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Systematic Design of a Family of Attack Resistant Authentication Protocols By:- Ray Bird, I Gopal, Amir Herzberg, Philippe A Jnason, Shay Kutten, Refik Molva, and Moti Young CS 6390 (Advance Computer Networks) class discussion – Prof Prakash

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AUTHENTICATION - The process of proving one’s identity to someone else A necessary condition for securing a network is :- The ability to reliably authenticate communication partners and other network entities.

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Methods of Authentication 1. One-way password based authentication requires users to prove identity by demonstrating knowledge of some secret they know Limitations - Passwords are transmitted in clear text (sniff & snoop by intruders) - Passwords are easy to guess ( users choose easy password, memorized) - Authentication is one-way ( faked prompt from wrong computer / IP spoofing )

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Methods of Authentication 2. Biometric information based authentication Authentication based on recognition of biometric information such as voice sample, finger prints, hand signature etc. Limitations - Reliability problems - Expensive hardware and software support problems - biometric information is often transmitted in clear text( sniffing by intruder)

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Methods of Authentication 3. Cryptographic Authentication - Combines issues of authentication with those of key distribution - challenges communicating parties being authenticated to prove identity by demonstrating ability to encipher and decipher some item with a secret (private) key or public key. [ Key could be stored on smart cards or chip cards equipped with processor capabilities] - Key usually does not change frequently (potential for intruder to record and playback) - To guarantee that the item that gets enciphered or deciphered (called the Challenge) is different for every execution of the authentication protocol, 3 different techniques are used:-

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Methods of Cryptographic Authentication 1.Time Stamps - Challenge derived from a real time clock authenticated requesting authentication A enciphers current clock readings deciphers the received message B sends the result to party requesting authentication verifies time stamp corresponds to current real time - Requires that A and B must have synchronized real time clocks (not possible so A’s clock should be within a limited time window of B’s clock) - possibility of intruder impersonating A ( replay one of A’s recent authentications:- limit number of protocols runs in window, B saves all authentication messages in a window)

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Methods of Cryptographic Authentication 2.Counters - Challenge derived from a counter that is incremented for every protocol execution - A and B maintain synchronized counters of the number of times they authenticate each other - A enciphers counter, send to B, B deciphers and verify with its own, both parties then increment counter - requires both parties to maintain synchronized counters - counters must be long enough - counter complicates conflict resolution (when both parties want to initiate protocol execution at the same time)

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Methods of Cryptographic Authentication 3.Random Number Generator (Nonce) - Challenge derived from a random number generator ( Nonce:- A number that a protocol will only ever use once-in-a-lifetime ) - simple to implement than the other two but requires an extra network message ( message may be piggy-backed on to regular traffic) - B verifies that nonce has never been used, so B generates the nonce - B enciphers nonce, send it to A, A deciphers,send it to B in clear text, B then authenticates

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Limitations of Cryptographic Authentication Synchronization of clocks, counters Export restrictions because of the way they use cryptographic functions Not amenable for use in lower layers of network protocols because of the size and complexity of the messages they use

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Simple Cryptographic Authentication One way authentication of A A B E a (N) N ciphertext cleartext

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Simple Cryptographic Authentication Two way authentication A B E b (N1) N1 Ea(N2) N2

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Two way authentication with three messages A BEb(N1) N1, Ea(N2) N2 (with symmetric cryptography, the keys Ka and Kb could be the same, so that Ea and Eb represent encryption under the same key)

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Possible Attacks on Simple Cryptographic Authentications 1.Relay Attack - Consider two communicating entities A and B that share a key - C is a third party with no access to the key, however, C has access to all legitimate protocol executions that were accepted by A and B in the past - C is also able to interfere with on-going protocol executions (or even start a new faked protocol execution) involving A and B - C’s objective is to cause A or B to erroneously mark one of these perverted protocol executions as accepted - It follows that C acts as just a simple delay “relay” between A and B

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Possible Attacks on Simple Cryptographic Authentications 2.Plain text Attack - Enciphered message flowing between A and B is the ciphertext of a bit string (the nonce) that flows in plaintext in subsequent message between A and B - Intruder is able to collect two cleartext-ciphertext pair each time the protocol is run - Intruder is able to accumulate encryption tables in the long run that may help it break the scheme

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Possible Attacks on Simple Cryptographic Authentications 3.Chosen Ciphertext Attack - Intruder may turn plaintext attack into selected text attack by playing an active role instead of a passive role - Intruder sends ciphertext on behalf of either A or B to the other party and wait for the other party to reply with the deciphered value of that text - It can then accumulate pairs of cleartext-ciphertext of which it selected the ciphertext or the cleartext

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Possible Attacks on Simple Cryptographic Authentications 4. Oracle Session Attack - A and B use the same key - Intruder C, poses as A, starts a session with B by sending some enciphered nonce E(N1) - B replies with the deciphered value N1 and its own enciphered challenge E(N2) - C then takes advantage of a selected ciphertext attack on A, using A as the oracle who will provide the decipher value N2 - C then drops the oracle session with A, turns around and assumes its faked identity A with respect to B by sending E(N2) to B

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An Oracle Session Attack A C B E(N1) N1, E(N2) E(N2) N2, E(N3) N2 abandon session

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ISO two way authentication Protocol A B N1 E(N1), E(N2) N2 -the challenge to the initiator of the protocol (A) consist of demonstrating ability to encipher a given clear text nonce -The challenge to the responder B consists of demonstrating ability to decipher a given ciphertext nonce -Thus and intruder can no longer misuse one party as an oracle against the other

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Possible Attacks on Simple Cryptographic Authentications 5. Parallel Session Attack - Intruder assumes a passive role, intercepts a call from A to B with a challenge N1, leaving B out of the picture - It then turns A into an oracle against itself - Since C cannot answer the challenge N1, it simply pretends that it is B trying to start a parallel session, thus causing A to provide it with the key

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Parallel Session Attack A C N1 E(N1), E(N2) N2 Oracle session E(N2) is the enciphered challenge on the parallel session To prevent, this the cryptographic message used in the second challenge must be direction dependent

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Offset Attack through a parallel session -Enciphering of N1 is replaced by a simple function of N1 (XOR) -But with proper offsetting an intruder can still resort to a parallel session attack A C N1 N1 XOR B XOR A E(N1 XOR B), E(N2) N2

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Interleaving Attacks Attacks that involve replaying messages and functions of challenges observed in other runs of the protocol Examples:- - Oracle session attacks - Parallel session attacks - Offset attacks

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Design Requirements Objective: - design two-way authentication protocols - complex enough to resist interleaving attacks - economical - usable in low layers of network architecture Requirements - Nonce based (synchronization of clocks, stable counter mgt issues) - Resistant to common attacks ( secure against known- and plaintext attacks as well as interleaving ) - Usable at any layer of any network architecture (small messages)

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Requirements - Usable on any processing base ( execute on smart cards as well as low-end entry level networking components) - Use any known and typical encryption algorithm - Exportable - Extendible (flexible to accommodate different contexts and should allow possible functional extensions )

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Canonical Protocol Development 1. Resistance to Replay attacks through the use of Nonce A B N1 N2, U(K1, N1,..) V(K2, N2,..) * A sends N1 to B B authenticates itself by sending back a function U, N2 A completes by authenticating itself with a function V ** for this protocol to resist Oracle attack, the functions U() and V() must be different

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Canonical Protocol Development 2. No Restriction on Cryptographic System (workable with symmetric and asymmetric systems) AB N1 N2, E(p(N1,..)) E(q(N2,..)) K1, K2 –private of B and A resp. In symmetric system, K1, K2 are shared secrets, in fact the same thus U(K1,..) and V(k2,..) replaced with p() and q() ** Prevention of Parallel session attacks suggest that function P() must be asymmetric(direction-dependent)

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Canonical Protocol Development 3. Resistance to Parallel Session Attacks - The arguments to the function p() must be different depending on whether A or B starts the connection A B N1 N2, E(p(N1, D,..)) E(q(N2,..)

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Canonical Protocol Development 4. Small Cryptographic Messages p() and q() may be restricted to 64-bit functions or operator # 5. Resistance to Offsets and selected text Attacks include inside p() an additional internal encrypted function of the same parameters N1 and D which can be separated cryptographically, and N2 which is not under the control of the intruder AB N2, E(f(N1, N2, D,..)#E(g(N1, N2, D,..))) E(g(N1, N2, D,..)) N1

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Canonical Protocol Development 6. Few Cryptographic function operations - By putting additional conditions on q() we can return to a protocol requiring two cryptographic block operations, we let the functions g() = q(), - thus the inner most cryptographic expression required to produce or verify flow 2 is the same expression of flow 3 A B N1 N2, E(f(N1, N2, D,..) # E(g(N1, N2, D,..))) E(g(N1, N2, D,..))

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Canonical Protocol Development 7. Resistance to known Plaintext Attacks - all arguments of g() and f() can be obtained through wire-taping and the intruder can compute the cleartext and observe the ciphertext of flow 3, combine it with # operator to derive the cleartext for flow 2 - hide the cleartext value for flow 3 by replacing g() with g’() #E(h), where # is a suitable 64-bit operator. - also hide the clear text in flow 2 by encrypting inside g() and outside it with a suitable 64-bit operator A B N2, E(f(..)#E(g’(..)#E(h(..)))) E(g’(..)#E(h(..)))#E(h(..)) N1

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Canonical Protocol Development 8. Exportability - Use one-way data integrity (MAC) operations instead of encryption and decryption - the cryptographic expression of flows 2 and 3 are replaced with combinations of plain 64-bit MAC integrity checks that are computed using the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode operations of DES A B N1 N2, MAC(h(..), g(..), f(..)) MAC(h(..), g(..)) XOR MAC(h(..))

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Testing Resistance to Interleaving Attacks Assumptions: - f() and g() are cryptographically separate in flow(2) of the canonical protocol - f() and g() takes just N1, N2, D as arguments and are strongly dependent on their arguments Test:- To show that an intruder C attacking A or B cannot reconstruct or derive the cryptographic expressions needed in flows 2 or 3 by replaying or manipulating the results of passive observations or active interleaving attacks

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Testing Resistance to Interleaving Attacks Observations of an Intruder: - record legitimate past runs of the protocol between A and B - collect information on the protocol actively by pretending to be A / B and attacking the other party - Armed with any amount of knowledge about legitimate past runs or interleaved trial run of the protocol, intruder could:- a) behave passively, waiting for a call to intercept – ( produce cryptographic expression of flow 2 ) b) initiate a call ( produce cryptographic expression of flow 3)

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Testing Resistance to Interleaving Attacks Since protocol uses challenges and responses that are always based on truly random numbers for every instance, combining information from various reference sessions in the hope that it may be useful for an attack is impossible For any given message m, the attacker can know E(m) only if it is able to cause the execution of the protocol by A or B to send noncryptographic one- to-one function of E(m)

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Specific Examples 1.Two encryptions A B N1 N2, E(Nmin XOR B XOR E(N1 XOR N2) E(N1 XOR N2) Nmin = N1 if A < B = N2 if A > B Secure against interleaving attacks Use two encryptions F() is the XOR of name of responder G() is XOR of two nonce B used as direction indicator

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Specific Examples 2. Three encryptions N1 N2, E(N1 XOR B XOR E(N2 XOR E(N1))) E(N2 XOR E(N1)) XOR E(N1) Extra block encryptions added inside g() Result re-used with XOR of flow 3

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