 MIPS Assembly Tutorial

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MIPS Assembly Tutorial

Types of Instructions There are 3 main types of assembly instructions
Arithmetic - add, sub, mul, shifts, and, or, etc. Load/store Conditional - branches

Arithmetic Instructions
add a, b, c a = b+c add a, a, d a = d+a = d+b+c add a, a, e a = e+a = e+d+b+c Example: Translate the following instructions to assembly code a = b+c d = a-e Solution: add a, b, c sub d, a, e

Arithmetic Instructions
Example: Translate the following instructions to assembly code. Remember with RISC, only 1 operation per instruction! HINT - you may need temporary variables f = (g+h) - (i+j) Solution: add t0, g, h add t1, i, j sub f, t0, t1

Operands In assembly code, you can’t use variables such as a, b, c, etc In RISC instruction sets, operands must be registers such as r1, r2, r3, etc r0 is typically reserved to hold the immediate value of 0 There is a limited number of registers MIPS has 32

Arithmetic Instructions Using Registers
Example: Translate the following instructions to assembly code. Assume that g, h, i, and j are already stored in r1, r2, r3, and r4. Store f in r5 f = (g+h) - (i+j) Solution: add r6, r1, r2 add r7, r3, r4 sub r5, r6, r7

What about more data?? With only a limited number of registers, not all data can be stored in registers at the same time. Registers only store data that is currently being operated on Variables are stored in memory and then loaded into registers when needed using data transfer instructions Load word (lw) and store word (sw)

Load and store word Load word format Store word format
lw destination register, memory location Store word format sw source register, memory location Memory location format Offset(base address) Base address = starting location of data in memory Offset = how far away is location to access from base address Values are added together

This is simplified, more details later…
LW Example Example: Assume that A is an array of 100 words. Assume the base address is stored in r3, g is in r1 and h is in r2 g = h + A Solution: Offset This is simplified, more details later… lw r4, 8(r3) add r1, r2, r4 Base Address

Data in Memory All variables/data are stored in memory
You will need to do this in your assembler Your ISS will need a data structure to hold main memory Array is fine

Addressing Data Architecture usually addresses data in bytes (byte addressable) 32-bit architecture = 4 bytes = 1 word lw/sw load/store 1 word or 4 bytes Thus, data/inst addresses are multiples of 4 Data is word aligned to be more efficient

Data in Memory ... ... 12 8 4 100 10 101 1 Address Data

LW/SW Example Example: Assume that A is an array of 100 words. Assume the base address is stored in r3 and h is stored in r2. You may directly calculate the offset. Remember, each data piece is 4 bytes when calculating the offset A = h+A Solution: lw r1, 32(r3) add r4, r2, r1 sw r4, 48(r3)

LW/SW Example Example: Assume that A is an array of 100 words. Assume the base address is stored in r3 and g, h, and i are in r1, r2, and r4 respectively. Calculate the offset using assembly instructions but don’t use multiplication yet (mult instruction is different) g = h + A[i] Solution: add r5, r4, r4 # Temp reg r5=2*i add r5, r5, r5 # Temp reg r5=4*i add r5, r5, r3 # t1 = addr of A[i] (4*i+r3) lw r6, 0(r5) # Temp reg r0=a[i] add r1, r6, r2 # g=h+a[i]

Translating MIPS Assm Language to Machine Language
Translate human readable assembly code to machine readable code (binary) I will show examples in decimal for readability This is what you assembler will do but it will output in binary.

MIPS -> Machine Language
Example: Show the real MIPS language version of the following instruction in both decimal and binary add r0, r1, r2 Solution: decimal 1 2 32 binary 000000 00000 00001 00010 100000 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits Each segment is referred to as a field. Details to come….

MIPS Fields MIPS fields are giving names to make them easier to discuss op rs rt rd shamt funct 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits op: Basic operation of the instruction, typically called the opcode rs: The first register source operand rt: The second register source operand rd: The register destination operand, it gets the result of the operation shamt: Shift amount (0 if not shift instruction) funct: Function. This field selects the specific variant of the operation in the op field, and is sometimes called the function code

MIPS Fields Problem occurs with an instruction needs a longer field than that showed on the previous slide I.e. LW must specify 2 registers and a constant. Limited to 5-bit constant if use previous format. Solution: There are different formats for different types of instructions Previous slide is R-type (R-format): R=register

MIPS Fields I-type (I-format) Opcode determines the format I=immediate
rs rt address 6 bits 5 bits 16 bits I-type (I-format) I=immediate Now LW can specify an address up to 16-bits Opcode determines the format

MIPS Instruction Encoding

MIPS Asm -> Machine Language
Example: Assume r1 is the base of A and r2 corresponds to h, the C statement: is compiled to: What is the MIPS machine code for these three instructions? (Use figure 3.5) A = h + A lw r0, 1200(r1) add r0, r2, r0 sw r0, 1200(r1)

MIPS Asm -> Machine Language
lw r0, 1200(r1) add r0, r2, r0 sw r0, 1200(r1) Solution: decimal Address/shamt op rs rt rd funct 35 1 1200 2 32 43 1 1200 binary 100011 00000 00001 000000 00000 00010 32 101011 00000 00001

Decision Instructions
Branch/jump instructions Conditional branches beq register1, register2, Label bne register1, register2, Label Unconditional branches j Label

Decision Instructions
Example: Assume f->r0, g->r1, h->r2, i->r3, j->r4 if ( i==j ) goto L1 f = g+h L1: f = f-i Solution: beq r3, r4, L1 add r0, r1, r2 L1: sub r0, r0, r3 Labels will need to be translated to instruction address in your assembler

Decision Instructions
Example: Assume f->r0, g->r1, h->r2, i->r3, j->r4 if ( i==j ) f = g+h L1: else f = g-h L2: Solution: bne r3, r4, L1 add r0, r1, r2 j L2 L1: sub r0, r1, r2 L2:

Decision Instructions
Example: A is 100 elements with the base address in r5. g->r1, h->r2, i->r3, j->r4 Loop: g = g+A[i] i = i+j if ( i!=h ) goto Loop Solution: Loop: add r6, r3, r3 add r6, r6, r6 add r6, r6, r5 lw r7, 0(r6) add r1, r1, r7 add r3, r3, r4 bne r3, r2, Loop

While Loop Goto statements are bad, just used them as an example.
You will want to use while loops Or for loops but I am just showing you while loops

Example: Base address of save is in r6. i->r3, j->r4, k->r5
While Loop Example: Base address of save is in r6. i->r3, j->r4, k->r5 while ( save[i] == k ) i = i+j Solution: Loop: add r1, r3, r4 add r1, r1, r1 add r1, r1, r6 lw r0, 0(r1) bne r0, r5, Exit add r3, r3, r4 j Loop Exit:

Other Styles of MIPS Addressing
Constant or immediate operands Programs often use constant values I.e. incrementing to the next data element while scanning an array addi instruction - adds an immediate value to a register

Immediate Operands Example: What is the machine code for the following? (Remember the I-format instruction) addi r4, r4, 4 Solution: decimal op rs rt Immediate 8 4 binary 001000 00100

Addressing in Branches and Jumps
Last instruction format - J-type (J-format) Branches do not use J-type. Must specify 2 registers to compare Use I-type opcode Target address