Presentation on theme: "PHILOSOPHY OF THE ANCIENT EAST LECTURE II. PLAN Origin of philosophical thought. Eastern and western types of cultural development. Philosophy of Ancient."— Presentation transcript:
PLAN Origin of philosophical thought. Eastern and western types of cultural development. Philosophy of Ancient India (Vedantic philosophy, Buddhism). Philosophical conceptions of Ancient China (Confucianism, Taoism).
PHILOSOPHY VERSUS MYTHS Mythological thinking was based on reflection of nature and man in the light of the tribal relations. Philosophy introduces the system of knowledge that is based on reason.
PHILOSOPHY ORIGIN Philosophy originated in the following three centers of the ancient civilization: in ancient Greece, India and China, what happened almost simultaneously in the middle of the 1 st millennium BC.
Specific features of reference to nature Western cultural tradition active transformation and mastering of nature by man Achievements in the realms of techniques, technologies and science Eastern cultural tradition careful and religious reference to nature and everything alive development of the very nature of man the moral-spiritual improvement of a personality
Social life and Social values Western cultural tradition the idea of historical progress, development of society in the line of ascent the values of democracy, legal state, freedom and sovereignty of an individual Eastern cultural tradition no intention of progress preserving the culture as it is the values of a community and limitation of the individual freedom
Spiritual psychological features of man Western cultural tradition logical style of thinking, cold mind, sober pragmatism and practicism "divide and rule" Rational thinking Philosophical treatises Eastern cultural tradition feelings, emotions, elements of the religious and artistic world- perception unity and indivisibility of everything Intuitive and mystical thinking Philosophical parables, aphorisms, and instructions
Indian philosophy Ancient Indian philosophy includes the mystical treatises known as Upanishads (700 – 100 BC), early Buddhist writings (300 BC – 500 AD) and the Sanskrit poem Bhagavad-Gita (Song of God, about 200 BC). Classical Indian philosophy is less concerned with spirituality than ancient thought
Outlook ideas of Indian philosophy ultimate reality is one-eternal and impersonal Absolute the variety of apprehensions, which comes to us through the senses is illusory and is called mãyã Man must rid himself of his illusion if he is to become aware of reality (brahma) This "knowing" is not a mere intellectual knowledge, but an enlightenment of one's whole being If one fails to find this "release" (moksa), one is bound by the law of punishment and reward (karma) to return to this world in a further incarnation, still tied to the wheel of rebirth (samsara)
REINCARNATION Reincarnation, the view that after death human beings live again in other forms Bhagavad-Gita: "We have all been for all time: I, and thou, and those king of men. And we shall be for all time, we all for ever and ever" "As a man leaves an old garment and puts on the one that is new, the Spirit leaves his mortal body and then puts on one that is new"
KARMA the sum total of the acts done in one stage of person's existence, which determines his destiny in the next stage a form of matter, which can contaminate a soul and postpone its attaining Nirvana the doctrine that whatsoever a man sows, whether in action or thought, the fruits will eventually be reaped by him – if not in this life, then in the next
Caste division of Indian society - Brahmin caste – the first or the highest caste, comprising the priests (fr. Sanskrit Brahman – worship); - Kshatriya caste – the second caste, comprising warriors and rulers (fr. Sanskrit kshatra – rule); - Vaisya caste – the third caste, comprising farmers and merchants (fr. Sanskrit – peasant); Sudra caste – the fourth and the lowest caste, comprising manual workers (fr. Sanskrit sudra
Three groups of yoga steps 1)Moral discipline – against killing, lying, stealing, sexual impurity and possessiveness, and towards purity, contentment, study and God – centeredness. 2) Physical disciplines – control over bodily posture, breathing and excitation of the senses. 3) Stages of meditation – concentration, contemplation and ecstasy (unity).
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 1) Sorrow is the universal experience of mankind. 2) The cause of sorrow is desire, and the cycle of rebirths is perpetuated by desire for existence. 3) The removal of sorrow can only come from the removal of desire. 4) The desire can be systematically abandoned by following the Noble Eightfold Path, which is the basis of the disciplines of Buddhism and finds its origin in the corresponding yoga system.
THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY "Yin" – a symbol of the shadow or the passive, feminine principle of life "Yang" – the symbol of the sun or the active, masculine principle of life "Dao (Tao)" – that means the way or the universal force harmonizing nature
CONFUCIANISM The ethics of Confucius is based on differentiation of two social types of people and two styles of behavior in society. These are the junzi (literally, "lord's son", "gentleman" or "profound person") and the xiaoren ("small person"): "The profound person understands what is moral. The small person understands what is profitable".
SOME OF CONFUFUCIUS’SAYINGS "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you". "When your father is alive, observe his will. When your father is dead observe his former actions. If, for three years you do not change from the ways of your father, you can be called a 'real son (hsiao).'" If you govern with the power of your virtue, you will be like the North Star. It just stays in its place while all the other stars position themselves around it."
DAOISM Dao is the main notion of Daoism that gives answers to all the questions about origin of the world and the way it exists. It is the initial cause and the only law of the universe to which nature, society and man are subordinated. The essence of Dao is non-being, that is why it can neither be cognized by mind nor determined by means of words. When we think that life's occurrences seem unfair (a human discrimination), we should remember that heaven's net misses nothing and it leaves nothing undone.