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Operating Sytems ◦ Proprietary Windows Mac OS ◦ Open source Linux
Interface Engine—a software program designed to simplify the creation of management of interfaces between applications systems (Altis, 2004)
A HL7 interface engine is an interface or integration engine built specifically for the healthcare industry. It connects legacy systems by using a standard messaging protocol. Because hospitals and other healthcare providers usually have different systems for different aspects of services, they are often unable to communicate with each other. HL7 gets around that problem by providing the framework for the exchange, integration, sharing and retrieval of electronic health information. These standards and the most commonly used throughout the world.
Relational Databases ◦ Relational Database Management System (RDMS) ◦ Applications have three layers Interface Data manipulation Tables
A relational database is a database that has a collection of tables of data items, all of which is formally described and organized according to the relational model.
The relational model for database management is a database model based on first-order predicate logic, first formulated and proposed in 1969 by Edgar F. Codd. In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of tuples, grouped into relations. A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database.
Object-oriented Database ◦ Object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) ◦ Object-Relational Database management system (ORDBMS)
An object database (also object-oriented database management system) is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming. Object databases are different from relational databases which are table-oriented. Object- relational databases are a hybrid of both approaches.
Data dictionaries—document data definitions Clinical data repositories—large databases that include data from a variety of sources
A data dictionary, or metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a "centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, and format
Data Warehouse and Data Mart ◦ Non-relational structure to facilitate “drill down” retrieval Data mining—discovering patterns in data
Network Communication protocols Network Types and Configurations Network Media and Bandwidths Network Communication Devices
Needed for communication among networked computers an devices Open Standards Interconnection (OSI) ◦ Seven Layers ◦ Conceptual model, not a set of actual specifications
Internet Model—Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) ◦ Layered model ◦ Represents a set of actual protocol specifications at each layer
Other protocols ◦ Ethernet—Local Area Networks ◦ Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)—fast transmission speeds ◦ Bluetooth—wireless devices ◦ IEEE 802.11b & g (Wi-Fi)—popular for wireless computers
Local Area Network (LAN) vs. Wide Area Network (WAN) ◦ LAN—devices are under the control of one organization in the same geographic area ◦ WAN—an network that extends beyond a LAN
Topology ◦ Physical Topology Bus Ring Star ◦ Logical Topology Bus—Ethernet Ring—IBM Token Ring
Communications across WAN require a service carrier ◦ POTS ◦ Leased line ◦ Integrated services digital network (ISDN) ◦ Purchased T-1 (or other) line
Bandwidth = Capacity of the transmission media Greater capacity = greater speed Rates expressed as bits per second (bps)
Hub—device in which data from the network come together Bridge—connects neworks at the data link layer; networks with the same protocols Router—operates at the network layer; help determine the destination of data
Gateway—connects networks with different protocols; operates at or above the transport level Switch—may be a gateway or a router; all switches rout data to their destinations
Terminal to Host—dumb terminal interacts with host computer File Server—application and database are on one computer; user’s computer gets data files from file server Client/server—multiple servers with specialized functions; client runs application & server has data
Every computer or device has a unique Internet Protocol (IP) address Use changed dramatically with the introduction of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) and the World Wide Web (www)
WWW ◦ Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Example-- http://www.josseybass.comhttp://www.josseybass.com ◦ Web Browser ◦ Plug-ins ◦ Mark up languages HTML XML
Other Protocols ◦ E-mail (smtp, pop3, imap) ◦ File Transfer (ftp) ◦ Internet telephoning (VoIP)
Intranets ◦ Secure computer network that uses Internet technologies, but is internal to an organization Extranets ◦ Similar to intranets, but includes business partners or the organization
Decision Support Systems (DSS) Artificial Intelligence
Three steps of Decision Making ◦ Intelligence ◦ Design ◦ Choice Problems are ◦ Structured ◦ Unstructured ◦ semistructured
Transaction based systems use for structured problems DSS is needed for semi and un- structured problems
Stand alone generally has three components ◦ Data Management Module—database, data warehouse, clinical data repository ◦ Model Management Module—user selects model to be applied to problem ◦ Dialog Module—the user interface (Oz, 2004)
A branch of computer science that is devoted to emulating the human mind ◦ Example: Google ◦ Multiple types Expert systems Natural language processing Neural networks Fuzzy logic
An expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert
Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages.
Artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by animal central nervous systems (in particular the brain) that are capable of machine learning and pattern recognition.
Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic; it deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than fixed and exact
Input Devices Output Devices External Storage Devices Mobile Personal Computing Devices
Standard—mouse & keyboard Other ◦ Trackball or trackpad ◦ Touch screens ◦ Source data input devices, such as bar coding ◦ Document Imaging ◦ Speech Recognition
Computer Monitor Printer Speech
Sequential ◦ Magnetic tape Direct Access ◦ Magnetic disks ◦ Floppy disks ◦ Zip drives ◦ RAID ◦ CDs & DVDs ◦ Optical tape ◦ Flash memory
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) Pocket PCs Laptop computer Tablet computer Cellular phone combinations
The coming together of an information system is guided by the IS architecture Consists of concepts, strategies, and principles Platforms are specific vendors and technologies Infrastructure generally refers to networks and network applications
It is important for health care organizations to have thoughtful architecture discussions
System Software Data Management and Access Networks and Data Communications ◦ Network Communication protocols ◦ Network Types & Configurations ◦ Network Media & Bandwidth ◦ Network Communication Devices
Distribution Schemes Internet Intranets & Extranets Decision Support ◦ Decision Support System ◦ Artificial Intelligence
User Interactions ◦ Input Devices ◦ Output Devices ◦ External Storage Devices ◦ Mobile Personal Computing Information System Architecture