7Basic Registers Accumulator “R” registers B register Data Pointer (DPTR) – 16-bit registerProgram Counter (PC) – 16-bit registerStack Pointer (SP)
8MOV destination, source MOV instructionSimply stated, the MOV instruction copies data from one location to another. It has the following formatMOV destination, sourceThis instruction tells the CPU to move (copy) the source operand to the destination operand, without changing the content of the source operand.Examples:MOV A,#55h ; load 55h into register AMOV R0,A ; copy contents of A into R0MOV R3, #95h ; load value 95h into R3MOV A,R3 ;copy content of R3 into A
9Some useful pointersValues can be loaded directly into any of the registers A,B or R0-R7. However, to indicate that it is an immediate value it must be preceeded with a # sign.MOV A,#23H ;load 23H into AMOV R6,#12 ;load 12d into R6MOV R5,#0f9hIf value is small, rest of bits are assumed to be all zeros. E.g. mov a 4-bit value into an 8-bit registerMoving a value that is too large into a register will cause an error.To load a value into a register it must be preceeded with a # sign. Otherwise it means to load from a memory location.MOV A,#17h ≠ MOV A,17h
10ADD instruction The ADD instruction has the following format: ADD A, source ;Add the source operand to AThis tells the CPU to add the source byte to reg A and put the result in reg A
11ExampleCalculate the content of the accumulator after the program is executed on the 8051.MOV R5,#25hMOV R7,#34HMOV A,#0ADD A,R5ADD A,R7
12Addressing ModesAn "addressing mode" refers to how you are addressing a given memory location.In summary, the addressing modes are as follows, with an example of each:Immediate Addressing MOV A,#20hDirect Addressing MOV A,30hIndirect Addressing MOVExternal Direct MOVXCode Indirect MOVCEach of these addressing modes provides important flexibility.
13Immediate AddressingImmediate addressing is so-named because the value to be stored in memory immediately follows the operation code in memory. That is to say, the instruction itself dictates what value will be stored in memory.MOV A,#20hThis instruction uses Immediate Addressing because the Accumulator will be loaded with the value that immediately follows; in this case 20 (hexidecimal).Immediate addressing is very fast since the value to be loaded is included in the instruction. However, since the value to be loaded is fixed at compile-time it is not very flexible.
14Direct AddressingDirect addressing is so-named because the value to be stored in memory is obtained by directly retrieving it from another memory location. For example:MOV A,30hThis instruction will read the data out of Internal RAM address 30 (hexidecimal) and store it in the Accumulator.Direct addressing is generally fast since, although the value to be loaded isnt included in the instruction, it is quickly accessable since it is stored in the 8051s Internal RAM.It is also much more flexible than Immediate Addressing since the value to be loaded is whatever is found at the given address--which may be variable.Also, it is important to note that when using direct addressing any instruction which refers to an address between 00h and 7Fh is referring to Internal Memory. Any instruction which refers to an address between 80h and FFh is referring to the SFR control registers that control the 8051 microcontroller itself.
15Indirect AddressingIndirect addressing is a very powerful addressing mode which in many cases provides an exceptional level of flexibility.MOVThis instruction causes the 8051 to analyze the value of the R0 register. The 8051 will then load the accumulator with the value from Internal RAM which is found at the address indicated by R0.For example, lets say R0 holds the value 40h and Internal RAM address 40h holds the value 67h. When the above instruction is executed the 8051 will check the value of R0. Since R0 holds 40h the 8051 will get the value out of Internal RAM address 40h (which holds 67h) and store it in the Accumulator. Thus, the Accumulator ends up holding 67h.
16Indirect Addressing(cont’d) Indirect addressing always refers to Internal RAM; it never refers to an SFR. Thus, in a prior example we mentioned that SFR 99h can be used to write a value to the serial port. Thus one may think that the following would be a valid solution to write the value 1 to the serial port:MOV R0,#99h ;Load the address of the serial port ;Send 01 to the serial port -WRONG!!On an 8051 these two instructions would produce an undefined result since the 8051 only has 128 bytes of Internal RAM.
17External Direct Addressing External Memory is accessed using "External Direct" addressing.There are only two commands that use External Direct addressing mode:MOVXAs you can see, both commands utilize DPTR.In these instructions, DPTR must first be loaded with the address of external memory that you wish to read or write. Once DPTR holds the correct external memory address, the first command will move the contents of that external memory address into the Accumulator.The second command will do the opposite: it will allow you to write the value of the Accumulator to the external memory address pointed to by DPTR.
18External Indirect Addressing External memory can also be accessed using a form of indirect addressing.This form of addressing is usually only used in relatively small projects that have a very small amount of external RAM. An example of this addressing mode is:Once again, the value of R0 is first read and the value of the Accumulator is written to that address in External RAM. Since the value can only be 00h through FFh the project would effectively be limited to 256 bytes of External RAM.
19Question 1Write a short program for the 8051 microcontroller that carries out the following instructions:Loads the accumulator with the value 40hLoads R7 with 12dCopies the content of R7 to address 30h directlyLoads the register R0 with 30hIndirectly moves the contents of 30h to reg BIndicate clearly the contents, at each stage, of all memory locations and registers involved.
20Structure of Assembly language Consists of a series of assembly language instructions.Instruction consists of four fields:[label1:] mnemonic [operands] [;comment]Label field allows the program to refer to a line by name.Comment field must begin with a semicolon
21Example of Assembly Program ORG 0H ;start at mem loc 0MOV R5,#25h ;load 25h in r5MOV R7,#34H ;load 34h into r7MOV A,#0 ;clear AADD A,R5 ;A=A+R5ADD A,R7 ;A=A+R7ADD A,#12h ;A=A+12HERE: SJMP HERE ;stay in this loopEND ;end of asm source ;file
228051 Data Types and Directives Only one type of data type – 8-bitIt’s the job of the programmer to break down data larger than 8-bits.
23DBThe DB directive is the most widely used data directive in assembler.Used to define the 8-bit data.When DB is used, the numbers can be decimal, binary, hex or ASCII formats.The only directive that can be used to define ASCII strings larger than two characters.ORG 500HDATA1: DB 39HDATA2: DB “2591” ;ASCII NUMBERSORG 518HDATA3: DB “Computer Engineering”
24Assembler DirectivesORG: Used to indicate the beginning of the address.EQU: Used to define a constant without occupying a memory location.e.g. Count EQU 25END: Indicates the end of the source file.
25PSW (Program Status Word) Addresses D0h, Bit-AddressableThe Program Status Word is used to store a number of important bits that are set and cleared by 8051 instructions.The PSW SFR contains the carry flag, the auxiliary carry flag, the overflow flag, and the parity flag.Additionally, the PSW register contains the register bank select flags which are used to select which of the "R" register banks are currently selected.
26ExampleState the contents of the RAM locations after the following program:SETB PSW.4MOV R0,#99HMOV R1,#85HMOV R2,#99HMOV R7,#85HMOV R5,#99H
27SolutionBy default PSW.3 = 0 and PSW.4 =0; therefore line 1 sets RS1=1 and RS0 = 0, thereby selecting register bank 2.Register Bank 2 uses RAM locations 10H – 17H. After execution of this program we have the following:RAM location 10H has value 99HRAM location 11H has value 85HRAM location 12H has value 3FHRAM location 17H has value 63HRAM location 15H has value 12H
28Stack in the 8051Section of RAM used by the CPU to store information temporarily.Information can be data or an address.The CPU needs this storage area since there are only a limited number of registers.
29How stacks are accessed in the 8051 The register used to access the stack is called the SP (stack pointer) and is 8-bits wide (00h-ffh).When the 8051 is powered up the SP contains the value 07.This means that RAM location 08 is the first location used for the stack.Final location is 1F (20h -> used for bit- addressable memory)Storing of a CPU register in the stack is called a PUSH.Loading the contents of the stack back into a CPU register is called a POP.
30Pushing onto the stackThe SP points to the last used location of the stack.As we push data onto the stack, the stack pointer is incremented by one.When you pop a value off the stack, the 8051 returns the value from the memory location indicated by SP, and then decrements the value of SP.
31Example Show the stack and stack pointer for the following: MOV R6,#25HMOV R1,#12HMOV R4,#0F3HPUSH 6 ;push onto stack from R6PUSH 1 ;push onto stack from R1PUSH 4 ;push onto stack from R4POP 3 ;pop stack into R3POP 5 ;pop stack into R5POP 2 ;pop stack into R2
32Upper Limit Ram locations 08 – 1F used for the stack. If more than 24bytes of stack required, then the SP must be changed to point to RAM locations 30h-7Fh using the instructionMOV SP,#xxAlso may need to shift SP if a given progam needs register bank1,2 or 3.
33ExampleShow the stack and stack pointer for the following instructions:MOV SP,#5FHMOV R2,#25HMOV R1,#12HMOV R4,#0F3HPUSH 2PUSH 1PUSH 4
34QuestionsWrite a simple program in which the value 55h is added five times.Show the stack and the stack pointer for each line of the following:Org 0MOV SP,#70HMOV R5,#66HMOV R2,#7FHMOV R7,#5DHPUSH 5PUSH 2PUSH 7CLR AMOV R2,AMOV R7,APOP 7POP 2POP 5
35Program FlowWhen an 8051 is first initialized, it resets the PC to 0000h.The 8051 then begins to execute instructions sequentially in memory unless a program instruction causes the PC to be otherwise altered.There are various instructions that can modify the value of the PC; specifically, conditional branching instructions, direct jumps and calls, and "returns" from subroutines.Additionally, interrupts, when enabled, can cause the program flow to deviate from its otherwise sequential scheme.
36Loop and Jump Instructions Repeating a sequence of instructions a certain number of times is called a loop.The loop action is performed by the instructionDJNZ reg,labelIn this instruction, the register is decremented; if it is not zero, it jumps to the target address referred to by the label.Prior to the start of the loop the register is loaded with the counter for the number of repetitions.
37ExampleWrite a program to clear the Acc, then add 3 to the accumulator ten times.MOV A,#0MOV R2,#10AGAIN: ADD A,#03DJNZ R2,AGAINMOV R5,A
38QuestionWrite a program to load the accumulator with the value 10h and then complement the Acc 700times. (Hint: Try two separate loops to achieve the overall of 700)
40Other Conditional Jumps InstructionActionJZJump if A = 0JNZJump if A ≠ 0DJNZDecrement and jump if A ≠ 0CJNE A,byteJump if A ≠ byteCJNE reg,#dataJump if byte ≠ #dataJCJump if CY = 1JNCJump if CY = 0JBJump if bit = 1JNBJump if bit = 0JBCJump if bit = 1 and clear bit
41ExampleFind the sum of the values 79H, F5H and E2H. Put the sum of the registers in R0 (low byte) and R5 (high byte)
42Solution MOV A,#0 ;clear A MOV R5,A ;clear R5 ADD A,#79H ;A=A+79h JNC N_1 ;if no carry, add nextINC R5 ;if CY=1, increment R5N_1: ADD A,#0F5H ;A=79H+F5H=6EH and CY1=1JNC N_2 ;jump if CY=0N_2: ADD A,#0E2H ;A=6E+E2=50H and CY=1JNC OVER ;jump if CY=0OVER: MOV R0,A ;now R0=50H and R5=02
43Unconditional Jump Instructions All conditional jumps are short jumps, meaning that the address of the target must be within -128 and +127 bytes of the contents of the program counter (PC).Unconditional jump instructions are:LJMP (Long jump) – 3 byte instructionSJMP (Short jump) – 2 byte instruction
44CALL instructions CALL instruction is used to call a subroutine LCALL (long call) – 3 byte instructionACALL (absolute call) – 2 byte instructionWhen a subroutine is called, control is transferred to that subroutine.After finishing execution of the subroutine, the instruction RET (return) transfers control back to the caller.
45Time Delay Generation and Calculation For the CPU to execute an instruction takes a certain number of clock cycles.In the 8051 family, these clock cycles are referred to as machine cycles.We can calculate a time delay using the available list of instructions and their machine cycles.In the 8051, the length of the machine cycle depends on the frequency of the crystal oscillator connected to the 8051 system.
46Time Delay Generation and Calculation (cont’d) The frequency of the crystal connected to the 8051 family can vary from 4MHz to 30MHz.In the 8051, one machine cycle lasts 12 oscillator periods.Therefore, to calculate the machine cycle, we take 1/12 of the crystal frequency and then take the inverse.
47ExampleThe following shows crystal frequency for three different 8051-based systems. Find the period of the machine cycle in each case.(a) MHz(b) 16MHz(c) 20MHz
48Solution 1/11.0592MHz = period per oscillation Machine cycle = 12x
49QuestionFor an 8051 system of MHz, find how long it takes to execute each of the following instructions:(a) MOV R3,#55(b) DEC R3(c) DJNZ R2,target(d) NOP(e) MUL AB
50Solution (a) MOV R3,#55 1x1.085μs (b) DEC R3 1x1.085μs (c) DJNZ R2,target 2x1.085μs(d) NOP x1.085μs(e) MUL AB 4x1.085μs
51Delay Calculation A delay subroutine consists of two parts: (a) setting a counter(b) a loopMost of the time delay is performed by the body of the loop.Very often we calculate the time delay based on the instructions inside the loop and ignore the clock cycles associated with the instructions outside the loop.Largest value a register can hold is 255; therefore, one way to increase the delay is to use the NOP command.NOP, which stands for “No Operation” simply wastes time.
52ExampleFind the size of the delay in the following program, if the crystal frequency is 12MHz.MOV A,#55HAGAIN: MOV P1,AACALL DELAYCPL ASJMP AGAINDELAY: MOV R3,#200HERE: DJNZ R3,HERERETWhat does the above program do?
53Solution Crystal Cycle DELAY: MOV R3,#200 12 HERE: DJNZ R3,HERE 24 RETTherefore, we have a delay of [(200X24)+12+24]x0.083μs = 402μs
54Loop inside a loop delay Another way to get a large delay is to use a loop inside a loop, which is also called a nested loop. E.g.Crystal CycleDELAY: MOV R3,#HERE: NOPNOPDJNZ R3,HERE 24RETTime Delay=[250.( )]x0.083μs + (12+24)x0.083μs = μs
55QuestionFor a machine cycle of 1μs, find the time delay of the following subroutine.DELAY:MOV R2,#200AGAIN: MOV R3,#250HERE: NOPNOPDJNZ R3,HEREDJNZ R2,AGAINRET
56Solution HERE Loop: (4x250)x1μs = 1000 μs AGAIN Loop: Repeats the HERE loop 200 times i.e. 200x1000μs = 200msThe instructions “MOV R3,#250” and “DJNZ R2,AGAIN” at the beginning at end of the AGAIN loop will add (3x200x1μs) = 600μs to the delay time.Total execution time ≈ 200.6ms (an approximation since we have ignored the first and last instructions in the subroutine)