Presentation on theme: "CYCLES OF THE ENVIRONMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 CYCLES OF THE ENVIRONMENT 4 CYCLES THAT MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
2 Our Environment’s Homeostasis Atoms of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorous make up livingorganisms (CHNOPS)This matter AND energy recycles through ecosystems.
3 Matter & Energy Transfer through Environment Food ChainFood Web
4 Cycling Maintains Homeostasis Food chains, food webs and energy pyramids → energy gained or used in one direction in ecosystem.Matter, in form of nutrients, moves through org. at each trophic level.Trophic Levels include: producer, lst order consumer, 2nd order consumer…
5 Food Chain & Energy Pyramid Quaternary-4thTertiary-3rdSecondary-2ndPrimary-1stProducer
6 Energy Flow in an Ecosystem Each step in a foodchain represents a transfer of energy & materials.Energy is lost at each level = only 10% is transferred to next trophic level.
7 Energy Loss at Trophic Levels 90% of Energy is used by the organism for:Breathing /RespiratonReproductionHomeostasisMovement/Interaction with other orgs.
8 4 Cycles of an Environment They include:Water CycleCarbon CycleNitrogen CyclePhosphorous Cycle
9 Water Cycle 3 states of Matter 1. liquid (water or precipitation),2. solid (ice, snow)3. Gas (atmosphere)
11 Water Cycle FlowWater begins cycle through ecosystem when plants absorb water through roots.Animals drink water or get it indirectly w/food they consume.Animals and plants respire giving off water vapor (Transpiration).
12 Water cycle (continued) Organisms lose water through excretion.Water (liquid, solid or gas) recycles into lakes, streams, rivers, oceans via thegroundwater.
13 Carbon cycle 1. Carbon found in environment as a gas (CO2) in atmosphere and oceans.2. CO2 moves to water and plants.Photosynthesis is major player in CC.a. P.S. combines carbon dioxide and water.b. P.S. changes molecules fr low energy to high energy.
14 CARBON CYCLEOrg. obtain carbon when they consume producers or other consumers.Respiration and decay return carbon to the atmosphere (gas).Carbon also returns to atmosphere in large amounts as CO2 when fossil fuels are burned.
16 Nitrogen Cycle - Land N2 makes up 78% of air. Living things cannot use Nitrogen inatmospheric form.
17 Nitrogen moves through the food web. Nitrogen cycles as matter and energy transfer through the food web.
18 Nitrogen Fixation Methods Conversion of atmospheric N2 into reactive compounds such as:Biological FixationAbiotic FixationDenitrificationAssimilationNitrificationAmmonificationNitrogen Forms =BADANA
19 Nitrogen Compounds N2 – Nitrogen NO2 – nitrogen oxide or nitrite NO3-Nitrous oxide or nitrateNH3 – AmmoniaNH4 - Ammonium
21 1. Abiotic FixationHigh energy fixation w/ lightning & cosmic radiation. Accounts for 10% of nitrate in N2 cycle. Occurs when…1. N2 combines w/O2 to form nitrogen oxides such as NO and NO22. Carried to Earth’s surface in rainfall asnitric acid (HNO3 or acid rain).
22 Legumes…you say?A legume is any of the thousands of plant species in the legume family, Leguminosae.Legumes have seed pods that, when ripe, split along both sides.
23 2. Biological Fixation Completed by living orgs such as soil aerobic bacteria (needs O2) and anaerobic bacteria (chemosynthesis w/o O2).b. Symbiotic bacteria (Rhizobium) found in roots of legumes such as clover, alfalfa, soy beans and chick peas assists in bio fix.
25 2. Biological Fixation (cont) How does this happen?c1. Roots of legumes, bacteria split the nitrogen atoms into two free nitrogen atoms which combine with hydrogen to form ammonia, NH3.c2. Any excess nitrogen leftover from ammonification (NH3) not used by the plant are returned to the soil.
26 2. Biological Fixation (Cont) Some bacteria freely fix nitrogen, without splitting the N2 atom, in soil such as:1. Aerobic bacteria, Azotobacter2. Anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium3. Photosynthetic Cyanobacterium fixnitrogen in aquatic environments.
27 Major agricultural crops produced in the United States in 2000 (excluding root crops, citrus, vegetable, etc).CropHarvested Area (million acres)Cash Receipts from Sales ($ billion)Corn (grain)72.715.1Soy-beans12.5Hay59.93.4Wheat53.05.5Cotton13.14.6Sorghum (grain)7.70.82Rice3.01.2
28 2. FYI: Benefits of N2 FixSince its introduction into Nigeria in 1908, soybean (Glycine max. (L) Merrill) has been grown primarily as a sole crop (Ogunwolu, 1991) yet it has been shown to be able to fix atmospheric nitrogen up to 417 kg N ha-1(LaRue and Patterson, 1981)
29 2. Biological Fixation (cont) To promote sustainable soil fertility, it is beneficial to use these legume crops w/other plants such as corn.Corn depletes the available N2 in soil quickly.
30 3. NitrificationNitrification is a process of nitrogen compound oxidation (effectively, loss of electrons from the nitrogen atom to the oxygen atoms)…see next 2 slides—caused by Bacteria.
35 4. Assimilation-PlantsNitrates (NO3¯) are commonly assimilated (taken in/absorbed) by plants through their root hairs.
36 4. Assimilation-Heterotrophs b. Heterotrophic organisms cannot readily absorb N2 as plants do, so N2 is acquired through foods they/we eat.
37 4. Assimilation (cont) c. Plants are base of food chain. d. N2 is already assimilated into their tissue & will continue to pass from one organism to another.Food Chain
38 5. Ammonificationa. Host of decomposing microorganisms such as bacteria & fungi breaks down nitrogenous wastes & organic matter found in animals and dead plants.b. It is converted to inorganic NH3 for absorption by plants as ammonium ions (NH4).c. Decomposition rates affect the level of nutrients available to primary producers.
41 6. DenitrificationNitrates (NO3¯) are reduced to N2 and are lost / returned to the atmosphere.Facultative anaerobes in anaerobic conditions break down the NO3’s.c. Ex: Farmers w/waterlogged fields and high-clay content are vulnerable to losing the available nitrogen for their crops.
43 Phosphorous Cycle 2 ways: Short-term and Long Term A. Short-term Plants use P from soil in body tissues.Animals get phosphorous fr eating plants.When animals die, they return theP to the environment.
44 Phosphorous Cycle Long Term Phosphorous Cycle Phosphates washed into the oceans b/c part of rock compounds.After millions of years, rock layers wash off and P b/c part of the environment.