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Low scale gravity black holes at LHC Enikő Regős ( CERN )

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Search for Extra Dimensions LHC : Quantum Gravity & Extra Dimensions LHC : Quantum Gravity & Extra Dimensions Stringy Quantum Black Holes Stringy Quantum Black Holes Low-scale Gravity Black Holes at CMS Low-scale Gravity Black Holes at CMS

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Quantum gravity and accelerator physics Obtain limits from collider experiments Obtain limits from collider experiments Graviton interference effects at Large Hadron Collider, CERN Graviton interference effects at Large Hadron Collider, CERN Decay modes of particles with mass in TeV range Decay modes of particles with mass in TeV range Hadron/lepton scatterings and Hadron/lepton scatterings and decays in extra-dimensional models decays in extra-dimensional models Black holes at LHC, CMS Black holes at LHC, CMS Limits from cosmology and astrophysics: cosmic rays and supernovae Limits from cosmology and astrophysics: cosmic rays and supernovae Particle astrophysics Particle astrophysics Dark matter mass of particles, Ex: Axions Ex: Axions Evidence from Evidence from observations for extra D observations for extra D Quantum black holes: energy spectrum, depend on parameters of space times, strings

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Collider Physics : QG & ED QG & ED, the hierarchy problem QG & ED, the hierarchy problem Experimental signatures at colliders : Kaluza – Klein graviton production Experimental signatures at colliders : Kaluza – Klein graviton production Gravitational decay of heavy particles in extra dimensions Gravitational decay of heavy particles in extra dimensions Virtual KK graviton exchange at Z pole Virtual KK graviton exchange at Z pole Bounds from astrophysics, cosmology Bounds from astrophysics, cosmology

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Hierarchy problem & ED Fundamental scales in nature : Fundamental scales in nature : Planck mass : E19 GeV Planck mass : E19 GeV Electroweak scale : 240 GeV Electroweak scale : 240 GeV Supersymmetry : fundamental theory at M_Pl, Supersymmetry : fundamental theory at M_Pl, EW derived ( small #) from dynamics EW derived ( small #) from dynamics Broken ( particle mass ) : gravity mediated Broken ( particle mass ) : gravity mediated gravitino mass determines partner masses gravitino mass determines partner masses EW breaking induced by radiative corrections EW breaking induced by radiative corrections

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Extra dimensions EW scale fundamental, M_Pl derived EW scale fundamental, M_Pl derived Compact ED ( radius R ) Compact ED ( radius R ) Matter confined in 4D Matter confined in 4D Gravity : propagates in all D, Gravity : propagates in all D, weak : compact space dimensions large compared to electroweak scale weak : compact space dimensions large compared to electroweak scale G = G_D / (2 π R)^ (D-4) G = G_D / (2 π R)^ (D-4)

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TeV scale M_Pl Planck mass of order 1 TeV : Planck mass of order 1 TeV : 1 ED : R ~ E8 km 1 ED : R ~ E8 km 2 : 0.4 mm 2 : 0.4 mm 4 : E-5 μm 4 : E-5 μm 6 : 30 fm 6 : 30 fm Newton law modified at small scale Newton law modified at small scale ( exponent ) ( exponent )

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LHC and extra-dimensional models Planck scale at TeV Planck scale at TeV Strong gravity at TeV: black hole formation Strong gravity at TeV: black hole formation New particles New particles Gravity is weak as diluted in extra-D’s, matter confined in 4D Gravity is weak as diluted in extra-D’s, matter confined in 4D Polarization asymmetries, forward-backward Polarization asymmetries, forward-backward Shift of Z peak Shift of Z peak

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LHC and Kaluza-Klein gravitons Graviton production Graviton production Gravitational decay of heavy particles Gravitational decay of heavy particles Top decay, Higgs, Z Top decay, Higgs, Z pp -> jet + missing transverse energy pp -> jet + missing transverse energy g-2 of muon g-2 of muon Rare decays : K, qq_, Y, Z, J/ψ, μ Rare decays : K, qq_, Y, Z, J/ψ, μ Higher-dimensional seesaw mechanism to give mass to light neutrinos Higher-dimensional seesaw mechanism to give mass to light neutrinos

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Rare decays μ -> ν_μ e ν__e + G, K -> π + G, μ -> ν_μ e ν__e + G, K -> π + G, J / ψ -> γ + G, Y -> γ + G, J / ψ -> γ + G, Y -> γ + G, Z -> f f_ + G, t -> b W + G, Z -> f f_ + G, t -> b W + G, H -> f f_ + G, H -> W + W_ + G H -> f f_ + G, H -> W + W_ + G

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Rare decays to KK Quarkonium q q_ -> γ + G Quarkonium q q_ -> γ + G Y decay prefered to J / ψ Y decay prefered to J / ψ experimental BR experimental BR M_D > 50 (9) GeV ( 2, 6 ED ) M_D > 50 (9) GeV ( 2, 6 ED )

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Discussion Strong gravity at TeV scale : Black Hole production Strong gravity at TeV scale : Black Hole production If new TeV particles - KK excitations of SM fields at LHC : quantum gravity significantly affects their decay modes If new TeV particles - KK excitations of SM fields at LHC : quantum gravity significantly affects their decay modes Emission of KK gravitons : main decay modes of heavy particles, SM ones too Emission of KK gravitons : main decay modes of heavy particles, SM ones too Z -> ff_ + E_miss : experimental resolution on BR constrains M_D Z -> ff_ + E_miss : experimental resolution on BR constrains M_D

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Higgs decay : for lower bound on M_D : Higgs decay : for lower bound on M_D : M_H = 120 GeV E-7 M_H = 120 GeV E GeV E GeV E-5 resolution on gravitational BR resolution on gravitational BR Virtual KK graviton exchange not affects Virtual KK graviton exchange not affects Z- resonance observables for current experimental sensitivity Z- resonance observables for current experimental sensitivity

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Stringy Black Holes : D branes D branes D branes D = 5 type – IIB black hole : D = 5 type – IIB black hole : Q1 D1 and Q5 D5 branes intersections Q1 D1 and Q5 D5 branes intersections in ds ² : in ds ² : f = ∏ [ 1 + ( r0 sh δ / r) ² ] ( 1, 5, p ) f = ∏ [ 1 + ( r0 sh δ / r) ² ] ( 1, 5, p ) 1, 5 – brane charges : electric, magnetic, KK charge 1, 5 – brane charges : electric, magnetic, KK charge T = 1 / 2 Π r0 ∏ ch δ T = 1 / 2 Π r0 ∏ ch δ S ~ ∏ ch δ S ~ ∏ ch δ S = 2 Π ∏ ( √N + √N ) S = 2 Π ∏ ( √N + √N ) Q = N - N (1, 5, R - L) Q = N - N (1, 5, R - L) (anti) 1, 5 – branes, right/left moving momentum # (anti) 1, 5 – branes, right/left moving momentum #

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D = 4 string : Entropy and quasi- normal modes known ds ² = -g / √f dt ² + √f ( dr ² /g + r ² dΩ ) ds ² = -g / √f dt ² + √f ( dr ² /g + r ² dΩ ) δ-s : higher dimensions’ compactification δ-s : higher dimensions’ compactification f = ∏ ( 1 + r0 sh ² δ / r ) ( 2, 5, 6, p ) f = ∏ ( 1 + r0 sh ² δ / r ) ( 2, 5, 6, p ) Entropy S similar to previous, 4 factors : Entropy S similar to previous, 4 factors : S_stat = S_BH = A / 4 S_stat = S_BH = A / 4 String QNM – s known : String QNM – s known : Theory’s parameters can be determined from resonant oscillations’ normal modes ( observable ) Theory’s parameters can be determined from resonant oscillations’ normal modes ( observable )

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Further examples: D = 5 Type – IIB with electric charges D = 5 Type – IIB with electric charges BPS black hole : Reissner – Nordstrom spacetime D = 5 : Rotating, spin D = 5 : Rotating, spin equal charges : D = 5 Kerr - Newman D = 4 rotating : D = 4 rotating : D1, D5 branes’ intersection D1, D5 branes’ intersection Type –II : heterotic string on T^6 torus Type –II : heterotic string on T^6 torus Levels’ correspondance, BPS state, rotating Levels’ correspondance, BPS state, rotating In all cases : In all cases : S = 2 Π √ ( ∏ charges – J ² ) S = 2 Π √ ( ∏ charges – J ² ) S_stat = S_BH = A / 4 S_stat = S_BH = A / 4

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Low-scale Gravity Black Holes at CMS with Z. Trócsányi Z. Trócsányi A. de Roeck

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Black holes at LHC Event generator for ED BHs : BlackMax I-II Event generator for ED BHs : BlackMax I-II Rotation, fermion splitting, brane tension Rotation, fermion splitting, brane tension Experimental signatures, particle decay Experimental signatures, particle decay CMSSW analysis CMSSW analysis Further models of Dvali suggest Black Hole detection even more likely Further models of Dvali suggest Black Hole detection even more likely

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Distribution of black hole mass Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV

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Distribution of BH color (red – blue - green) Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV

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Distribution of BH charge / 3q / Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV

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of emitted particles vs. BH mass of emitted particles vs. BH mass Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 5-14 TeV Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 5-14 TeV

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Energy spectrum of emitted particles Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV

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Number of emitted particles vs. BH mass during Hawking phase Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 5-14 TeV Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 5-14 TeV

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Multiplicity of various species (Hawking) Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 5-14 TeV, quarks, anti-quarks, leptons, anti-leptons Rotating and non-rotating, 2 ED, 5-14 TeV, quarks, anti-quarks, leptons, anti-leptons

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Number of emitted particles vs. # extra dimensions and # fermion splitting dimensions rotating and non-rotating ED = 7 rotating and non-rotating ED = 7

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Number of emitted particles / BH vs. brane tension B non-rotating non-rotating ED = 2 ED = TeV 5-14 TeV Hawking phase Hawking phase M_Pl = 1 TeV M_Pl = 1 TeV

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l

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Pseudorapidity with final burst Non-rotating and rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV, quarks, anti-quarks, leptons, anti-leptons Non-rotating and rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV, quarks, anti-quarks, leptons, anti-leptons

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Pseudorapidity without final burst Non-rotating and rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV, quarks, anti-quarks, leptons-, anti-leptons+ Non-rotating and rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV, quarks, anti-quarks, leptons-, anti-leptons+

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Distribution of lepton transverse momentum Leptons & anti-leptons, rotating, 2 ED, 1-5 TeV

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Lepton transverse momentum : models Planck mass : 2 TeV Planck mass : 2 TeV ED = 3 ED = 3 5 – 14 TeV 5 – 14 TeV Minimum black hole Minimum black hole mass (non-rot) mass (non-rot) Multiplicity decreases w Planck mass Multiplicity decreases w Planck mass Energy & momentum increase Energy & momentum increase

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Electrons/positrons, (anti)muons, photons : Transverse momentum & energy spectrum

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Pseudorapidity : e - μ - γ Ratio of 0 < ή < 0.5 Ratio of 0 < ή < 0.5 & 0.5 < ή < 1 & 0.5 < ή < 1 distinguishes among beyond standard models distinguishes among beyond standard models All models and species All models and species have values very different from QCD have values very different from QCD

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Model comparisons Further models : Planck mass : 2, 5 TeV ED = 5, 3 Minimum mass : 4, 7 TeV Vs. Standard Model top quark transv. momentum /GeV

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Analysis at CMS Rate : ợ * L_t * event : (same for rot & non-rot) Rate : ợ * L_t * event : (same for rot & non-rot) Total ET, missing ET Total ET, missing ET Missing: G + ν : model dependent Missing: G + ν : model dependent Peak (most likely) or mean for lepton & jet distributions : ratio different from Standard Model Peak (most likely) or mean for lepton & jet distributions : ratio different from Standard Model Jet finder for CMS Jet finder for CMS Hardest lepton transverse momentum : lepton Hardest lepton transverse momentum : lepton easy to identify, cuts off for SM easy to identify, cuts off for SM Combined cuts : ή, p_T distribution Combined cuts : ή, p_T distribution

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Model settings for detector which have different signature Angular acceptance cut for detector acceptance Angular acceptance cut for detector acceptance ή_lepton < 2.5 Jets, q, W, Z < 5 ή_lepton < 2.5 Jets, q, W, Z < 5 t, b t, b Implementation of generators in CMSSW Implementation of generators in CMSSW Interface BlackMax II Interface BlackMax II CMSSW : signal and SM background CMSSW : signal and SM background Fast simulation, Triggering Fast simulation, Triggering Comparison w Charybdis : BlackMax has higher multiplicities and lower momenta Comparison w Charybdis : BlackMax has higher multiplicities and lower momenta missing ET : gravitons only in BlackMax missing ET : gravitons only in BlackMax

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Further models to test at LHC : BHs in Dvali model for SM copies : BHs in Dvali model for SM copies : BH -> SM particle rates different, BH -> SM particle rates different, difference in particle decay difference in particle decay distribution of p_T, MET distribution of p_T, MET Even more likely for BHs w ADD & finding them Even more likely for BHs w ADD & finding them

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Thank you for your attention !

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