration during the synthetic kerosine production process Assuming that:  3,5 Tons CO 2 / 1 Ton kerosine  1 Ton kerosine = 1,5 x 1 T crude oil The Cost Increase In Energy Resource

7 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. June 2008Alternative Fuels For Aircraft - Presentation to JMT - EEDR - Ref. X71PR0809987 - Issue 1Page 7 US $ ~150 (7/08) Alternative Fuels : A Necessity

8 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 8

9 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 9 LH 2 et LNG Technologies : History European Project CryoPlane (2000-2002) led by Airbus USA : modified B59 (1956) Russia : NK-88 Engine onto Tu-155, in 1988-1989

10 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 10 Outcome of EC « CryoPlane » Project (1/2) Technologies to be developed  LH 2 Tanks  Metrology/probes, pipes, valves and seals and associated life time in aeronautics  Systems Open questions  Pumps cavitation phenomena at idle  Engines transient behaviour  Icing  Power Systems Architecture (Fuel Cells ?) Consequences at A/C level (eg for 4000 NM)  Empty Weight +25%  Drag +10%  MTOW 0 (LH 2 ) to +10% (LNG)

11 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 11 Increase of Operational costs and for 4000 NM LH 2 at 5$/kg LH 2 at 2$/kg LNG at 1,6$/kg LNG at 1$/kg 1$/gal. > +100 %  +25 % 2$/gal.  +15 %  +5 % Reference Peak situation Outcome of EC « CryoPlane » Project (2/2)

12 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 12 Fuel Cells System at Airbus : Motivation Fuel cell technology offers a chance to approach these goals:  enhanced energy efficiency  emission free ground operation  emission reduction during whole flight cycle  additional synergy benefits through fuel cell by- products (inert gas, water)

13 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 13 The Fuel Cell System Functional Principle GAS GAS GAS GAS GAS GAS GAS GAS WATERWATERWATERWATER WATERWATERWATERWATER HEATHEAT ELECTRICITYELECTRICITY H2H2 AIRAIRAIRAIR AIRAIRAIRAIR Fuel Cell Operation: Continuous change of chemical energy (hydrogen and oxygen) directly into electrical energy and heat without combustion Oxygen Depleted Air Hydrogen + Oxygen >> Electrical power + Water + Heat H2 FROM REFORMER OR H2 CRYOGENIC ADDITIONAL TANK FUEL CELL SYSTEM

14 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 14

15 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 15

16 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 16 Low Emission System : Fully Integrated Fuel Cells Emergency Power Fuel Tank inerting system Auxiliary Power Batteries Ground Support Equipment Water Refilling Truck No pollutants : (HC, NOx, CO, SO2) Less noise Fuel and CO 2 : Reduced fuel burn = lower CO 2 emissions Hydrogen supplied fuel cell Fuel cell technology will initiate a step change in aircraft systems architecture

17 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 17 Airbus Fuel Cell Emergency Power System First time ever: Hamburg, 27 July 2007: Successful first flight test performed Toulouse, 15 February 2008: Flight controls powered by fuel cell in flight Hydrogen supplied fuel cell system operation on-board of commercial aircraft Hydrogen supplied fuel cell system integrated into electric and hydraulic network

18 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 18 Other Applications : H2 Injection into Engines (1/3) Current DPAC Project (2008 –2009) in partnership with SAFRAN (SNECMA Moteur) Main principle:  Hydrogen accelerates the combustion kinetics of kerosene in air Concept:  Injection of a small amount of gaseous Hydrogen only during idle modes (roughly 6 g/s H2 for an A30X SNECMA engine)  Reduction of combustor volume for given emission rates at idle and relight envelope  Lower production rate of NOx at full power Beneficial Impact on emissions expected

19 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 19 Other Applications : H2 Injection into Engines (2/3) Supporting SNECMA Laboratory tests

20 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 20 SN first laboratory test results confirm NOx emissions benefit prediction Preliminary assessment of benefit at Aircraft level performed by Airbus but needs to be consolidated when NOx benefits at A/C level will be provided by SNECMA but Fuel Burn impact not negligible Additional risk assessment needed to clear H2 piping installation (burst zones, condensation…) Other Applications : H2 Injection into Engines (3/3)

21 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. June 2008Alternative Fuels For Aircraft - Presentation to JMT - EEDR - Ref. X71PR0809987 - Issue 1Page 21  ARCHIPAC : (Any) Fuel Reforming Technology Development for Fuel Cells –Frame : Partnership with NGH-Y & “Ecole des Mines d’Albi” (2006- 2007)  GAPPAC : FCS coupled with a small turbo machinery for Armoured Vehicle APU application (25 KW). Architectures studies and demonstrator –Frame : French ANR Project “PAN-H 2006” (2006-2009) Partnership : NGH-Y, Renault, GIAT (leader),… Other Applications : FCS Architectures Studies

22 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 22 To enable emission free operation of a fuel cell H2 is required on board of the A/C: -Gaseous H2 for small fuel cell systems -Liquid H2 for larger applications for fuel cells Therefore Airbus is interested in the following: -Hydrogen Storage technology for A/C application (gaseous & liquid) -Hydrogen infrastructure development -Hydrogen price development expectations -Environmentally friendly production technologies for H2 -Reforming technologies -Safety aspects Airbus needs Partnership ! Conclusion (2/2)

23 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 23 Conclusion (2/2) Airbus is fully committed to the fuel cell technology and its multiple application to achieve the ACARE 2020 goals First successful demonstration of the technology achieved! The integration of fuel cell technology in A/C will bring more improvements........ Airbus welcomes your questions!

24 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 24 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Tous droits réservés. Document confidentiel. Ce document et son contenu sont la propriété d’AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Aucun droit de propriété intellectuelle n’est accordé par la communication du présent document ou son contenu. Ce document ne doit pas être reproduit ou communiqué à un tiers sans l’autorisation expresse et écrite d’AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. Ce document et son contenu ne doivent pas être utilisés à d’autres fins que celles qui sont autorisées. Les déclarations faites dans ce document ne constituent pas une offre commerciale. Elles sont basées sur les postulats indiqués et sont exprimées de bonne foi. Si les motifs de ces déclarations n’étaient pas démontrés, AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S serait prêt à en expliquer les fondements. AIRBUS, son logo, A300, A310, A318, A319, A320, A321, A330, A340, A350, A380 et A400M sont des marques déposées.

25 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 25 Back-up materials

26 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 26

27 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 27 Reforming (continuation)  Mature reforming processes in a short term (continuation) –The Non-Catalytic Auto-Thermal Reforming at high temperature (N-GHY patented Process) H 2 less concentrated than in the SR case Therefore, lower utilization rate in the fuel cell than in the SR case Less adapted to work under pressure (compressor needed for the AIR) NON Catalytic therefore INSENSIBLE to sulphur Choices of each component based on technological survey and preliminary calculations Carburant AIR Carburant + EAU H 2 + CO + N2 + H2O + CO2 1400°C

28 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 28 Networks ALPHEA-H2 (*) –Created in 1986 and supported since 1996 by a “Pôle de Compétences” in Lorraine/ Forbach Realise H2 technological & economical survey Develop Industries & government/lands interest for H2 Make studies & expertises around H2 area 19 Members, 2 Associates & 25 Partners

29 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 29 Fuel Cells & Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Industry Workshops October 13, Brussels, Autoworld Museum. 14-15 October Launch of the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform Airbus involvement through EADS-IW

30 © AIRBUS FRANCE S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Research - H2 & Fuel Cells System Technology at Airbus - ETB - Ref. X71PR0813077 - Issue 1Page 30 Overview By-Products Fuel Cell System 180-200°C 330 kW el 410 kW th Hydrogen Supply 160 -180°C 22 kg/h 0,3 m 3 /h Cabin Air Supply 160 -180°C 1551 kg/h 1980 m 3 /h N 2 79% O 2 20% Moist Air Exhaust 180 -200°C N 2 72% O 2 10% H 2 0 17% Condenser Water System 30°C 165 l/h High Purity Dry Air Exhaust 30°C N 2 87% O 2 10% H 2 0 2% KEROSENE TANK INERTING With Dry Air Exhaust KEROSENE TANK INERTING With Dry Air Exhaust WING ANTI ICING With Moist Air Exhaust WING ANTI ICING With Moist Air Exhaust CARGO BAY INERTING With Dry Air Exhaust IN CASE OF NO INERTISATION FIRE EXTINGUISHING Cooling & Compression of Moist Air Exhaust Use e.g. Cargo Bay X (Available: 6840 kg/h) ( 2-3x the demand @ 66%)


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