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Robert A. Jenders, MD, MS, FACP

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1 What I Did on my (Summer) Holiday: International Clinical Decision Support Standards
Robert A. Jenders, MD, MS, FACP Associate Professor, Department of Medicine Cedars-Sinai Medical Center University of California, Los Angeles USA Co-Chair, Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee, HL7 21 February 2004

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4 Overview: Clinical Decision Support Standards
Part A: Computable Clinical Guidelines Part B: Arden Syntax and Related Issues

5 Part A: Computable Guidelines
Rationale for Guidelines: Knowledge dissemination HL7: Role of the SDO in KR Shareable components of computable guidelines Guideline models Convergence & the future

6 I. Rationale for Guidelines: Evidence of Poor Performance
USA: Only 54.9% of adults receive recommended care for typical conditions community-acquired pneumonia: 39% asthma: 53.5% hypertension: 64.9% McGlynn EA, Asch SM, Adams J et al. The quality of health care delivered to adults in the United States. N Engl J Med 2003;348: Delay in adoption: 10+ years for adoption of thrombolytic therapy Antman EM, Lau J, Kupelnick B et al. A comparison of results of meta-analyses of randomized control trials and recommendations of clinical experts. Treatments for myocardial infarction. JAMA 1992;268(2):240-8.

7 Rationale for Guidelines: What are they?
“Systematically developed statements to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances.” (Field MJ, Lohr KN eds. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program. IOM. Washington, DC: NAP, 1990) Guideline: Multi-step plan that unfolds over time Incorporate the latest (scientific) evidence Identify a standard of care Distribute to caregivers

8 Rationale for Guidelines: Guideline Types
Screening and prevention Diagnosis and prediagnosis management of patients Indications for use of surgical procedures Appropriate use of specific technologies and tests as part of clinical care Care of specific clinical conditions Field MJ, Lohr KN eds. Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use. Washington, DC: NAP, 1992.

9 Rationale for Guidelines: Addressing Knowledge Dissemination
Challenge: (Paper) guidelines are not used Unavailable, inconvenient at the point of care Lack of educational effect Lack of knowledge of existence of guideline Forgetting to apply guideline in specific circumstances Challenge: Volume of publication 2M+ articles/y in 20K journals

10 Improving Guidelines: Incorporate in CDSS
Use in context of systems for providing patient care CPOE EMR Use at the time decisions are being made Ample success for limited alerts/reminders Medication prescribing practices Preventive care: screening tests, immunizations Less demonstrated success for complex guidelines

11 Challenges in Implementing Guidelines in CDSS
Availability of data Identification of data: structured, controlled vocabularies Clinical data repositories: Data model Shareable knowledge representation

12 Benefits of Shareable Guidelines
Avoid duplication of effort when using common guidelines in many institutions Rapid dissemination of modifications Encourage development of tools for retrieving and using guideline information Encourage future guideline authors to be more rigorous (decreased ambiguity) Ohno-Machado L, Gennari JH, Murphy SN et al. The GuideLine Interchange Format: a model for representing guidelines. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1998;5:

13 II. Work on KR: HL7 Growing international organization
20+ international affiliates participation by wide range of stakeholders: academia, vendors, government, consultants Moving beyond the core messaging standard CDA, CCOW, Arden Syntax Key characteristics All-volunteer organization Refereed consensus process

14 Improving KR of Guidelines: Focus on HL7
Main focus: Clinical Decision Support TC SIGs: Arden Syntax, Clinical Guidelines, Electronic Health Records Related tasks elsewhere in organization Modeling and Methodology TC: HDF RIM Other groups: Guideline International Network, (Medinfo panel) Jenders RA, Sailors RM. Convergence on a standard for representing clinical guidelines: work in Health Level Seven. Proc Medinfo 2004; in press.

15 III. Shareable Guideline Components: Challenges to Agreeing a Standard Guideline Model
Many models: GEODE-CM, GLIF, Arden Syntax, EON, DILEMMA, PROforma, Asbru, GEM, GUIDE, PRODIGY, … Many stakeholders: government, vendors, academics, professional organizations, etc Many types of guidelines Many types of (paper) guideline formats: narrative text, tables, flowcharts, graphs, maps, lists, critical pathways, if-then statements, etc

16 Standardizing Guidelines: COGS
Proposal: a standard for reporting CPGs Checklist: 18 elements Key for implementation: recommendation/rationale; algorithm; implementation considerations Others: Overview, focus, goal, users/setting, target population, developer, sponsor, evidence collection, grading criteria, method for synthesizing evidence, prerelease review, update plan, definitions, potential benefits/harms, patient preferences Next step: “Action Palette” Shiffman RN, Shekelle P, Overhage JM et al. Standardizing reporting of clinical practice guidelines: a proposal from the conference on guideline standardization. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:

17 Design Principles for CIGs: InterMed
Expressiveness Guideline comprehension Sharing: Local specification Delivery platform, mode of user interaction, practice environment, resources, local policies, differences in physical environment, differences in patient population GLIF3: Subguidelines (nesting) Other elements: data model, vocabulary, abstractions, validation Peleg M, Boxwala AA, Tu S et al. The InterMed approach to sharable computer-interpretable guidelines: a review. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2004:11:1-10.

18 Shareable Guideline Components: Decomposing the Problem
Agreement on an overall standard formalism is challenging. Instead, first focus on shareable components: Data model Expression language Future: One or more widely implemented models with shared components Shared components = ease the process of database mapping, etc

19 Shareable Guideline Components: Standard Data Models
Candidates RIM = HL7 Reference Information Model vMR = Virtual Medical Record Purpose: Standardize references to patient data Promote knowledge transfer: One-time mapping between standard and local model, followed by automated translation at the time of transfer/execution Goal: Avoid manual rewriting of data references

20 Standard Data Models: HL7 RIM
High-level, abstract model of all exchangeable data Concepts are objects: Act (e.g., observations), Living Subject, etc Object attributes Relationship among objects Common reference for all HL7 v3 standards Schadow G, Russler DC, Mead CN, McDonald CJ. Integrating medical information and knowledge in the HL7 RIM. Proc AMIA Symp 2000;:

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22 Standard Data Model: vMR
Problem with RIM: Too abstract Potential solution: Tailored version of RIM specifically for decision support Current work: Virtual Medical Record (SCHIN) Establish distinct objects that in RIM might be high-level classes (with mood and other attributes) Key classes: patient, plan, procedure, medication, appointment, referral, goal and assessment Johnson PD, Tu SW, Musen MA, Purves I. A virtual medical record for guideline-based decision support. Proc AMIA Symp 2001;:

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25 Standard Data Model: Not Enough
Need standard vocabularies Agreement is difficult Solution: Format for referring to a standard vocabulary in data references Examples: SNOMED-CT, ICD-9, LOINC, CPT, etc Implementation: One-time mapping between local and standard vocabularies Facilitation: Free licensing of SNOMED in USA as part of UMLS

26 Shareable Guideline Components: Expression Language
Purposes Query data (READ) Logically manipulate data (IF-THEN, etc) Current work: GELLO (BWH) = Guideline Expression Language Ogunyemi O, Zeng Q, Boxwala A. Object-oriented guideline expression language (GELLO) specification: Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Decision Systems Group Technical Report DSG-TR

27 Expression Language: GELLO
Original goal (InterMed): Procedural component for high-level guideline format (GLIF) Subsequent goal: Provide similar functionality for current HL7 KR standard (Arden Syntax) Emphasis: Shareability of queries and expressions Mechanism: Reference data in OO fashion

28 GELLO (continued) Provides basic data types
Allows reference to underlying standard data model (vMR) Based on the Object Constraint Language (UML) Current goal: Ballot as a separate HL7 standard during the coming 12 months

29 GELLO: Examples Queries Expressions
Observation.select(coded_concept=’03245’) Observation.selectSorted(coded_concept=“C ”) Expressions The variables calcium and phosphate are not null calcium.notEmpty() and phosphate.notEmpty() The patient has renal failure and the product of calcium and phosphate exceeds a threshold signifying osteodystrophy renal_failure and calcium_phosphate_product > threshold_for_osteodystrophy

30 IV. Guideline Models Work proceeds in parallel with shareable components Process: HL7 HDF story board modeling process work from use cases Candidate models Arden Syntax GLIF GEM CPGA

31 Guideline Models: Arden Syntax
ASTM v1 1992, HL7 v2 1999, v2.1 (ANSI) 2002 Formalism for procedural medical knowledge Unit of representation = Medical Logic Module (MLM) Enough logic + data to make a single decision Generate alerts/reminders Adopted by several major vendors Jenders RA, Dasgupta B.  Challenges in implementing a knowledge editor for the Arden Syntax: knowledge base maintenance and standardization of database linkages. Proc AMIA Symp 2002;:

32 Arden Syntax (continued)
Has been used to encode guidelines (as hierarchy of MLMs) Consensus: Not ideally suited for guidelines Entry points and eligibility criteria (not triggers) Flow of steps (not procedures) Ongoing work Arden as a separate standard for simple alerts Examine other models for guidelines

33 Guideline Model: GLIF Guideline Interchange Format
Origin: Study collaboration in medical informatics Now: GLIF3 Very limited implementation Guideline = Flowchart of temporally ordered steps Decision & action steps Concurrency: Branch & synchronization steps Peleg M, Ogunyemi O, Tu S et al. Using features of Arden Syntax with object-oriented medical data models for guideline modeling. Proc AMIA Symp 2001;:

34 GLIF (continued): Levels of Abstraction
Conceptual: Flowchart Computable: Patient data, algorithm flow, clinical actions specified Implementable: Executable instructions with mappings to local data

35 Guideline Model: GEM Guideline Elements Model = Current ASTM standard
Mark up of a narrative guideline into structured format using XML Not procedural programming Tool = GEM Cutter Resulting structure might be used to translate to executable version Shiffman RN, Agrawal A, Deshpande AM, Gershkovich P. An approach to guideline implementation with GEM. Proc Medinfo 2001;

36 GEM (continued) Model = 100+ discrete elements in 9 major branches
identity and developer, purpose, intended audience, development method, target population, testing, revision plan and knowledge components Iterative refinement: Adds elements not present verbatim but needed for execution Customization: Adding meta-knowledge controlled vocabulary terms, input controls, prompts for data capture

37 Guideline Model: CPGA Clinical Practice Guideline Architecture (SCHIN -> UK NHS) Model = Based on HL7 CDA (XML) Not a programming language Represents the structure of a guideline Sowerby Centre for Health Informatics at Newcastle. Clinical practice guideline architecture, version Web site accessed 24 April, 2003.

38 CPGA (continued) Guideline = Hierarchy of elements Header
Title, developer, etc Body Basis of evidence, recommendation, etc Elements can be refined into more atomic elements Action recommendation -> recommendation ID, author, evidence, prose recommendation and structured recommendation

39 V. Convergence and The Future
Ongoing work: Use HDF to broker consensus on a computable guideline formalism Proceed from real-world use cases Use story board techniques Resulting formalism may include elements of Arden, GLIF, GEM and CPGA

40 Convergence (continued)
Opposing view: A single formalism may not be possible or desirable Complexity of guidelines and their purposes Result: A small number of “niche” formalisms Arden for simple alerts/reminders Others for complex guidelines A small group of formalisms would share common components (data model, vocabulary, expression language)

41 The Future: Parallel Tracks
HDF process for a guideline model Shareable components of a guideline model Work on these components may promote consensus on an overall guideline model

42 The Future: Other Key Points
Shareable KR = Only 1 part of a CDS milieu Electronic data acquisition, repositories, messaging/communication, EMRs, controlled vocabularies Computable knowledge transfer must address data mapping Query language, data model, vocabulary

43 Part A: Summary Clinical performance is not ideal + knowledge is exploding Guidelines can help Paper guidelines not used ideally Need computable guidelines Knowledge sharing is fostered by standards Components: Expression language, data model Guideline formalism: Arden, GLIF, GEM, CPGA, etc

44 Part B: Arden Syntax and Guideline Issues
I. Context: KR in clinical decision support II. Work in HL7 Improving Shareability: Component Development Arden Syntax III. Issues regarding clinical guidelines: Immunization information systems (IIS) as case example

45 What is Clinical Decision Support? Different Levels
Organization of Data: the CIS “checklist effect” Stand-Alone Expert Systems often require redundant data entry Data Repository: Mining CDSS Integrated into Workflow push information to the clinician at the point of care examples: EMR, CPOE

46 Key Architectural Elements
Data capture/display/storage EMR central data repository Controlled, structured vocabulary Knowledge representation Knowledge acquisition Clinical event monitor: integrate the pieces for many different uses (clinical, research, administrative)

47 KR: Role in CDSS Architecture
Working Memory User Explanation Facility IE: Inference + Control KB: “Rules” + “Facts” UI KA Subsystem Knowledge Engineer

48 Forms of Knowledge Representation
Bayesian/probabilistic = Decision Analysis Guideline Models: GEM, GLIF, etc Case-based reasoning Ontologies Decision Tables Artificial Neural Networks Bayesian Belief Networks Procedural Production rules Arden Syntax

49 II. Work in HL7: Arden Syntax
ASTM v1 1992, HL7 v2 1999, v2.1 (ANSI) 2002 Formalism for procedural medical knowledge Unit of representation = Medical Logic Module (MLM) Enough logic + data to make a single decision Generate alerts/reminders Adopted by several major vendors Jenders RA, Dasgupta B.  Challenges in implementing a knowledge editor for the Arden Syntax: knowledge base maintenance and standardization of database linkages. Proc AMIA Symp 2002;:

50 Arden Syntax in HL7 Has been used to encode guidelines (as hierarchy of MLMs) Consensus: Not ideally suited for guidelines Entry points and eligibility criteria (not triggers) Flow of steps (not procedures) Ongoing work Arden as a separate standard for simple alerts Examine other models for guidelines

51 Support for Arden Syntax
Institutions Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Software Vendors Eclipsys/Healthvision McKesson Siemens Columbia/Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City has implemented an Arden Syntax knowledge base for clinical decision system support. A number of computer software vendors have also developed clinical decision support systems that use Arden Syntax, including: Eclipsys/Healthvision McKessonHBOC Siemens Knowledge vendors are beginning to develop knowledge bases using Arden Syntax. At present, Micromedex has developed packages of medical logic modules available by subscription. Knowledge Vendors Micromedex

52 Regenstrief Institute
Arden Syntax - History HELP LDS Hospital Salt Lake City, UT CARE Regenstrief Institute Indianapolis, IN History The development of Arden Syntax began in 1989 at a meeting held at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center Arden Homestead retreat. It was derived largely from HELP of LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT and CARE, the language of the Regenstrief Medical Record System of the Regenstrief Institute for Health Care, Indianapolis, IN. Arden Syntax 1989

53 Arden Syntax - Rationale
Arden Syntax arose from the need to make medical knowledge available for decision making at the point of care. Allow knowledge sharing within and between institutions Make medical knowledge and logic explicit Standardize the way medical knowledge is integrated into hospital information systems Decision support systems have been used for health care successfully for many years, and several institutions have already assembled large knowledge bases. There are many conceptual similarities among these knowledge bases. Unfortunately, the syntax of each knowledge base is different. Since no one institution will ever define a complete health knowledge base, it will be necessary to share knowledge bases among institutions. Many obstacles to sharing have been identified: disparate vocabularies, maintenance issues, regional differences, liability, royalties, syntactic differences, etc. This standard addresses one obstacle by defining a syntax for creating and sharing knowledge bases. In addition, the syntax facilitates addressing other obstacles by providing specific fields to enter maintenance information, assignment of clinical responsibility, links to the literature, and mappings between local vocabulary terms and terms in the knowledge base. The range of health knowledge bases is large. This specification focuses on those knowledge bases that can be represented as a set of Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). Each MLM contains maintenance information, links to other sources of knowledge, and enough logic to make a single health decision. Knowledge bases that are composed of independent rules, formulae, or protocols are most amenable to being represented using MLMs.

54 Medical Logic Module MLM = an independent unit in a health knowledge base MLM: Makes a single health decision maintenance information links to other sources of knowledge/data logic MLM = a stream of text stored in an ASCII file in statements called slots Purpose: Standard format so that knowledge can be shared A Medical Logic Module (MLM) is an independent unit in a health knowledge base. Each MLM contains maintenance information, links to other sources of knowledge, and enough logic to make a single health decision. An MLM is a stream of text stored in an ASCII file. One or more MLMs may be placed in the same file, although they usually are placed in separate files. Within a file, an MLM begins with the marker maintenance: and ends with the marker end:. MLMs may be separated by white space.

55 MLM - Structure maintenance: slotname: slot-body;; ... library:
knowledge: end: A Medical Logic Module (MLM) is composed of slots grouped into three categories: maintenance, library, and knowledge. A category is indicated by a category name followed immediately by a colon (that is, maintenance:, library:, and knowledge:).White space may precede the category name and follow the colon, but no white space is allowed between the category name and the colon. Categories must appear in the order they appear in this standard. MLM Termination The end of the MLM is marked by the word end followed immediately by a colon (that is, end:). White space may precede the terminator and follow the colon but no white space is allowed between the terminator and the colon. Case Insensitivity Category names, slot names, and the end terminator may be typed in uppercase (for example, END), lowercase (for example, end), or mixed case (for example, eNd). Within each category is a set of slots. Each slot consists of a slot name, followed immediately by a colon (for example, title:), then followed by the slot body, and terminated with two adjacent semicolons (;;) which is referred to as double semicolon. White space may precede the slot name and follow the colon, but no white space is allowed between the slot name and the colon. The content of the slot body depends upon the slot, but it must not contain a double semicolon, except inside comments, string constants, and mapping clauses. Each slot must be unique in the MLM, and categories and slots must follow the order in which they are listed in this standard. Some slots are required and others are optional.

56 Maintenance Category - Example
title: Contrast CT study in patient with renal failure;; mlmname: ct_contr.mlm;; arden: Version 2;; version: ;; institution: Arden Medical Center;; author: John Doe, MD;; specialist: Jane Doe, MD;; date: ;; validation: testing;; Maintenance Slots – Example maintenance: title: Contrast CT study in patient with renal failure;; mlmname: ct_contr.mlm;; arden: Version 2;; version: ;; institution: Arden Medical Center;; author: John Doe, MD;; specialist: Jane Doe, MD;; date: ;; validation: testing;;

57 Library Category - Example
purpose: To alert the health care provider of new or worsening serum creatinine level.;; explanation: If the creatinine is at or above a threshold (1.35 mg/dl), then an alert… ;; keywords: renal insufficiency; renal failure ;; citations: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care; 1991 Nov ; Washington, D.C. New York: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991. links: URL “NLM Web Page”, ;; Library Slots - Example library: purpose: To alert the health care provider of new or worsening serum creatinine level.;; explanation: If the creatinine is at or above a threshold (1.35 mg/dl), then an alert… ;; keywords: renal insufficiency; renal failure ;; citations: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care; 1991 Nov 17-20; Washington, D.C. New York: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991. links: URL “NLM Web Page”, ;;

58 Knowledge Category - Slots
Type Data Priority Evoke Logic Action Urgency The knowledge category contains the slots that actually specify what the MLM does. These slots define the terms used in the MLM (data slot), the context in which the MLM should be evoked (evoke slot), the condition to be tested (logic slot), and the action to take should the condition be true (action slot). Type (coded, required) The type slot specifies what slots are contained in the knowledge category. The only type that has been defined so far is data_driven, which implies that there are the following slots: data, priority, evoke, logic, action, and urgency. For backward compatibility with the 1992 standard, the type data-driven (with a dash "-" separating the words) is also permitted. That is, type: data_driven;; or type: data-driven;; Data (structured, required) In the data slot, terms used locally in the MLM are mapped to entities within an institution. The actual phrasing of the mapping will depend upon the institution. Priority (coded, optional) The priority is a number from 1 (low) to 99 (high) that specifies the relative order in which MLMs should be evoked should several of them satisfy their evoke criteria simultaneously. An institution may choose whether or not to use a priority. The institution is responsible for maintaining these numbers to avoid conflicts. A borrowing institution will need to adjust these numbers to suit its collection of MLMs. If the priority slot is omitted, a default value of 50 is used. Evoke (structured, required) The evoke slot contains the conditions under which the MLM becomes active. Logic (structured, required) This slot contains the actual logic of the MLM. It generally tests some condition and then concludes true or false. Action (structured, required) This slot contains the action produced when the logic slot concludes true. Urgency (coded, optional) The urgency of the action or message is represented as a number from 1 (low) to 99 (high), or by a variable representing a number from 1 to 99. Whereas the priority determines the order of execution of MLMs as they are evoked, the urgency determines the importance of the action of the MLM only if the MLM concludes true (that is, only if the MLM decides to carry out its action). If the urgency slot is omitted, or the variable representing urgency is null or outside the range 1 to 99, a default urgency of 50 is used.

59 Data Slot - Example creatinine := read {'dam'="PDQRES2"};
last_creat := read last {select "OBSRV_VALUE" from "LCR" where qualifier in ("CREATININE", "QUERY_OBSRV_ALL")}; Data Slot – Example Example read statements: creatinine := read {'dam'="PDQRES2"}; last_creat := read last {select "OBSRV_VALUE“ from "LCR" where qualifier in ("CREATININE","QUERY_OBSRV_ALL")}; Note that the expressions within the “curly braces” has different formats. The format of the expressions within the curly braces is institution specific. The expressions between the curly braces allow the MLM to map to data within the local database.

60 Evoke Slot The evoke slot defines what triggers an MLM
Example triggers The occurrence of an event Timed execution after an event Periodic repetition after an event Direct call from another MLM Evoke Slot The evoke slot defines what triggers an MLM Example triggers: The occurrence of an event Timed execution after an event Periodic repetition after an event Direct call from another MLM

61 Evoke Slot - Example data:
creatinine_storage := event {'32506','32752‘}; evoke: creatinine_storage;; Evoke Slot – Example data: creatinine_storage := event {'32506','32752'; /* isolated creatinine */ ...'32506','33801'; /* chem 20 */}; evoke: creatinine_storage;; Note that the storage of a creatinine is the event of interest in this case. The event is defined between the curly braces and corresponds to the storage of either a creatinine result or the storage of a chem 20 result, a battery of tests that includes a creatinine.

62 Evoke Slot - Temporal Manipulation
evoke: 3 days after time of creatinine_storage; evoke: every 1 day for 7 days starting at time of creatinine_storage; evoke: every 1 day starting at time of K_storage until K>=3; Evoke Slot – Examples of time delays after an event and recurring events evoke: 3 days after time of creatinine_storage; evoke: every 1 day for 7 days starting at time of creatinine_storage; evoke: every 1 day starting at time of K_storage until K>=3; Use of the time operators in Arden Syntax allows for delaying the time of execution of the MLM for a specified duration after the event.

63 Logic Slot Set of medical criteria Logical algorithm
Ends with a “conclude statement” conclude true; or conclude false; Logic Slot Set of medical criteria Logical algorithm Ends with a “conclude statement” conclude true; or conclude false;

64 Logic Slot: IF - THEN if <expr1> then if <expr1> then
<block1> elseif <expr2> then <block2> elseif <expr3> then <block3> ... elseif <exprN> then <blockN> else <blockE> endif; if <expr1> then <block1> endif; if <expr1> then <block1> else <block2> endif; Logic Slot – if … then … if <expr1> then <block1> endif; else <block2> elseif <expr2> then elseif <expr3> then <block3> ... elseif <exprN> then <blockN> <blockE>

65 Logic Slot - Iteration while <expr> do <block> enddo;
for <expr> do <block> enddo; Logic Slot – looping statements Looping can be accomplished with one of two statements: while <expr> do <block> enddo; for <expr> do

66 Logic Slot - Call Statements
<var> := call <name>; <var> := call <name> with <expr>; (<var>, <var>, …) := call <name> with <expr>; <var> := call <name> with <expr>, …, <expr>; (<var>, <var>, …) := call <name> with <expr>, …, <expr>; Logic Slot – call statements Call statements can be structures in several ways: <var> := call <name>; <var> := call <name> with <expr>; (<var>, <var>, …) := call <name> with <expr>; <var> := call <name> with <expr>, …, <expr>; (<var>, <var>, …) := call <name> with <expr>, …, <expr>;

67 Call Statements - Examples
var1 := call my_mlm with param1, param2; var1 := call my_event with param1, param2; var1 := call my_interface_function with param1, param2; Examples of call statements var1 := call my_mlm with param1, param2; var1 := call my_event with param1, param2; var1 := call my_interface_function with param1, param2;

68 Logic Slot - Example logic: if last_creat is not present then
alert_text := "No recent creatinine available. Consider ordering creatinine before giving IV contrast."; conclude true; elseif last_creat > 1.5 then alert_text := ”This patient has an elevated creatinine. Giving IV contrast may worsen renal function." ; else conclude false; endif; Logic Slot – Example logic: if last_creat is not present then alert_text := "No recent creatinine available. Consider ordering creatinine before giving IV contrast."; conclude true; elseif last_creat > 1.5 then alert_text := ”This patient has an elevated creatinine. Giving IV contrast may worsen renal function." ; else conclude false; endif;

69 Action Slot - Example action:
write “Last creatinine: " || last_creat || " on: " || time of last_creat; appears as: Last creatinine: 2.36 on: T06:30:00 Action Slot – Example action: write “Last creatinine: " || last_creat || " on: " || time of last_creat; appears as: Last creatinine: 2.36 on: T06:30:00

70 Conclude Statement conclude true; terminate the rule
go to the action slot conclude false; do not go to the action slot Conclude Statement conclude true; terminate the rule go to the action slot conclude false; do not go to the action slot

71 II. Improving Arden Shareability: Shareable Guideline Components
Standard data model Expression language Controlled terminologies

72 Using Shared Components in Arden: Curly Braces Problem
Site-specific data mappings are not part of the standard Enclosed in { } Example last_creat := read last {select "OBSRV_VALUE" from "LCR" where qualifier in ("CREATININE", "QUERY_OBSRV_ALL")}; Types of Elements Data queries Events Destinations

73 Addressing the Curly Braces Problem: Two Approaches
Backward-Compatible (transitional) Standard (object-oriented) data model Standard vocabularies Add “dot notation” to make variables more object-like Operator parameters must be simple/current data types Backward-Incompatible Fully object-oriented variables Methods Operator parameters may be objects

74 Backward-Compatible Approach
Focus first on data queries (bulk of processing time) Elements Query language = SQL Data model = RIM Vocabulary = SNOMED-CT, LOINC, CPT-4, ICD-9, etc General form <variable> := READ <aggregation> <attribute> FROM <RIM object> WHERE <constraint>; Jenders RA, Corman R, Dasgupta B. Making the standard more standard: a data and query model for knowledge representation in the Arden Syntax. Proc AMIA Symp 2003;:

75 Standardized Curly Braces: Examples
plasma_cell_count := read value from observation where code=’ ’^’PLASMA CELLS’^’LN’^’2.05’ and classCode = ’OBS’ and moodCode=’EVN’; (name, sex, location) := read name, administrativeGenderCode, addr from person where name = ‘Jones’; oral_meds := read code from substanceAdministration where routeCode = ‘PO’ and classCode = ‘SBADM’ and moodCode = ‘EVN’.

76 Arden Syntax: Object-Oriented Model
Declare an object <variable> := OBJECT [<attribute-1>, <attribute-2>,…] Instantiate object with a query <variable> := READ AS <object type> <aggregation> (<mapping>) WHERE <constraint>;

77 Arden Syntax: Object-Oriented Example
med := OBJECT [code, route]; pt_meds := READ AS med (code, routeCode) from substanceAdministration where classCode = ‘SBADM’ and moodCode = ‘EVN’; Variable References med.code med.routeCode

78 Backward-Incompatible Approach
Fully object-oriented on both sides of assignment operator Queries (“curly braces”) Variables Current Arden operators would have to be redefined to handle objects as parameters Application: GELLO

79 III. Knowledge Sharing Issues
Knowledge Libraries: IMKI as an example Knowledge Validation: IIS as an example

80 IMKI Institute for Medical Knowledge Implementation = Vendor consortium Goals Provide tools for encoding knowledge Provide a library of shareable knowledge (directly executable or automatically translatable) Initial effort: Arden Syntax MLMs Current status: On hiatus

81 Other Knowledge Sharing
Altruistic individual institutions CPMC (www.dmi.columbia.edu) Among institutions of the same CDSS vendor

82 Knowledge Sharing Issues: IIS as Case Example
Immunization Information System Population-based registry of immunizations delivered Aggregating data from multiple sources Complex guidelines for administration: age-based, disease-based Status in USA State and local registries (not a national registry) Work on data exchange

83 IIS: Key Knowledge Sharing Issues
How to represent (executable) guidelines? How to validate algorithm? How to validate implementation? Who does the validation?

84 Decision Support Challenge: Schedule Complexity

85 Decision Support Challenge: Schedule Complexity

86 How to represent guidelines in IIS?
Appropriate format? Original guidelines sometimes vague and exception-filled ACIP: Text-based algorithms Computable format: What to use? (Arden Syntax, GLIF, etc) Ideal goal: Publish in both narrative and executable forms Could contribute to shareable library Avoid need for manual translation at each site

87 How to validate guidelines in IIS?
Assured function: Test cases Assured knowledge structure: Central authority creates executable versions Assured system function: Central authority tests CDSS

88 Who validates guidelines in IIS?
Interest in certification (funding, assured security upon record transfer) Problem: Who certifies? Private agency: costly Government Professional organizations: AMIA, AAP, etc Standards for certification: NVAC Functional Standards NIRCC: National Immunization Registry Certifying Committee Pilot certifications now in progress

89 Part B: Summary Arden Syntax = rule-based / procedural hybrid for KR
Improving Arden Shareability Standardized “curly braces” Shareable components: Data model, expression language IIS illustrate other issues beyond KR that must be addressed Validation: How & who

90 Overall Summary There is no right answer!
Arden Syntax is implemented by major vendors Arden Syntax is used by many clients Arden Syntax may not be ideal for guidelines GEM (and others) lack computability Shareability must address data linkages

91 Thanks! Klaus Veil, Peter MacIsaac and HL7 Australia
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (USA), grant R01-HS A1 University of Central Queensland

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93 Questions/Issues for Workshop
What form(s) of KR for guidelines? Tools? Should we wait for HL7 to define a standard? What can/should we do now? Practical next steps


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