Presentation on theme: "Intellectual roots of change: experiential learning 1. Scientific method 2. global cultural contact and trade 3. traditions of belief and political power:"— Presentation transcript:
Intellectual roots of change: experiential learning 1. Scientific method 2. global cultural contact and trade 3. traditions of belief and political power:
Individual Freedoms Voltaire (pen name of François-Marie Arouet, ) Écrasez l’infame, “erase the infamy” Against abuse of people by Church and government if can’t critique openly - satire Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( ) argued for equality of all individuals, regardless of class, before the law The Social Contract (1762) society is collectively the sovereign
The Collection of all knowledge: humanity vs. divinity Denis Diderot ( ) French philosopher and writer.philosopher his major contribution was the EncyclopédieEncyclopédie “Portrait of Diderot” van Loo, 1767 in 1750 announced - catalog of all human knowledge 1751 the first volume was published; final in 1772 the Ancien Régime suspicious; control of knowledge is powerAncien Régime courts tried to control and destroy know the world, change the world
Change and continuity Nomenclature: know the terms aristocrats, or landed classes, or upper classes inherited land and titles inherited rights and privileges ie legal and property rights, political rights, no taxes bourgeoisie or middle classes urban, professional – not same as contemporary NA Working classes and peasants these class divisions were famously described by Marx in 19C; his analysis has had lasting impact, but flawed in significant ways
‘Une Soirée chez Madame Geoffrin’, 1812 A.J. Lemonnier (first reading of Voltaire’s The Orphan from China) Madame Geoffrin
The answer: no way Louis XV ( ) ‘the entire public order emanates from me… the rights and interests of the nation whom you dare to make a separate body from the monarch rest solely in my hands’. But, that is not quite true…..
The estates general one of a series of political bodies throughout France formal institutional vestige of reciprocal power-sharing between king and:first estate (clergy) second estate (nobility) third estate (commoners) could act as a powerful ‘check’ on the king – and esp. his ability to raise the amount and type of taxes collected however, only the king could call this body….
Conclusion Know the world to change the world experience of society changing theories or political change experiential knowledge Enlightenment for whom not the ‘mean’ people not women Race and class Application of ideas change political order, law, remove power of the church or not