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Advanced Real-Time Shader Techniques

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Presentation on theme: "Advanced Real-Time Shader Techniques"— Presentation transcript:

1 Advanced Real-Time Shader Techniques
Natalya Tatarchuk 3D Application Research Group ATI Research

2 Overview Problems that RenderMonkey solves for you
Real-time shader creation using RenderMonkey development environment Building an effect from scratch Efficient HLSL shaders: tips and tricks Advanced Shader Examples

3 RenderMonkey Addresses the Needs of Real-Time Effect Developers
Shaders are more than just assembly code Encapsulating shaders can be complex Cannot deliver shader-based effects using a standard mechanism Solve problems for shader development Designing software on emerging hardware is difficult Lack of currently existing tools for full shader development Need a collaboration tool for artists and programmers for shader creation

4 Designed for Extensibility
Flexible framework design Evolves with the graphics API Allows easy incorporation of existing APIs Full DirectX® 9.0 support, including Microsoft HLSL Extensible framework to support emerging HL standards OpenGL 2.0 Shading Language Prototype

5 Making Your Shader Development More Effective
Simplifies shader creation Fast prototyping and debugging of new graphics algorithms Helps you share graphics effects with other developers and artists Easy integration of effects into existing applications Quickly create new components using our flexible framework A communication tool between artists and developers

6 Program Your Shaders Using Our Intuitive, Convenient IDE
Editor Windows Artist Editor Preview Window Workspace View Output Window

7 Creating a Shader-based Effect Using RenderMonkey
Setup all your effect parameters Variables Stream mapping Models and textures Rendering states Create your vertex and pixel shaders Link RenderMonkey parameter nodes to your shaders as necessary Compile and explore!

8 Phong Illumination Example
Classic lighting equation example: where each of the lighting contribution components can be computed as follows:

9 RenderMonkey Run-Time Database Overview
Encapsulate all effect data in a single text file Each Effect Workspace consists of: Effect Group(s) Effect(s) Pass(es) Render State Pixel Shader Vertex Shader Geometry Textures Variables, notes and stream mapping nodes

10 RenderMonkey Database Uses Standard XML File Format
Allows easy data representation Industry standard User-extensible Parsers are readily available User-readable file format Easily add Perl scripts to post-process your files Published DTD for RenderMonkey XML allows robust file validation Describes all effect-related information Shader code Render states Models / texture information Rendering states Import and export easily from your native formats Use our parser and run-time format Write an exporter / importer plug-in (Example: Our Microsoft FX Exporter)

11 Workspace View: Your Window into Our Database
All effect data organized in a hierarchical Workspace tree view Node rules enforce correct data relationships Full Cut / Copy / Paste / Undo Easily identify node data types by their icons Quickly identify invalid data Easy perusal of data values via automatic tooltips

12 Effect Group Nodes Group related effects in one container
Provides mechanism for dealing with a lot of effects Facilitate fallback versions of same effect Group shaders by type, pick the first one that validates How you group effects is entirely up to you

13 Effect Nodes Encompass all information needed to implement a real time visual effect Composed of one or more passes Inherit data and states from a Default Effect Used to set a known starting state for all effects

14 Data Scope and Traversal
Store common effect data in the default effect: All other effects inherit data from it Easy to share data from a common point Common rendering states Common vertex and pixel Shaders Effects don’t inherit data from other effects in the workspace Common data that should be global to the effects: Stream mapping Texture variables Model variables Variable scope is similar to C-style variable scope Data validation occurs upward through passes in the effect then upward through passes in the default effect

15 Pass Nodes Every pass is a draw call A typical pass contains:
Passes inherit data from previous pass within the effect First pass inherits from default effect A typical pass contains: A vertex and pixel shader pair (either HLSL or ASM) (required) Render state block Render states are inherited from pass to pass Texture objects Must reference a valid texture variable Each texture object stores associated texture states Geometry model reference (required) Stream mapping reference (required) May also contain nodes of other types (variables, etc) Different geometry can be used in each pass

16 Variable Nodes Parameters to your shaders
More intuitive way of dealing with constant store registers Give shader constants meaningful names and types Manipulate shader constants using convenient GUI widgets Supported variable types: Matrices - Vectors Scalars - Colors Textures - Strings (Notes)

17 Pre-defined Variables Help You Set Up Your Shaders Quickly
RenderMonkey IDE calculates their values at run-time Provide a set of commonly used parameters: View projection matrix View matrix Inverse view matrix Projection matrix View direction vector View position vector Time, time cycle period cos_time, sin_time, tan_time and more…

18 Edit Shader Parameters Using GUI Widgets via Editor plug-ins
Utilize knowledge of the variable type for editing: Color Editor Vector Editor Matrix Editor Scalar Editor Edit variables with custom widgets: easy to create your own Only accept changes you are happy with

19 Phong Illumination Parameters
Ambient, diffuse, and specular light contributions: Coefficients Color intensities Can be expressed as shader constants Normal, view and reflection vectors Normal vector is one of vertex shader inputs View and reflection vectors are computed per-vertex Specular reflection parameter Also can be expressed as a shader constant parameter

20 Simplified Stream Mapping Setup
Setup each stream using the Stream Mapping Editor A stream mapping node can be created at any point in the workspace Stream mapping nodes can be shared by multiple effects Multiple references to a stream mapping node can be created throughout the workspace Each pass must have its own stream mapping reference

21 Full Support for DirectX® 9.0 Shader Models
Assembly shaders Vertex shader versions 1.0/1.1 – 2.0 Pixel shader versions 1.0/1.1/1.3/1.4 – 2.0 Integrated HLSL support Supported compilation targets: vs_1_0, vs_2_0; ps_1_x and ps_2_0 Future support for shader versions 2_0_sw, 2_0_x, and 3_0

22 Edit Shaders Using Specialized Editors
Tabbed view allows editing multiple passes in the effect Easy switching between vertex and pixel shaders in the pass Full support for standard Windows editor functionality Undo / Cut / Copy / Paste / Font settings Automatic syntax coloring of shader code Separate syntax rules for HLSL and ASM shaders Type your code, compile and see instant results!

23 Assembly Shader Editor Plug-in
Easily link RenderMonkey variable nodes to constant store registers Syntax colored for shader assembly language Automatically maintains count of ALU and texture ops in your shader as you type! Allows saving shader code to text files

24 HLSL Shader Editor Plug-in
Allows incredible ease of shader creation Simple interface links RenderMonkey nodes to HLSL variables and samplers Link vectors, colors, scalars and matrices to variable parameters Link texture objects to samplers Control target and entry points for your shaders

25 Specular Lighting: Vertex Shader
struct VS_OUTPUT { float4 Pos : POSITION; float3 Normal: TEXCOORD0; float3 Light : TEXCOORD1; float3 View : TEXCOORD2; }; VS_OUTPUT main( float4 Pos: POSITION, float3 Norm: NORMAL ) VS_OUTPUT Out = (VS_OUTPUT) 0; Out.Pos = mul( view_proj_matrix, Pos ); // Transformed position Out.Normal = normalize( mul(view_matrix, Norm) ); // Normal Out.Light = normalize(-lightDir); // Light vector float3 Pview = mul( view_matrix, Pos ); // Compute view position Out.View = -normalize( Pview ); // Compute view vector return Out; } Compute normal and light vectors Compute view vector Transform and output vertex position

26 Specular Lighting: Pixel Shader
float4 ambient; float4 diffuse; float4 specular; float Ka; float Ks; float Kd; float N; float4 main( float4 Diff : COLOR0, float3 Normal: TEXCOORD0, float3 Light : TEXCOORD1, float3 View : TEXCOORD2 ) : COLOR { // Compute the reflection vector: float3vReflect = normalize(2*dot(Normal, Light)*Normal - Light); // Final color is composed of ambient, diffuse and specular // contributions: float4 FinalColor = Ka * ambient + Kd * diffuse * dot( Normal, Light ) + Ks * specular * pow( max( dot( vReflect, View), 0), N ) ; return FinalColor; } Compute reflection vector Specular contribution Compute ambient and diffuse contributions

27 Linking Variable Nodes to Constant Store Registers is Easy
Use constant store editor Bind a constant storage register to a variable from the effect workspace Preview the incoming values

28 Read All Application Messages in a Single Place - The Output Module
Output the results of shader compilation and application messages Linked with the shader editor for compilation error highlighting View messages from the renderer of your effect: Notifies you whenever resources are created (textures loaded, shaders compiled)

29 Integrated Compile Time Error Reporting Simplifies Shader Creation
Compilation errors displayed in the output module window Double-clicking on the error highlights the line containing erroneous code in the editor Optional compilation of a single shader, all shaders in active effect or all shaders in the workspace

30 Interactively Preview Your Effects in the Viewer Plug-in
All changes to the shader or its parameters modify the rendered image in real time DirectX® 9.0 preview HAL / REF Customize the preview: Standard trackball navigation Customizable settings for camera and clear colors A set of preset views (Front / Back / Side / etc)

31 Setup All Render States in the Render State Editor Plug-in
Modify any render state within a particular pass Render states are inherited From previous passes in the effect From the default effect Great for exploring the results of changing a render state – a useful learning tool

32 Using Textures in a RenderMonkey Effect
Texture variables can be shared between different effects Support the following texture types: 1D, 2D texture maps (JPEG, TGA, BMP formats) Cube maps (DDS) Volume textures (DDS) Dynamic renderable textures Texture objects belong to a pass node Reference a texture variable to sample from Store all related texture and sampler states Maps directly to HLSL samplers

33 Texture and Sampler State Editing
Specify texture and sampler state values (filtering, clamping, etc) for each texture node within a pass Texture and sampler states are bundled together in one editor State changes modify rendered output in real time

34 Dynamic Texture Rendering Example
Direct output of one or more passes to a texture map Sample from that texture to create interesting effects Scene post-processing Depth of Field Gaussian Blur Tone Mapping HDR Rendering Other image processing techniques

35 Rendering to a Texture Using RenderMonkey
Simple to setup Special texture variable type: Renderable Texture Direct pass output to a texture Use Render Target node to link to a Renderable Texture Modify parameters using appropriate editors Render Target Editor Renderable Texture Editor

36 Customize Renderable Texture
Specify desired texture format Select from a variety of formats Control texture dimensions Width and Height or Tie the texture size to viewport dimensions Specify whether mip maps will be generated automatically

37 Control Render Target Parameters
Modify parameters to suit your needs Specify whether the texture should be cleared Specify clear color Toggle whether the depth buffer should be cleared Specify the depth clear value

38 Develop Shaders With Your Artists
Use the Artist Editor Interface to explore shaders: Expose the power of programmable shaders to artists and designers Programmers and Artists living in harmony! View workspace using Art tab Only view data relevant to the artists Programmers can select which data is artist-editable Provides look and feel of GUI widgets artists are familiar with See changes in real time

39 Edit All Artist Parameters Using a Single Interface
Programmer has control of what parameters can be modified Flag variables as ‘artist-editable’ as needed Artist modifies only specified variables: Use the Artist Editor interface Data organization follows the effect structure: Variables are grouped in tab sheets by passes/effects they belong to Artists can tweak parameters and instantly see changes: Modify vectors, scalars, colors using convenient controls

40 Artist Editor Interface

41 Overview Writing optimal HLSL code HLSL Shader Examples
Compiling issues Optimization strategies Code structure pointers HLSL Shader Examples Multi-layer car paint effect Translucent Iridescent Shader Überlight Shader

42 Why use HLSL? Faster, easier effect development
Instant readability of your shader code Better code re-use and maintainability Optimization Added benefit of HLSL compiler optimizations Still helps to know what’s under the hood Industry standard which will run on cards from any vendor Current and future industry direction Increase your ability to iterate on a given shader design, resulting in better looking games Conveniently manage shader permutations

43 Compile Targets Legal HLSL is still independent of compile target chosen But having an HLSL shader doesn’t mean it will always run on any hardware! Currently supported compile targets: vs_1_1, vs_2_0, vs_2_sw ps_1_1, ps_1_2, ps_1_3, ps_1_4, ps_2_0, ps_2_sw Compilation is vendor-independent and is done by a D3DX component that Microsoft can update independent of the runtime release schedule

44 Compilation Failure The obvious: program errors (bad syntax, etc)
Compile target specific reasons – your shader is too complex for the selected target Not enough resources in the selected target Uses too many registers (temporaries, for example) Too many resulting asm instructions for the compile target Lack of capability in the target Such as trying to sample a texture in vs_1_1 Using dynamic branching when unsupported in the target Sampling texture too many times for the target (Example: more than 6 for ps_1_4) Compiler provides useful messages

45 Use Disassembly for Hints
Very helpful for understanding relationship between compile targets and code generation Disassembly output provides valuable hints when “compiling down” to an older compile target If successfully compiled for a more recent target (eg. ps_2_0), look at the disassembly output for hints when failing to compile to an older target (eg. ps_1_4) Check out instruction count for ALU and tex ops Figure out how HLSL instructions get mapped to assembly

46 Getting Disassembly Output for Your Shaders
Directly use FXC Compile for any target desired Compile both individual shader files and full effects Various input arguments Allow to turn shader optimizations on / off Specify different entry points Enable / disable generating debug information

47 Easier Path to Disassembly
Use RenderMonkey while developing shaders See your changes in real-time Disassembly output is updated every time a shader is compiled Displays count for ALU and texture ops, as well as the limits for the selected target Can save resulting assembly code into text file

48 Optimizing HLSL Shaders
Don’t forget you are running on a vector processor Do your computations at the most efficient frequency Don’t do something per-pixel that you can do per-vertex Don’t perform computation in a shader that you can precompute in the app Use HLSL intrinsic functions Helps hardware to optimize your shaders Know your intrinsics and how they map to asm, especially asm modifiers

49 HLSL Syntax Not Limited
The HLSL code you write is not limited by the compile target you choose You can always use loops, subroutines, if-else statements etc If not natively supported in the selected compile target, the compiler will still try to generate code: Loops will be unrolled Subroutines will be inlined If – else statements will execute both branches, selecting appropriate output as the result Code generation is dependent upon compile target Use appropriate data types to improve instruction count Store your data in a vector when needed However, using appropriate data types helps compiler do better job at optimizing your code

50 Using If Statement in HLSL
Can have large performance implications Lack of branching support in most asm models Both sides of an ‘if’ statement will be executed The output is chosen based on which side of the ‘if’ would have been taken Optimization is different than in the CPU programming world

51 Example of Using If in Vs_1_1
If ( Threshold > 0.0 ) Out.Position = Value1; else Out.Position = Value2; generates following assembly output: // calculate lerp value based on Value > 0 mov r1.w, c2.x slt r0.w, c3.x, r1.w // lerp between Value1 and Value2 mov r7, -c1 add r2, r7, c0 mad oPos, r0.w, r2, c1

52 Example of Function Inlining
// Bias and double a value to take it from 0..1 range to range float4 bx2(float x) { return 2.0f * x - 1.0f; } float4 main( float4 tc0 : TEXCOORD0, float4 tc1 : TEXCOORD1, float4 tc2 : TEXCOORD2, float4 tc3 : TEXCOORD3) : COLOR // Sample noise map three times with different // texture coordinates float4 noise0 = tex2D(fire_distortion, tc1); float4 noise1 = tex2D(fire_distortion, tc2); float4 noise2 = tex2D(fire_distortion, tc3); // Weighted sum of signed noise float4 noiseSum = bx2(noise0) * distortion_amount0 + bx2(noise1) * distortion_amount1 + bx2(noise2) * distortion_amount2; // Perturb base coordinates in direction of noiseSum as function of height (y) float4 perturbedBaseCoords = tc0 + noiseSum * (tc0.y * height_attenuation.x + height_attenuation.y); // Sample base and opacity maps with perturbed coordinates float4 base = tex2D(fire_base, perturbedBaseCoords); float4 opacity = tex2D(fire_opacity, perturbedBaseCoords); return base * opacity;

53 Code Permutations By Compiling Out Portions of the Code
static const bool bAnimate = false; VS_OUTPUT vs_main( float4 Pos: POSITION, float2 Tex: TEXCOORD0 ) { VS_OUTPUT Out = (VS_OUTPUT) 0; Out.Pos = mul( view_proj_matrix, Pos ); if ( bAnimate ) Out.Tex.x = Tex.x + time / 2; Out.Tex.y = Tex.y - time / 2; } else Out.Tex = Tex; return Out; vs_1_1 dcl_position v0 dcl_texcoord v1 mul r0, v0.y, c1 mad r0, c0, v0.x, r0 mad r0, c2, v0.z, r0 mad oPos, c3, v0.w, r0 mov oT0.xy, v1 5 instructions bool bAnimate = false; VS_OUTPUT Out = (VS_OUTPUT) 0; Out.Pos = mul( view_proj_matrix, Pos ); def c6, 0.5, 0, 0, 0 dcl_position v instructions mov r1.w, c4.x mul r1.x, r1.w, c6.x mov r1.y, -r1.x mad oT0.xy, c5.x, r1, v1 => =>

54 Scalar and Vector Data Types Optimization Notes
Scalar data types are not all natively supported in hardware i.e. integers are emulated on float hardware Not all targets have native half and none currently have double Can apply swizzles to vector types float2 vec = pos.xy But! Not all targets have fully flexible swizzles Acquaint yourself with the swizzles native to the relevant compile targets (particularly ps_2_0 and lower)

55 Integer Data Type Added to make relative addressing more efficient
Using floats for addressing purposes without defined truncation rules can result in incorrect access to arrays. All inputs used as ints should be defined as ints in your shader

56 Example of Integer Data Type Usage
Matrix palette indices for skinning Declaring variable as an int is a ‘free’ operation => no truncation occurs Using a float and casting it to an int or using directly => truncation will happen Out.Position = mul( inPos, World[Index]); // Index declared as float frc r0.w, r1.w add r2.w, -r0.w, r1.w mul r9.w, r2.w, c61.x mova a0.x, r9.w m4x4 oPos, v0, c0[a0.x] // Index declared as int mul r0.w, c60.x, r1.w mova a0.x, r0.w Code generated with float index vs integer index

57 Real-World Shader Examples
Will present several case studies of developing shaders used in ATI’s demos Multi-tone car paint effect Translucent iridescent effect Classic überlight example Examples are presented as RenderMonkeyTM workspaces Distributed publicly with version 1.0 release

58 Multi-Tone Car Paint

59 Multi-Tone Car Paint Effect
Multi-tone base color layer Microflake layer simulation Clear gloss coat Dynamically Blurred Reflections

60 Car Paint Layers Build Up
Multi-Tone Base Color Microflake Layer Clear gloss coat Final Color Composite

61 Multi-Tone Base Paint Layer
View-dependent lerping between three paint colors Normal from appearance preserving simplification process, N Uses subtractive tone to control overall color accumulation

62 Multi-Tone Base Coat Vertex Shader
VS_OUTPUT main( float4 Pos : POSITION, float3 Normal : NORMAL, float2 Tex : TEXCOORD0, float3 Tangent : TANGENT, float3 Binormal: BINORMAL ) { VS_OUTPUT Out = (VS_OUTPUT) 0; // Propagate transformed position out: Out.Pos = mul( view_proj_matrix, Pos ); // Compute view vector: Out.View = normalize( mul(inv_view_matrix, float4( 0, 0, 0, 1)) - Pos ); // Propagate texture coordinates: Out.Tex = Tex; // Propagate tangent, binormal, and normal vectors to pixel shader: Out.Normal = Normal; Out.Tangent = Tangent; Out.Binormal = Binormal; return Out; }

63 Multi-Tone Base Coat Pixel Shader
float4 main( float4 Diff: COLOR0, float2 Tex: TEXCOORD0, float3 Tangent: TEXCOORD1, float3 Binormal: TEXCOORD2, float3 Normal: TEXCOORD3, float3 View: TEXCOORD4 ) : COLOR { float3 vNormal = tex2D( normalMap, Tex ); vNormal = 2 * vNormal - 1.0; float3 vView = normalize( View ); float3x3 mTangentToWorld = transpose( float3x3( Tangent, Binormal, Normal )); float3 vNormalWorld = normalize( mul(mTangentToWorld,vNormal)); float fNdotV = saturate( dot( vNormalWorld, vView ) ); float fNdotVSq = fNdotV * fNdotV; float4 paintColor = fNdotV * paintColor0 + fNdotVSq * paintColorMid + fNdotVSq * fNdotVSq * paintColor2; return float4( paintColor.rgb, 1.0 ); } Compute the result color by lerping three input tones using computed fresnel term. Fetch normal from a normal map and scale and bias it to move into [-1; 1] Normalize the view vector to ensure higher quality results Compute Nw • V using world-space normal vector

64 Microflake Layer

65 Microflake Deposit Layer
Simulating light interaction resulting from metallic flakes suspended in the enamel coat of the paint Uses high frequency normalized vector noise map (Nn) which is repeated across the surface of the car

66 Computing Microflake Layer Normals
Start out by using normal vector fetched from the normal map, N Using the high frequency noise map, compute perturbed normal Np Simulate two layers of microflake deposits by computing perturbed normals Np1 and Np2 where c = b where a << b

67 Microflake Layer Pixel Shader
float4 main(float4 Diff: COLOR0, float2 Tex : TEXCOORD0, float3 Tangent: TEXCOORD1, float3 Binormal: TEXCOORD2, float3 Normal: TEXCOORD3, float3 View: TEXCOORD4, float3 SparkleTex : TEXCOORD5 ) : COLOR { … fetch and signed scale the normal fetched from the normal map float3 vFlakesNormal = 2 * tex2D( microflakeNMap, SparkleTex ) - 1; float3 vNp1 = microflakePerturbationA * vFlakesNormal normalPerturbation * vNormal ; float3 vNp2 = microflakePerturbation * ( vFlakesNormal + vNormal ) ; float3 vView = normalize( View ); float3x3 mTangentToWorld = transpose( float3x3( Tangent, Binormal, Normal )); float3 vNp1World = normalize( mul( mTangentToWorld, vNp1) ); float fFresnel1 = saturate( dot( vNp1World, vView )); float3 vNp2World = normalize( mul( mTangentToWorld, vNp2 )); float fFresnel2 = saturate( dot( vNp2World, vView )); float fFresnel1Sq = fFresnel1 * fFresnel1; float4 paintColor = fFresnel1 * flakeColor + fFresnel1Sq * flakeColor fFresnel1Sq * fFresnel1Sq * flakeColor pow( fFresnel2, 16 ) * flakeColor; return float4( paintColor, 1.0 ); } Compute dot products of the normalized view vector with the two microflaker layer normals Fetch initial perturbed normal vector from the noise map Compute normal vectors for both microflake layers Compose the microflake layer color

68 Clear Gloss Coat

69 Dynamically Blurred Reflections

70 Dynamic Blurring of Environment Map Reflections
A gloss map can be supplied to specify the regions where reflections can be blurred Use bias when sampling the environment map to vary blurriness of the resulting reflections Use texCUBEbias for to access the cubic environment map For rough specular, the bias is high, causing a blurring effect Can also convert color fetched from environment map to luminance in rough trim areas

71 Clear Gloss Coat Pixel Shader
float4 ps_main( ... /* same inputs as in the previous shader */ ) { // ... use normal in world space (see Multi-tone pixel shader) // Compute reflection vector: float fFresnel = saturate(dot( vNormalWorld, vView)); float3 vReflection = 2 * vNormalWorld * fFresnel - vView; float fEnvBias = glossLevel; // Sample environment map using this reflection vector and bias: float4 envMap = texCUBEbias( showroomMap, float4( vReflection, fEnvBias ) ); // Premultiply by alpha: envMap.rgb = envMap.rgb * envMap.a; // Brighten the environment map sampling result: envMap.rgb *= brightnessFactor; // Combine result of environment map reflection with the paint // color: float fEnvContribution = * fFresnel; return float4( envMap.rgb * fEnvContribution, 1.0 ); } Premultiply by alpha channel of the environment map to avoid clamping highlights and brighten the reflections Compute the reflection vector to fetch from the environment map Shader parameter is used to dynamically blur the reflections by biasing the texture fetch from the environment map Resulting reflective highlights

72 Compositing Multi-Tone Base Layer and Microflake Layer
Base color and flake effect are derived from Np1 and Np2 using the following polynomial: color0(Np1·V) + color1(Np1·V)2 + color2(Np1·V)4 + color3(Np2·V)16 Base Color Flake

73 Compositing Final Look
{ ... // Compute final paint color: combines all layers of paint as well // as two layers of microflakes: float fFresnel1Sq = fFresnel1 * fFresnel1; float4 paintColor = fFresnel1 * paintColor fFresnel1Sq * paintColorMid fFresnel1Sq * fFresnel1Sq * paintColor pow( fFresnel2, 16 ) * flakeLayerColor; // Combine result of environment map reflection with the paint // color: float fEnvContribution = * fNdotV; // Assemble the final look: float4 finalColor; finalColor.a = 1.0; finalColor.rgb = envMap * fEnvContribution + paintColor; return finalColor; }

74 Original Hand-Tuned Assembly
ps.2.0 def c0, 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 def c1, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 dcl_2d s0 dcl_2d s1 dcl_cube s2 dcl_2d s3 dcl t0 dcl t1 dcl t2 dcl t3 dcl t4 dcl t5 texld r0, t0, s1 texld r8, t5, s3 mad r3, r8, c0.w, -c0.z mad r6, r3, c4.r, r0 mad r7, r3, c4.g, r0 dp3 r4.a, t4, t4 rsq r4.a, r4.a mul r4, t4, r4.a mul r2.rgb, r0.x, t1 mad r2.rgb, r0.y, t2, r2 mad r2.rgb, r0.z, t3, r2 dp3 r2.a, r2, r2 rsq r2.a, r2.a mul r2.rgb, r2, r2.a dp3_sat r2.a, r2, r4 mul r3, r2, c0.w mad r1.rgb, r2.a, r3, -r4 mov r1.a, c10.a texldb r0, r1, s2 mul r10.rgb, r6.x, t1 mad r10.rgb, r6.y, t2, r10 mad r10.rgb, r6.z, t3, r10 dp3 r10.a, r10, r10 rsq r10.a, r10.a mul r10.rgb, r10, r10.a dp3_sat r6.a, r10, r4 mul r10.rgb, r7.x, t1 mad r10.rgb, r7.y, t2, r2 mad r10.rgb, r7.z, t3, r2 dp3_sat r7.a, r10, r4 mul r0.rgb, r0, r0.a mul r0.rgb, r0, c2.r mov r4.a, r6.a mul r4.rgb, r4.a, c5 mul r4.a, r4.a, r4.a mad r4.rgb, r4.a, c6, r4 mad r4.rgb, r4.a, c7, r4 pow r4.a, r7.a, c4.b mad r4.rgb, r4.a, c8, r4 mad r1.a, r2.a, c2.z, c2.w mad r6.rgb, r0, r1.a, r4 mov oC0, r6 40 ALU ops 3 Tex Fetches 43 Total

75 Car Paint Shader HLSL Compiler Disassembly Output
ps_2_0 def c9, 0.5, 1, 0, 0 def c10, 2, -1, 16, 1 dcl t0.xy dcl dcl dcl dcl dcl t5.xy dcl_2d s0 dcl_2d s1 dcl_cube s2 texld r0, t0, s1 mad, c10.x, r0, c10.y mul, r5.y, t2 dp3 r1.x, t4, t4 mad, t1, r5.x, r0 rsq r0.w, r1.x mad, t3, r5.z, r0 mul, r0.w, t4 nrm, r1 dp3_sat r6.x, r0, r3 mul, r0, r6.x add, r0, r0 mad, t4, -r0.w, r0 mov r0.w, c8.x texld r1, t5, s0 texldb r0, r0, s2 mad, c10.x, r1, c10.y mul, r5, c2.x mad, c3.x, r2, r1 mul, r1.y, t2 mad, t1, r1.x, r4 add, r5, r2 mad, t3, r1.z, r4 nrm, r4 mul, r2, c7.x dp3_sat r5.x, r1, r3 mul, r2.y, t2 mul r1.w, r5.x, r5.x mad, t1, r2.x, r1 mul, r1.w, c6 mad, t3, r2.z, r4 mul r1.w, r1.w, r1.w nrm, r4 mad, r5.x, c4, r1 dp3_sat r2.x, r2, r3 mad, r1.w, c5, r1 pow r1.w, r2.x, c10.z mad, r1.w, c1, r1 mul, r0.w, r0 mad r0.w, r6.x, -c9.x, c9.y mul, r0, c0.x mad, r0, r0.w, r1 mov r0.w, c10.w mov oC0, r0 38 ALU ops 3 Tex Fetches 41 Total !

76 Full Result of the Application of Multi-Layer Paint to Car Body

77 Translucent Iridescent Shader: Butterfly Wings

78 Translucent Iridescent Shader: Butterfly Wings
Simulates translucency of delicate butterfly wings Wings glow from scattered reflected light Similar to the effect of softly backlit rice paper Displays subtle iridescent lighting Similar to rainbow pattern on the surface of soap bubbles Caused by the interference of light waves resulting from multiple reflections of light off of surfaces of varying thickness Combines gloss, opacity and normal maps for a multi-layered final look Gloss map contributes to satiny highlights Opacity map allows portions of wings to be transparent Normal map is used to give wings a bump-mapped look

79 RenderMonkey Butterfly Wings Shader Example
Parameters that contribute to the translucency and iridescence look: Light position and scene ambient color Translucency coefficient Gloss scale and bias Scale and bias for speed of iridescence change Workspace: HLSL_IridescentButterly.xml

80 Translucent Iridescent Shader Algorithm: Basic Steps
Compute light, view and halfway vectors in tangent space Load base texture map, gloss map, opacity map and normal map Compute diffusely reflected light Compute scattered illumination contribution Adjust for transparency of wings Compute iridescence contribution Add gloss highlights Assemble final color

81 Translucent Iridescent Shader: Vertex Shader
.. // Propagate input texture coordinates: Out.Tex = Tex; // Define tangent space matrix: float3x3 mTangentSpace; mTangentSpace[0] = Tangent; mTangentSpace[1] = Binormal; mTangentSpace[2] = Normal; // Compute the light vector (object space): float3 vLight = normalize( mul( inv_view_matrix, lightPos ) - Pos ); // Output light vector in tangent space: Out.Light = mul( mTangentSpace, vLight ); // Compute the view vector (object space): float3 vView = normalize( mul( inv_view_matrix, float4(0,0,0,1)) - Pos ); // Output view vector in tangent space: Out.View = mul( mTangentSpace, vView ); // Compute the half angle vector (in tangent space): Out.Half = mul( mTangentSpace, normalize( vView + vLight ) ); return Out; Compute Halfway vector H = V + L in tangent space Compute light vector in tangent space Define tangent space matrix Compute view vector in tangent space

82 Translucent Iridescent Shader: Loading Information
Load normal from a normal map and gloss value from a gloss map (combined in one texture map) Load base texture color and alpha value from combined base and opacity texture map float3 vNormal, baseColor; float fGloss, fTranslucency; // Load normal and gloss map: float4( vNormal, fGloss ) = tex2D( bump_glossMap, Tex ); // Load base and opacity map: float4 (baseColor, fTranslucency) = tex2D( base_opacityMap, Tex );

83 Diffuse Illumination For Translucency
Light scattered on the butterfly wings is computed based on the negative normal (for scattering off the surface), light vector and translucency coefficient and value for the given pixel. float3 scatteredIllumination = saturate(dot(-vNormal, Light)) * fTranslucency * translucencyCoeff; float3 diffuseContribution = saturate(dot(vNormal,Light)) + ambient; baseColor *= scatteredIllumination + diffuseContribution; Compute diffusely reflected light using the bump-mapped normal and ambient contribution Combine diffuse and scattered light with base texture *( + ) =

84 Adding Opacity to Butterly Wings
Resulted color is modulated by the opacity value to add transparency to the wings: // Premultiply alpha blend to avoid clamping the highlights: baseColor *= fOpacity; * =

85 Making Butterfly Wings Iridescent
Scale and bias gradient map index to make iridescence change quicker across the wings Sample gradient map based on the computed index Resulting iridescence image: Iridescence is a view-dependent effect // Compute index into the iridescence gradient map, which // consists of N*V coefficient float fGradientIndex = dot( vNormal, View) * iridescence_speed_scale + iridescence_speed_bias; // Load the iridescence value from the gradient map: float4 iridescence = tex1D( gradientMap, fGradientIndex );

86 Assembling Final Color
// Compute glossy highlights using values from gloss map: float fGlossValue = fGloss * ( saturate( dot( vNormal, Half )) * gloss_scale + gloss_bias ); // Assemble the final color for the wings baseColor += fGlossValue * iridescence; Compute gloss value based on the original gloss map input and < N, H> dot product Assemble final wings color

87 HLSL Disassembly Comparison to the Hand-Tuned Assembly
ps.2.0 def c0, 0, .5, 1, 2 def c1, 4, 0, 0, 0 ... texld r1, t0, s1 mad, r1, c0.w, -c0.z dp3_sat r4.y, r1, t2 dp3_sat r4.w, r1, -t2 texld r0, t0, s0 mul r4.w, r4.w, r0.a mad r5.w, r4.w, c1.x, r4.y add r5.rgb, r5.w, c3 mul r0.rgb, r0, r5 sub_sat r0.a, c0.z, r0.a dp3 r6.xy, r1, t1 dp3_sat r6.y, r1, t3 mad r6.y, r6.y, c4.x, c4.y mul r6.z, r6.y, r1.w mad r6.x, r6.x, c4.z, c4.w texld r2, r6, s2 mul r0.rgb, r0, r0.a mad r0.rgb, r6.z, r2, r0 mov oC0, r0 ps_2_0 def c6, 2, -1, 1, 0 texld r0, t0, s1 mad, c6.x, r0, c6.y dp3_sat r0.x, r2, t3 mov r1.w, c5.x mad r1.w, r0.x, r1.w, c3.x dp3 r0.x, r2, t1 mul r2.w, r0.w, r1.w mov r0.w, c2.x mad r0.xy, r0.x, r0.w, c0.x texld r1, r0, s2 texld r0, t0, s0 dp3_sat r4.x, r2, t2 dp3_sat r3.x, -r2, t2 add, r4.x, c4 mul r1.w, r0.w, r3.x mul, r2.w, r1 mad, r1.w, c1.x, r2 mul, r0, r2 add r0.w, -r0.w, c6.z mad, r0, r0.w, r1 Hand-Tuned Assembly Code HLSL Compiler-Generated Disassembly Code 12 ALU 3 Texture 15 Total 15 ALU 3 Texture 18 Total

88 Example of Translucent Iridescent Shader

89 Optimization Study: Überlight
Flexible light described in JGT article “Lighting Controls for Computer Cinematography” by Ronen Barzel of Pixar Überlight is procedural and has many controls: light type, intensity, light color, cuton, cutoff, near edge, far edge, falloff, falloff distance, max intensity, parallel rays, shearx, sheary, width, height, width edge, height edge, roundness and beam distribution Code here is based upon the public domain RenderMan® implementation by Larry Gritz

90 Überlight Spotlight Mode
Spotlight mode defines a procedural volume with smooth boundaries Shape of spotlight is made up of two nested superellipses which are swept along direction of light Also has smooth cuton and cutoff planes Can tune parameters to get all sorts of looks

91 Überlight Spotlight Volume
Roundness = ½

92 Überlight Spotlight Volume
Outer swept superellipse Roundness = 1 b Inner swept superellipse a A B

93 Original clipSuperellipse() routine
Computes attenuation as a function of a point’s position in the swept superellipse. Directly ported from original RenderMan source Compiles to 42 cycles in ps_2_0, 40 cycles on R3x0 float clipSuperellipse ( float3 Q, // Test point on the x-y plane float a, // Inner superellipse float b, float A, // Outer superellipse float B, float roundness) // Same roundness for both ellipses { float x = abs(Q.x), y = abs(Q.y); float re = 2/roundness; // roundness exponent float q = a * b * pow (pow(b*x, re) + pow(a*y, re), -1/re); float r = A * B * pow (pow(B*x, re) + pow(A*y, re), -1/re); return smoothstep (q, r, 1); } Computes ellipse roundness exponent for every point Separate calculations of absolute value

94 Vectorized Version Precompute functions of roundness in app
Vectorize abs() and all of the multiplications Compiles to 33 cycles in ps_2_0, 28 cycles on R3x0 float clipSuperellipse ( float2 Q, // Test point on the x-y plane float4 aABb, // Dimensions of superellipses float2 r) // Two precomputed functions of roundness { float2 qr, Qabs = abs(Q); float2 bx_Bx = Qabs.x * aABb.wzyx; // Swizzle to unpack bB float2 ay_Ay = Qabs.y * aABb; qr.x = pow (pow(bx_Bx.x, r.x) + pow(ay_Ay.x, r.x), r.y); qr.y = pow (pow(bx_Bx.y, r.x) + pow(ay_Ay.y, r.x), r.y); qr *= aABb * aABb.wzyx; return smoothstep (qr.x, qr.y, 1); } Compute b * x and B * x in a single instruction and a * y and A * y in another instruction Vectorized computation of the absolute value Contains precomputed 2/roundness and –roundness / 2 parameters Final result computation that feeds into smoothstep() function

95 smoothstep() function
Standard function in procedural shading Intrinsics built into RenderMan and DirectX HLSL: 1 edge0 edge1

96 C implementation float smoothstep (float edge0, float edge1, float x)
{ if (x < edge0) return 0; if (x >= edge1) return 1; // Scale/bias into [0..1] range x = (x - edge0) / (edge1 - edge0); return x * x * (3 - 2 * x); }

97 HLSL implementation The free saturate handles x outside of [edge0..edge1] range float smoothstep (float edge0, float edge1, float x) { // Scale, bias and saturate x to 0..1 range x = saturate((x - edge0) / (edge1 – edge0)); // Evaluate polynomial return x * x * (3 – 2 * x); }

98 Vectorized HLSL Implementation
With these optimizations, the entire spotlight volume computation of überlight compiles to 47 cycles in ps_2_0, 41 cycles on R3x0 float3 smoothstep3 (float3 edge0, float3 edge1, float3 OneOverWidth, float3 x) { // Scale, bias and saturate x to [0..1] range x = saturate( (x - edge0) * OneOverWidth ); // Evaluate polynomial return x * x * (3 – 2 * x); } float3 smoothstep3 (float3 edge0, float3 edge1, float3 OneOverWidth, float3 x) { // Scale, bias and saturate x to [0..1] range x = saturate( (x - edge0) * OneOverWidth ); // Evaluate polynomial return x * x * (3 – 2 * x); } Operations are performed on float3 to compute 3 different smoothstep operations in parallel Precompute 1 / (edge 1- edge 0)

99 Conclusion RenderMonkey IDE is a powerful, intuitive environment for developing shaders Prototype your shaders quickly Explore all parameters for your shaders using convenient GUI widgets Let your artists tweak shader parameters to find the desired look Develop shaders with your artists!

100 Presentation Summary Building effects in real-time with RenderMonkey
Writing optimal HLSL code Shader Examples Shipped with RenderMonkey version 1.0 see HLSL Car Paint.xml HLSL Iridescent Butterfly.xmll

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