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Prof. Dr. Haluk UTKU Institute of Nuclear Sciences Hacettepe University Ankara, Turkey PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. Dr. Haluk UTKU Institute of Nuclear Sciences Hacettepe University Ankara, Turkey PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prof. Dr. Haluk UTKU Institute of Nuclear Sciences Hacettepe University Ankara, Turkey PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

2 GENERAL SYSTEM March 27-28th, 2008, WORLD CONJUNCTURE IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants, Istanbul

3 Picture: Mıtsubishi Heavy Industries REACTOR VESSEL 27-28 Mart 2008, NÜKLEER TEKNOLOJİDE DÜNYA KONJONKTÜRÜ: III. Ve III+ Nesil Nükleer Reaktörler Kongresi, İstanbul

4 REACTOR VESSEL Height (m)11.5-13.5 Thickness (mm)180-255 Internal Diameter (m)3.4-5.2 Weight (ton)240-590 Max. Pressure (Atm.)170 Max. Temperature ( o C)343 MaterialManganese Molibdenium Steel (Linen: Stainless Steel, 3.2 mm) Core Barrel Vessel Head Control Rod Thimble Guide Coolant Inlet Nozzle Coolant Outlet Vessel Control Rod Drive Mechanism Rod Cluster Control Mechanism Fuel Neutron Reflector March 27-28th, 2008, WORLD CONJUNCTURE IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants, Istanbul

5 REACTOR CORE DIMENSIONS MWe60090012001500 Power (MWth)1650265234114451 Core Equivalent Diameter (m) 2.53.03.43.9 Core Active Height (m) 3.7 Total Fuel Assembly 121157193257 27-28 Mart 2008, NÜKLEER TEKNOLOJİDE DÜNYA KONJONKTÜRÜ: III. Ve III+ Nesil Nükleer Reaktörler Kongresi, İstanbul

6 FUEL Pictures: GE, Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Westinghouse Top Coolant Flow Nozzle Bottom Flow Nozzle Filter Instrumentation Guide at the Center Grid Control Rod Guides Fuel Rods March 27-28th, 2008, WORLD CONJUNCTURE IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants, Istanbul

7 FUEL Total Fuel Assembly*121 - 257 Assembly Lattice14x14 – 17x17 Distance Between Fuel Rods in an Assembly(cm) 0.31 cm Fuel Rod Diameter (cm)0.94 U-235 enrichment (%)1.9 – 4.95 Core Total Fuel Weight (ton)89 - 121 Burnup (MWd/MTU)33000 - 60000 * For a reactor with 193 fuel assambly there are 51000 fuel rods and approximately 18 million fuel pelets. 27-28 Mart 2008, NÜKLEER TEKNOLOJİDE DÜNYA KONJONKTÜRÜ: III. Ve III+ Nesil Nükleer Reaktörler Kongresi, İstanbul

8 FUEL FAILURE RATES IN US PLANTS

9 CONTRIBUTION OF FUEL CYCLE TO POWER GENERATION COST Natural Uranium and Processing (%2.6) Enrichment (%3.6) Production of Fuel Assembly (%2.6) Disposal (%11.2) %20%80 March 27-28th, 2008, WORLD CONJUNCTURE IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants, Istanbul

10 Ractor Vessel Pressurizer Steam Generator Coolant Pump Reactor Coolant Pressure (Atm.) Secondary System Presssure (Atm.) ~153 ~ 60 Coolant Flow Rate (m 3 /h/loop)2.01x10 4 for 3420 MW th 2.58x10 4 for 4450 MW th Pump Shaft Power (kW) ΔP (Atm.) 4470 – 7460 6 Coolant Inlet Temperature ( o C) Coolant Outlet Temperature ( o C) ~ 288 ~ 328 REACTOR CORE COOLANT SYSTEM 27-28 Mart 2008, NÜKLEER TEKNOLOJİDE DÜNYA KONJONKTÜRÜ: III. Ve III+ Nesil Nükleer Reaktörler Kongresi, İstanbul

11 Coolant Pump Coolant Pump - Pressurizer Pressurizer March 27-28th, 2008, WORLD CONJUNCTURE IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants, Istanbul

12 Recirculating Steam Generators: Westinghouse-USA; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries-Japan; Siemens-Kraftwerke-Germany; Babcock & Wilcox-Canada Once-Through Steam Generator: Babcock & Wilcox, USA Horizontally Placed Steam Generators: Zio, Atommash-Russian; Vitkovice-Check STEAM GENERATORS 27-28 Mart 2008, NÜKLEER TEKNOLOJİDE DÜNYA KONJONKTÜRÜ: III. Ve III+ Nesil Nükleer Reaktörler Kongresi, İstanbul

13 Primary InletPrimary Outlet Steam Outlet Steam Separators Feedwater Inlet Downcomer Annulus Tube Sheet Tube Supports Tube Bundle RECIRCULATING STEAM GENERATORS References: www.kntc.re.kr March 27-28th, 2008, WORLD CONJUNCTURE IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants, Istanbul

14 ONCE-THROUGH AND HORIZONTAL STEAM GENERATORS Reactor coolant flow tubesı From Reactor To Reactor Perforated plates To Turbine Steam Generator Pressure 63 Atm. Feedwater Temp. 220-225 o C Moisture at the outlet 0.2%

15 CONTAINMENT BUILDING Containment Design relies on calculating the peak containment pressure during potential accidents. The containment must withstand the pressure and temperature of Design Basis Accident without exceeding the design leakage rate of 0.2% volume/day for the 24 hours and 1% volume/day thereafter. Steel linen is used inside to protect from any gas diffusion. Applied Regulations: 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 52, 53 and 54 10 CFR 50, Appendix J 27-28 Mart 2008, NÜKLEER TEKNOLOJİDE DÜNYA KONJONKTÜRÜ: III. Ve III+ Nesil Nükleer Reaktörler Kongresi, İstanbul

16 CONTAINMENT BUILDING Sandia National Laboratories, USA conducted a test of slamming a jet fighter into a large concrete block at 775 km/h airplane left a 6.4 cm deep gouge in the concrete. Although the block was not constructed like a containment building missle shield, the results were considered indicative. In another work EPRI, Electric Power Research Institute, conducted a aircraft crash impact analysis. Analysis showed that no parts of the aircraft entered the containment buildings. The robust containment structure was not breached (Boeing 767-400, weights 203 tons with full fuel, the wing span is 51.5 m.) March 27-28th, 2008, WORLD CONJUNCTURE IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants, Istanbul

17 Decay heat removal system after shutdown Residual heat removal system Emergency core cooling cystem Containment spray system Radiation control systems Systems to filter accumulated gas in the containment ENGINNERING SAFETY FEATURES 27-28 Mart 2008, NÜKLEER TEKNOLOJİDE DÜNYA KONJONKTÜRÜ: III. Ve III+ Nesil Nükleer Reaktörler Kongresi, İstanbul

18 Relative deviation from the criticalitiy is called reactivity. 1. Shutdown Rods 2. Gray Rods 3. Dark Rods 4. Xenon 5. Fuel Temperature reactivity feedback 6. Moderator (Coolant) Temperature & boron reactivity feedback Note that reactivity is a computed parameter, and not a measured parameter. It is not directly available at an actual plant. THE REACTIVITY CONTRIBUTIONS OF DEVICES AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENON March 27-28th, 2008, WORLD CONJUNCTURE IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants, Istanbul


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