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Si-Detector Developments at BARC Dr. S.K.Kataria Electronics Division, BARC, Mumbai.

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Presentation on theme: "Si-Detector Developments at BARC Dr. S.K.Kataria Electronics Division, BARC, Mumbai."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Si-Detector Developments at BARC Dr. S.K.Kataria Electronics Division, BARC, Mumbai

3 Collaborators M.D. Ghodgaonkar, Anita Topkar, M.Y. Dixit, V.B. Chandratre, A.Das, Vijay Mishra, V.D. Srivastava, R.V. Shrikantaiah, Acharyulu, R.K. Choudhari, Bency John,A.K. Mohanty BARC H.V. Ananda, Subash Chandran, Prabhakararao, N. Shankaranarayana BEL O.P. Wadhawan, G.S. Virdi CEERI R.K. Shivpuri, Ashutosh Bharadwaj, Kirti Ranjan: DU

4 Plan of the Talk Development of the CMS preshower silicon strip detector Silicon Drift Detectors Si-Detector Readout Electronics

5 Compact Muon Solenoid CMS

6 Preshower Disc ~2.49m MB TYPE2 MB TYPE3 MB TYPE1 MB TYPE0 K Chip Total 124 x 4 = 496 Mother boards

7 Advantages of silicon detectors:  Fast response of the order of few ns  High level of segmentation possible- strips, microstrips, pixels,etc  High energy and position resolution  Room temp operation possible Use of silicon IC technology enables batch fabrication with very good uniformity & low cost of production

8 Applications of Silicon Detectors: Detection of radiation - , , , protons, neutrons, charged particles, photons  Silicon detectors with multielement geometries of strips, microstrips, pixels, etc - Physics experiments such as that at CERN, Nuclear Science experiments in our country - Astronomy ( low energy X-rays) - Medical imaging (pixel detectors)  Single element detectors Small area diodes – area mm 2 -Personal dosimeters / area monitors for γ-radiation -Neutron dose measurement using boron coating/thin foil -Low energy X-ray spectroscopy with preamp ( low noise) at –10 0 C ( <60KeV with few 100 eV resolution) -High resolution  -spectroscopy -Charged particle detection Large area diodes mm 2 -Detection of low activity radiation such as 239 Pu in air  Silicon photodiode/scintillator system

9 Various types of silicon strip detectors used for high energy physics experiments & other applications Single sided and double sided Strip detectors ( DC coupled, 2D Position sensing) Pixel detectors (suitable for imaging applications) Silicon microstrip detectors ( AC coupled, single or double sided) Silicon drift detectors ( high energy and position resolution, suitable for imaging applications) Monolithic active pixel detectors Single element detectors with high energy resolution/large sensitive area

10 Silicon strip/microstrip detector ( SS, DC coupled)

11 Active Pixel Detectors Monolithic – Has readout inside the detector substrate Hybrid – Readout is bump bonded to the pixel

12  Prototype Development phase (CEERI and BEL)  Preproduction (BEL)  Production (BEL) Important activities involved:  Detector design and fabrication  Detector qualification  Micro module assembly CMS Preshower Silicon Strip Detector Development (These detectors will be used as the preshower detectors for photons in the CMS at CERN).

13 Prototype / Technology Development  16-strip silicon detector developed at CEERI on a 2” Wafer strips of geometry 20x1.65 mm 2 enclosed in three P + guard-rings  32-strip silicon detector of geometry 60x60 mm 2 developed at BEL strips of geometry 60x1.69 mm 2 enclosed in seven P + guard-rings  PIN diode detectors of various areas – 3x3 mm 2 – 10x10 mm 2 developed at BEL along with strip detector 70 diodes enclosed in two guard rings

14 Detector specifications and Detector design Electrical Breakdown voltage for all strips >= 300V/500V Total current of all strips =< 5 μA at full depletion voltage (VFD) and <= 10 μA at 150+VFD Maximum 1 strip with leakage current > 1 μA at VFD & > 5 μA at VFD+150V Geometrical Length mm Width , -0.1 mm Detector specifications are very stringent as these are to be operated in a high radiation background of neutrons ( 2x10 14 /cm 2) & gamma ( 10Mrad) for a long period of ten years

15 Scanned picture of BEL and CEERI Detectors ( Prototype)

16 Characterization of the strip detector Probe-jigs to make contact to the 32 strips simultaneously Simulaneous measurement of strip current of 32 strips ( IV) Simulaneous measurement of strip capacitance of 32 strips ( CV) Probe-jigs, measurement setups were developed by BARC. Testing facility has been setup at BEL for qualification of detectors as per the CERN specifications

17 Argon implantation at Back plane Sacrificial Oxide Grown

18 Back-Plane Ohmic Side Processing Technology Single step implantation Energy of the ion-beam: 80 KeV Dose: 7E15 ions/cm 2 Annealing: 30 min, 950 ºC in N2 Double step implantation First Step: Energy of the ion-beam: 110 KeV Dose: 1E15 ions/cm 2 Annealing: 10 min, 1050 ºC in O2 + N2 Second Step: Energy of the ion-beam: 50 KeV Dose: 1E16 ions/cm2 Annealing: 30 min, 950 ºC in N2

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20 IV and CV measurement system developed by BARC

21 Reverse IV characterstics of all 32 strips of a detector ( production phase )

22 Capacitance vs Voltage Characterstics of all 32 strips of a detector ( Production phase)

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26 Micromodule assembly The detector is mounted on the ceramic which would have the radiation hard front end hybrid The ceramic is mounted on an aluminum tile Alignment accuracy of about 100 microns is required Mechanical jigs would be used for alignmnet during assembly

27 Detector Micromodule

28 Fabrication of Detectors of modified geometry (63 × 63 mm 2 ) Composite diagram for all the layers of Mask2 IV characteristics of 32 strips a 63 × 63 mm 2 detector fabricated at BEL

29 Simulation Studies Doping Profile after each of thermal treatment The cross-section of the simulated device showing different layers and contour for the junction depth

30 Silicon Detectors with Inbuilt JFET Simulation Studies & Design An extension of PIN diode development work Fabrication of JFET along with PIN diode detector avoids stray capacitances and micro phonic noise pickups SDD is based on the lateral charge transport scheme. The signal charge generated by radiation is collected by a small area anode (small capacitance≈ 0.1pF). The capacitance of the detector is independent of the detector area These detectors can be cooled down to -20ºC that would give energy resolution of ≈180 eV ( PIN diodes) and ≈150 eV (SDD)

31 Radial Cross Section of SDD & JFET

32 Process Simulations Fabrication of the proposed detectors require 10 Masks layers Back plane alignment needed Process simulations for fabrication of the detectors have been carried out and implant energy, dose values and temperature cycles have been studied Starting substrate : 4 KΩ-cm P-well : 1E12 80 KeV N-channel : 8E12 80 KeV P+ Gate :1E14 60 KeV N+ Source & Drain :1E15 80 KeV The temperature cycles are C Long annealing temperature cycle to recover the bulk carrier life time.

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36 N-JFET Characteristics

37 Silicon Drift Detector with Integrated Front-end electronics Low noise operation with large active area Energy and position sensing capability High energy resolution ~150eV High position resolution ~ 11  m High count rate capability 2e6 cps/cm2 Applications of Silicon drift detectors X-ray &  -ray Spectroscopy Simulation studies for SDD and inbuilt JFET completed Analog X-ray AcquisitionSystem (AXAS)

38 DETECTOR(S) CMOS ASIC from SCL Concept to CHIP OCTAL Charge Preamp OCTPREM 8 CHANNEL SILICON STRIP PULSE PROCESSOR. SPAIR FRONT END DOSIMETER ASIC. CODA 8 CHANNEL CURRENT PULSE PREAMPLIFIER MICON Full custom designs

39 The preamplifier FOR OCTPREM

40 Block Diagram “SPAIR”

41 MICON Error amp ref in I to V &SHAPER/ Buffer out bias FICON KEY FEATURES LEAKAGE CURRENT COMPENSATION IDEAL FOR PROPORTIONAL CHAMBERS, GEM, PMTS 50 NS PEAKING TIME 1800 e RMS noise 8 CHANNELS WITH SERIAL ANALOG READOUT

42 The process technology for large area silicon detectors has been successfully developed and silicon strip detectors meeting all the electrical and technological specifications for it’s qualification as preshower sensors have been produced The leakage current in detectors is around 2-5 nA/cm 2 and breakdown voltage is in excess of 500V The approach of employing gettering techniques during fabrication has sustained the bulk effective carrier lifetime to high value > 10 ms The injection of carriers from the back plane at full depletion voltage which was the major problem for high voltage operation of the detectors has been effectively tackled by incorporating double implantation at back side so as to have thicker and uniform n+ layer the strip detectors that show high leakage current in strips can become usable detectors with one of the Guard Rings grounded Guardring collects most of the signal charge generated close to or outside of the active area avoiding the number of interactions in which imperfect or incomplete charge collection would occur. Simulation studies for designing Silicon Drift Detector with integrated N-JFET have been done and results are presented

43 Preshower Readout Architecture

44 DDU Functional Requirements Optical to electrical conversion & de-serialization of incoming data streams Integrity verification of incoming data packets/event fragments Data reformatting Data reduction DDU event formation Transmission of DDU events to the global DAQ through the S-Link64 interface Transmission of spying events to the local DAQ through VME interface

45 DDU Input Data Format

46 Data Processing in DDU Pedestal Subtraction Common mode noise Subtraction Threshold Comparison Synchronization Check Deconvolution –α = Y1 v0 –β = Y1 v1 + Y2 v0 –γ = Y1 v2 + Y2 v1 + Y3 v0 Charge Extraction –Q = W1 v1 + W2 v2 Data concentration and output formatting

47 DDU Output Data Format Header _BOE:Begin Of Event4 bits _FOVFOrmat Version4 bits _LV1_idTrigger Number24 bits _BX_idBunch Number12 bits _Source_idSource Id12 bits _Evt_tyEvent Type4 bits Trailer _Evt_lgthEvent size in 64 bit words24 bits _Evt_statEvent status8 bits IntegrityCRC16 bits

48 Data Concentrator Card (DCC)

49 DDU Architecture in DCC iFIFOnFIFO Data Processor 9 x Vertex2Pro Data Concentrator VME64 Interface FIFO Multiplexer S-Link-64 Interface 68 1 oFIFO 1 iFIFOnFIFO Data Processor iFIFOnFIFO Data Processor iFIFOnFIFO Data Processor iFIFOnFIFO Data Processor iFIFOnFIFO Data Processor iFIFOnFIFO Data Processor iFIFOnFIFO Data Processor 8 x links To CMS DAQ From SMB VME64 bus


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