Presentation on theme: "Engineering Medical Information Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Engineering Medical Information Systems Architecture, Data and Usability & SecurityJason WashoSE516University of Scranton
2 Authors Jens H. Weber-Jahnke Department of Computer Science University of Victoria, CanadaMorgan PriceDepartment of Family PracticeUniversity of British Columbia, Canada
3 Why Medical & IT?Information technology professional in health insuranceFortune 500 health care and insurance clientsSpecialization in electronic medical records (article’s focus)Hopes with incorporating experience and research into a graduate thesisAlways be a need for health care and life insuranceMedical school coming into area
4 IntroductionSustainable health care systems highly depend on interoperable and effectively managed medical information systems (MISs)The United States of America could save $81 billion annually by implementing or improving medical information systemsNot just the money, but the quality of care increases as wellArticle targets software engineers with basic knowledge in the medical information technology fieldThe authors introduce the reader to essential methods and concepts for developing and maintaining these types of systems
5 Topics of Focus Architecture & Infrastructure Health Data and Information / Clinical KnowledgeUsabilityPrivacy & Security
6 Architecture & Infrastructure Taxonomy of MISs:Clinical Point-Of-Care (POS)Public Health Information SystemsPrimary Care Systems (PCS)Organizations w/ Function Standards/Models:Health Level Seven (HL7)HL7 Messaging StandardsHL7 Reference Information Model (RIM)Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)HL7 Development FrameworkAmerican Medical Informatics Association (AMIA)OpenEHRHealth Level Seven (HL7), is an all-volunteer, not-for-profit organization involved in development of international healthcare standards. “HL7” is also used to refer to some of the specific standards created by the organization (i.e. HL7 v2.x, v3.0, HL7 RIM etc.). HL7 and its members provide a framework (and related standards) for the exchange, integration, sharing and retrieval of electronic health information. The standards, which support clinical practice and the management, delivery, and evaluation of health services, are the most commonly used in the world.openEHR is an international not-for-profit foundation, working towards making the interoperable, life-long electronic health record a reality and improving health care in the information society. It does this by developing open specifications, open-source software and knowledge resources engaging in clinical implementation projects; participating in international standards development; and supporting health informatics education
7 Architecture & Infrastructure When engineering an MIS, two key aspects are considered during design:Architecture (principles of design and construction)Macroscopic PerspectiveHealth authoritiesState, country, or international jurisdictionsMicroscopic PerspectiveProvisioning and maintaining single systemsUtilizing tools and key components of single systemsInfrastructure (collections of communication components )InteroperabilityAccommodation of evolving networks
8 Health Data & Information Health Data StructuresRepository DesignMessagingHealth Data Coding SystemsLOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes )SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms)Health Data RepresentationThe combination of the database and messaging in order to provide data in way that:High-quality decisions are madeKnowledge is transferred properlyLOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) was developed to provide a definitive standard for identifying clinical information in electronic reports. The LOINC database provides a set of universal names and ID codes for identifying laboratory and clinical test results in the context of existing HL7, ASTM E1238, and CEN TC251 observation report messages.SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine--Clinical Terms) is a comprehensive clinical terminology, originally created by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) and, as of April 2007, owned, maintained, and distributed by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization (IHTSDO), a non-for-profit association in Denmark.The demand for timely, accurate personal health data is continuously growing. The increasing volume of generated health data from different sources creates new needs for a national, or international, future intergraded personal electronic health record (EHR).
9 UsabilityUsability and ergonomics aspects needs consideration when designing the interaction portion MISThe article mentions some frameworks and models concerning usability:Human Computer Interaction (HCI) FrameworksEnabling computers and humans to work togetherComputer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) ModelEnabling humans to work cooperatively with use of computerBoth negative and positive sides to usability need consideration as wellComputer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is a design-oriented academic field bringing together social psychologists, sociologists, and computer scientists, among others. Despite the variety of disciplines, CSCW is an identifiable research field focused on understanding characteristics of interdependent group work with the objective of designing adequate computer-based technology to support such cooperative work.
10 Privacy & SecuritySince health information is highly confidential, the privacy and security of data in the MIS is another design considerationLegislations and standardsHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)Enforcement and design of security with usability
11 Conclusion Emerging area of the information technology industry Many challenges still exist