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Aleksandr A. Gerasimenko 1, Brent Millare 1, Duoduo Bao 1, M. Khalid Ashraf 2, Roger Lake 2 and Valentine I. Vullev 1 1 Department of Bioengineering, University.

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Presentation on theme: "Aleksandr A. Gerasimenko 1, Brent Millare 1, Duoduo Bao 1, M. Khalid Ashraf 2, Roger Lake 2 and Valentine I. Vullev 1 1 Department of Bioengineering, University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aleksandr A. Gerasimenko 1, Brent Millare 1, Duoduo Bao 1, M. Khalid Ashraf 2, Roger Lake 2 and Valentine I. Vullev 1 1 Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside, CA Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside Intrinsic Dipole Moment Measurement of Bioinspired Macromolecules

2  Introduction: Photovoltaics and α -Helices  Project  Method: Confirmation  Experimental  Data/Results  Conclusion and Future Direction  References and Acknowledgments Outline

3  Photoelectric effect--Photoexcitation occurs when light energy is equal to the band gap  Single-junction and multi-junction cells  Charge recombination results in significant loss of power  Energy of electron is lost as heat and energy level falls  Recombination result in low cost-efficiency Background: Photovoltaic Cells

4  Polypeptide α -helices have a relatively large intrinsic dipole moment (i.e. ~4-5 Debye per residue).  This large dipole moment generates local electric fields of the order of 1GV/m. Charge transfer and charge transport through polypeptide α− helices manifest rectification that is ascribed to the intrinsic dipole moment of the macromolecular scaffolds. [1-4] Background: Polypeptide α- Helices

5 Bioinspired Electret Application

6 We plan to engineer bioinspired macromolecular electrets—molecules with large intrinsic dipole moments—and integrate them into nanometer-thick layers for charge-transfer rectification. Project The investigation will concentrate on oligo- ortho-arylamides, a class of macromolecules shown by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to possess large dipole moments. [5-8]

7 Dipole Moment Measurement

8  Need to measure the dipole moment measurement of the oligo-ortho-arylamide.  Triangular waveform  Capacitor cell  Calibration  Density Measurements Method: Dipole Measurement Debye Equation Hedestrand Equation Densitometer Capacitor, Oscilloscope

9  Calibration curve was created Method: Confirmation Electrode Height/Wave Height Compoundε100µm200µm400µm Hexane Hexadecane CCl Benzene p-Xylene Toluene Chloroform Dichloromethane Dielectric Constant Calibration

10  For a series of solutions, the dielectric constants ( ε s ) and densities ( ρ s ) of the solutions can be described as linear functions of the mole fraction of solute (X 2 ). Method: Confirmation α = b = Experimental Dipole = 5.17 D Actual Value = 4.18 D [9] Reasonable Error 23.6% Dielectric MeasurementsDensity Measurements

11 Synthesis of N2-hexanoylanthranylamide.  Combine 2-Aminobenzamide, 4-Dimethylaminopyridine and Dimethylformamide (DMF) in a 1:1.2:5 ratio, respectively, until dissolved.  Slowly add n-Caproyl Chloride in a 1:5 ratio with the reactant in an ice bath.  Let the reaction take place under argon conditions at room temperature. Compound Synthesis

12 Compound Confirmation H-NMR Spectrum of N2-hexanoylanthranylamide.

13  N2-hexanoylanthranylamide in Benzene  The optimal electrode height was found to be at 100µm.  Due to low Permittivity of Benzene Data

14  N2-hexanoylanthranylamide in Benzene dipole moment Data Dielectric MeasurementsDensity Measurements α = b = Experimental Dipole Moment = D

15  Confirmation experiment shows good agreement between experimental and theoretical values for the dipole moment of Benzonitrile.  Serves to validate method for determining the dipole moment.  Compound was synthesized and structure confirmed via H-NMR spectroscopy.  The experimental value for the dipole moment of N2- hexanoylanthranylamide did not agree strongly with theoretical values.  More experiments must be performed to determine where errors are being made. Conclusion

16  Optimization of experiment to produce more accurate and more precise results.  Possible densitometer upgrades, and the purchase of a refractometer.  Optimization of compound (i.e. larger dipole moment) by addition of doping groups  Applying molecules into electret layers for application in solar cells. Will provide charge transfer rectification and virtually 100% charge transfer quantum yield. Future Direction

17 1. Galoppini, E. and Fox, M. A., "Effect of the Electric Field Generated by the Helix Dipole on Photoinduced Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Dichromophoric.alpha.-Helical Peptides," Journal of the American Chemical Society 118, (1996). 2. Knorr, A., Galoppini, E. and Fox, M. A., "Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in dichromophore-appended.alpha.-helical peptides: spectroscopic properties and preferred conformations," Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 10, (1997). 3. Morita, T., Kimura, S., Kobayashi, S. and Imanishi, Y., "Photocurrent Generation under a Large Dipole Moment Formed by Self-Assembled Monolayers of Helical Peptides Having an N-Ethylcarbazolyl Group," Journal of the American Chemical Society 122, (2000). 4. Yasutomi, S., Morita, T., Imanishi, Y. and Kimura, S., "A Molecular Photodiode System That Can Switch Photocurrent Direction," Science 304, (2004). 5. Sessler, G. M., "Physical principles of electrets," Topics in Applied Physics 33, (1980). 6. Gerhard-Multhaupt, R., Gross, B. and Sessler, G. M., "Recent progress in electret research," Topics in Applied Physics 33, (1987). 7. Bauer, S., Bauer-Gogonea, S., Dansachmuller, M., Graz, I., Leonhartsberger, H., Salhofer, H. and Schwoediauer, R., "Modern electrets," Proceedings - IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, (2003). 8. Goel, M., "Electret sensors, filters and MEMS devices: new challenges in materials research," Current Science 85, (2003). 9. Lide, D. R. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (73rd Edition). Boca Raton, FL: CRC References

18 I would like to thank the NSF and the UCR Brite programs for allowing me to undergo this REU program. Additionally, I would like to deeply and sincerely thank my lab group for this amazing opportunity to learn. Many thanks to: Duoduo bao Brent Millare Dr. Vullev Jun Wang Acknowledgments

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