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Luiz Cheim, Lan Lin - IEEE Fall Meeting - Milwaukee 10/23/2012 IEEE C Revision (Nov 2011) TF Database Analysis TF Database Analysis Luiz Cheim and Lan Lin ABB Inc.

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Building the Database + HQ = 521,700 records

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Transformers Age Groups

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Transformers Power Ratings

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Transformers Voltage Classes

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Transformers Oil Preservation Type

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Reason for DGA

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Percentiles of Hydrocarbons (all data) % ppm

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Percentiles of CO,CO2 and TDCG (all data) % ppm

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Percentiles of H2, C2H2 and CO vs. Age Groups % ppm

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Percentiles of H2, C2H2 and CO vs. Voltage Class % ppm

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Percentiles of H2, C2H2 and CO vs. Power Ratings % ppm

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Percentiles of H2, C2H2 and CO vs. Source of Data % ppm

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Percentiles of All Gases (Suspicious Units) % ppm

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Percentiles of H2, C2H2 and CO vs. Power Ratings (Suspicious Units) % ppm

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Percentiles of H2, C2H2 and CO vs. Voltage Class (Suspicious Units) % ppm

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Percentiles of H2, C2H2 and CO vs. Oil Preservation % ppm

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Annual Rate of Gas Formation (ppm/year) Percentiles of All Gases % ppm

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After that… 1. HQ Data incorporated 2. Discussed unknown oil preservation system 3. Question of Rate of Gas Formation vs Levels

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Montreal Meeting (May 2o12) Revisited Percentiles with Following Condition: O2/ (N2 + O2) 70,000 => N2 Blanket 5 – 15% Membrane/Rubber Bag > 15% Open Breather

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Legend (next slides) IEEECondition 1 Limit CigreTypical Value (Brochure SCD1.32, 2010) AFMoArc Furnace, 90th Percentile (mineral oil) AFSiArc Furnace, 90th Percentile (Silicon oil)

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H2 – All Data IEEE AFMo AFSi Cigre

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CH4 – All Data IEEE AFMo AFSi Cigre

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C2H2 – All Data IEEE AFMo AFSi Cigre

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C2H4 – All Data IEEE AFMo AFSi Cigre

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C2H6 – All Data IEEE AFMo AFSi Cigre

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CO – All Data IEEE AFMo AFSi = 1936 Cigre

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CO2 – All Data IEEE AFMo AFSi = 25,387 Cigre

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TDCG – All Data IEEE AFMo AFSi = 2,160 Cigre

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Further Breakdown… Given a type of oil preservation (say, N2 Blanket) What happens to Gas Levels vs Voltage Class, MVA, Age?

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H2, 90th Percentile – Per Voltage Class IEEE AFMo AFSi Cigre

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H2, 90 th Percentile – Per MVA Rating IEEE AFMo AFSi Cigre

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H2, 90 th Percentile – Per Age Group IEEE AFMo AFSi Cigre

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C2H6, 90th Percentile – Per Voltage Class Cigre

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rate Subject 1. Should we calculate rates percentiles for all gases? 2. Should we associate rates to levels? How? 3. Cigre recent experience

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Cigre Levels vs Sampling Intervals Cigre SCD1.32 Brochure, December 2010

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Cigre Rates vs Sampling Intervals Cigre SCD1.32 Brochure, December 2010

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Cigre SCD1.32 Brochure December 2010

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Proposal Under Discussion – Level vs Rate Frequency of DGA

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Proposal Under Discussion – Level vs Rate Severity of Fault (?)

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates (IEEE Database)

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates (IEEE Database)

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rate Issues days

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rate Issues days

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rate Issues ± 15% Cigre Typical Lab Accuracy 133 days

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rate Issues days 68 ?

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rate Issues

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Another Example

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Another Example 27 ppm/year 500 ppm/year

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Inherent Uncertainty in Trend Calculation 1. Multiple Laboratories 2. Lab Variations (repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy) 3. Seasonal variations (temperature, etc) 4. Sampling errors (humans, sample contamination, etc) 5. Type of Transformer (N2, etc…) 6. Sampling interval??

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Distribution of DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Distribution of DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Distribution of DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates Distribution vs DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates Distribution vs DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates Distribution vs DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates Distribution vs DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates Distribution vs DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates Distribution vs DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Gas Rates Distribution vs DGA Sampling Interval 38%

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Rates Distribution vs DGA Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis

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Food for Thought!

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Proposal for Discussion – Level vs Rate Severity of Fault (N2 Blanket, etc) 90 th | t 95 th | t … Table conditioned to t = Sampling Interval

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Rate of Gas Increase vs Sampling Interval???

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Rate of Gas Increase vs Sampling Interval???

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Revision C – TF on Data Analysis Rate of Gas Increase vs Sampling Interval??? Food for Thought…

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