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Lesson 12: Kernel-mode Thread Sync (aka: Why I love Gentoo)

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1 Lesson 12: Kernel-mode Thread Sync (aka: Why I love Gentoo)
Win32 Programming Lesson 12: Kernel-mode Thread Sync (aka: Why I love Gentoo)

2 Where are we? Yay! We can communicate between threads
But, we’ve only talked about doing this in User-mode until now Sometimes, you need to go kernel-mode Why should we avoid this?

3 Limitations Interlocked functions never put the thread in a WAIT state
Critical Sections only work within a particular process – don’t work between processes But… kernel-objects take a lot of effort… and I do mean a lot

4 Signaled/Non-signaled Objects
Can use almost any kernel object as a method of thread synchronization Each object can be in a signaled or non-signaled state State change is controlled by what type of object it is Can put a thread in a wait state and wait for a signaling event

5 Signaling Powerful, as you can make sure you don’t execute until a particular event happens Thread puts itself into the WAIT state and won’t be scheduled until the object is signaled

6 Wait Functions Voluntarily go into a WAIT state until OBJECT is signaled WaitForSingleObject( HANDLE hObject, DWORD dwMilliseconds); Can use INFINITE E.g. WaitForSingleObject(hProcess, INFINITE) Waits forever until a process exits

7 Example DWORD dw = WaitForSingleObject(hProcess, 5000); switch (dw) {    case WAIT_OBJECT_0:       // The process terminated.       break;    case WAIT_TIMEOUT:       // The process did not terminate within 5000 milliseconds.       break;    case WAIT_FAILED:       // Bad call to function (invalid handle?)       break; }

8 Multiple Objects… DWORD WaitForMultipleObjects(    DWORD dwCount,     CONST HANDLE* phObjects,    BOOL fWaitAll,    DWORD dwMilliseconds);  phObject points to an array of Objects Wait until one gets signaled or wait for all

9 Oops WaitForMultipleObjects works atomically
So, if two threads are waiting on the same objects what happens?

10 Event Kernel Objects Most basic of objects
Two kinds: manual (reset all waiting threads) and auto (reset only one waiting thread) HANDLE CreateEvent(    PSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES psa,    BOOL fManualReset,    BOOL fInitialState,    PCTSTR pszName);

11 Example Look at the Event example in the book…
Then let’s look at the next one…

12 Waitable Timer Kernel Objects
Used when you want to pause for a period of time (or regular intervals) Easy to create: HANDLE CreateWaitableTimer(    PSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES psa,    BOOL fManualReset,    PCTSTR pszName);

13 Setting the Timer… BOOL SetWaitableTimer(    HANDLE hTimer,    const LARGE_INTEGER *pDueTime,    LONG lPeriod,    PTIMERAPCROUTINE pfnCompletionRoutine,      PVOID pvArgToCompletionRoutine,      BOOL fResume );

14 Semaphore Kernel Objects
Used for Resource counting Contains Maximum resource count Current resource count Consider Server which can only handle 5 connections Need to keep track of how many connections are open

15 Creating a Semaphore Fairly simple:
HANDLE CreateSemaphore(    PSECURITY_ATTRIBUTE psa,    LONG lInitialCount,     LONG lMaximumCount,     PCTSTR pszName ); Examples are a little tricky – look this up in the book…

16 MutEx Lets a thread have mutually-exclusive access to a particular resource HANDLE CreateMutex(    PSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES psa,    BOOL fInitialOwner,    PCTSTR pszName); BOOL ReleaseMutex(HANDLE hMutex);

17 MutEx v. Critical Section

18 Other Thread Sync Functions
DWORD WaitForInputIdle(    HANDLE hProcess,    DWORD dwMilliseconds); Suspend yourself until hProcess has no input to deal with Can be used (sneakily) to feed messages into another process… *hehe*

19 SignalObjectAndWait Signal a kernel object and wait on another kernel object DWORD SignalObjectAndWait(    HANDLE hObjectToSignal,     HANDLE hObjectToWaitOn,    DWORD dwMilliseconds,    BOOL fAlertable);

20 Assignment Create a simple console application which calculates the prime factors of a given 32-bit unsigned int You should prompt for input from the console window and the command line However… you may use a maximum of 3 threads in your program, so you can be working out the answers in parallel Output for 8 should be 2\n2\n2\n And the entry/answer thread must always remain responsive Output must be printed VERTICALLY… if there’s more than 10 lines, you should pause and wait for keyboard input At no point when both threads are waiting to output should you be using CPU time – everything should be in the WAIT state 

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