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1010011.

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Presentation on theme: "1010011."— Presentation transcript:

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23  Operating Sytems ◦ Proprietary  Windows  Mac OS ◦ Open source  Linux

24  Interface Engine—a software program designed to simplify the creation of management of interfaces between applications systems (Altis, 2004)

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26 A HL7 interface engine is an interface or integration engine built specifically for the healthcare industry. It connects legacy systems by using a standard messaging protocol. Because hospitals and other healthcare providers usually have different systems for different aspects of services, they are often unable to communicate with each other. HL7 gets around that problem by providing the framework for the exchange, integration, sharing and retrieval of electronic health information. These standards and the most commonly used throughout the world.

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28  Relational Databases ◦ Relational Database Management System (RDMS) ◦ Applications have three layers  Interface  Data manipulation  Tables

29 A relational database is a database that has a collection of tables of data items, all of which is formally described and organized according to the relational model.

30 The relational model for database management is a database model based on first-order predicate logic, first formulated and proposed in 1969 by Edgar F. Codd. In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tuples, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database.

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32  Object-oriented Database ◦ Object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) ◦ Object-Relational Database management system (ORDBMS)

33 An object database (also object-oriented database management system) is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming. Object databases are different from relational databases which are table-oriented. Object- relational databases are a hybrid of both approaches.

34  Data dictionaries—document data definitions  Clinical data repositories—large databases that include data from a variety of sources

35 A data dictionary, or metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a "centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, and format

36  Data Warehouse and Data Mart ◦ Non-relational structure to facilitate “drill down” retrieval  Data mining—discovering patterns in data

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38  Network Communication protocols  Network Types and Configurations  Network Media and Bandwidths  Network Communication Devices

39  Needed for communication among networked computers an devices  Open Standards Interconnection (OSI) ◦ Seven Layers ◦ Conceptual model, not a set of actual specifications

40  Internet Model—Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) ◦ Layered model ◦ Represents a set of actual protocol specifications at each layer

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42  Other protocols ◦ Ethernet—Local Area Networks ◦ Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)—fast transmission speeds ◦ Bluetooth—wireless devices ◦ IEEE b & g (Wi-Fi)—popular for wireless computers

43  Local Area Network (LAN) vs. Wide Area Network (WAN) ◦ LAN—devices are under the control of one organization in the same geographic area ◦ WAN—an network that extends beyond a LAN

44  Topology ◦ Physical Topology  Bus  Ring  Star ◦ Logical Topology  Bus—Ethernet  Ring—IBM Token Ring

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50  Common Types ◦ Twisted pair wire (Category 1 – 5) ◦ Coaxial cable (older) ◦ Fiber optic cable ◦ Wireless  Terrestrial  Satellite microwave  Spread spectrum

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54  Communications across WAN require a service carrier ◦ POTS ◦ Leased line ◦ Integrated services digital network (ISDN) ◦ Purchased T-1 (or other) line

55  Bandwidth = Capacity of the transmission media  Greater capacity = greater speed  Rates expressed as bits per second (bps)

56  Hub—device in which data from the network come together  Bridge—connects neworks at the data link layer; networks with the same protocols  Router—operates at the network layer; help determine the destination of data

57  Gateway—connects networks with different protocols; operates at or above the transport level  Switch—may be a gateway or a router; all switches rout data to their destinations

58  Terminal to Host—dumb terminal interacts with host computer  File Server—application and database are on one computer; user’s computer gets data files from file server  Client/server—multiple servers with specialized functions; client runs application & server has data

59  Every computer or device has a unique Internet Protocol (IP) address  Use changed dramatically with the introduction of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) and the World Wide Web (www)

60  WWW ◦ Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Example-- ◦ Web Browser ◦ Plug-ins ◦ Mark up languages  HTML  XML

61  Other Protocols ◦ (smtp, pop3, imap) ◦ File Transfer (ftp) ◦ Internet telephoning (VoIP)

62  Intranets ◦ Secure computer network that uses Internet technologies, but is internal to an organization  Extranets ◦ Similar to intranets, but includes business partners or the organization

63  Decision Support Systems (DSS)  Artificial Intelligence

64  Three steps of Decision Making ◦ Intelligence ◦ Design ◦ Choice  Problems are ◦ Structured ◦ Unstructured ◦ semistructured

65  Transaction based systems use for structured problems  DSS is needed for semi and un- structured problems

66  Stand alone generally has three components ◦ Data Management Module—database, data warehouse, clinical data repository ◦ Model Management Module—user selects model to be applied to problem ◦ Dialog Module—the user interface (Oz, 2004)

67  A branch of computer science that is devoted to emulating the human mind ◦ Example: Google ◦ Multiple types  Expert systems  Natural language processing  Neural networks  Fuzzy logic

68  An expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert

69  Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages.

70  Artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by animal central nervous systems (in particular the brain) that are capable of machine learning and pattern recognition.

71  Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic; it deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than fixed and exact

72  Input Devices  Output Devices  External Storage Devices  Mobile Personal Computing Devices

73  Standard—mouse & keyboard  Other ◦ Trackball or trackpad ◦ Touch screens ◦ Source data input devices, such as bar coding ◦ Document Imaging ◦ Speech Recognition

74  Computer Monitor  Printer  Speech

75  Sequential ◦ Magnetic tape  Direct Access ◦ Magnetic disks ◦ Floppy disks ◦ Zip drives ◦ RAID ◦ CDs & DVDs ◦ Optical tape ◦ Flash memory

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82  Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)  Pocket PCs  Laptop computer  Tablet computer  Cellular phone combinations

83  The coming together of an information system is guided by the IS architecture  Consists of concepts, strategies, and principles  Platforms are specific vendors and technologies  Infrastructure generally refers to networks and network applications

84  It is important for health care organizations to have thoughtful architecture discussions

85  System Software  Data Management and Access  Networks and Data Communications ◦ Network Communication protocols ◦ Network Types & Configurations ◦ Network Media & Bandwidth ◦ Network Communication Devices

86  Distribution Schemes  Internet  Intranets & Extranets  Decision Support ◦ Decision Support System ◦ Artificial Intelligence

87  User Interactions ◦ Input Devices ◦ Output Devices ◦ External Storage Devices ◦ Mobile Personal Computing  Information System Architecture


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