4COGNITIONthinking for speakingreceiving for understandingaccessibleform-functionmappingslinguisticstructuresanthropologicallinguisticpreferencesLANGUAGE/CULTUREPSYCHO-LINGUISTICRESOURCESLANGUAGEUSEDISCOURSE
5habitual attentionand perceptionCOGNITIONthinking for speakingreceiving for understandingaccessibleform-functionmappingslinguisticstructuresanthropologicallinguisticpreferencesLANGUAGE/CULTUREdominantdiscoursepatternsPSYCHO-LINGUISTICRESOURCESLANGUAGEUSEDISCOURSE
6MANNER SALIENCE PART ONE: LINGUISTICS OF MANNER SALIENCE LANGUAGE/ CULTURECOGNITIONPSYCHO-LINGUISTICRESOURCESLANGUAGEUSEDISCOURSEMANNER SALIENCE
9Is the “same” motion event reported differently in different languages?
10Washington Post April 1, 2003Near Karbala, Iraq – As the unidentified four-wheel drive vehicle came barreling toward an intersection … Capt. Ronny Johnson grew increasingly alarmed.
11Washington Post April 1, 2003Near Karbala, Iraq – As the unidentified four-wheel drive vehicle came barreling toward an intersection … Capt. Ronny Johnson grew increasingly alarmed.
12DUTCH: Johnson … zag hoe een terreinwagen kwam aanscheuren naar het kruispunt … [Johnson … saw a landcruiser come tearing up to the intersection …] (NRC Handelsblad, April 1, 2003)SPANISH: Johnson había visto … la llegada del vehículo a una intersección …[Johnson had seen the approach of the vehicle to an intersection …] (El Universal, April 1, 2003)
17The owl’s exit in four languages using path verbs: Spanish: sale un buho[=exits an owl]Japanese: fukuroo ga dete-kite[=owl come out]Turkish: oradan bir baykuş çıkıyor[=from there an owl exits]Hebrew: yaca mitox haxor yanšuf[=exits from-inside the-hole owl]
18The owl’s exit in four languages using manner-of-motion verbs: English: an owl popped outGerman: weil da eine Eule rausflattert[=because there an owl out-flutters]Russian: tam vy-skočila sova[=there out-jumps owl]Mandarin: fei1 chu1 lai2 yi1 zhi1 mao1tou2ying1 [=fly exit come one owl]
19OWL'S EXIT: PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
20Manner SaliencePreliminary operational definition:the proportion of motion event descriptions, in representative texts, that include a manner of motion verb
21Languages with low manner salience in frog stories Romance: French, Galician, Italian, Portuguese, SpanishSemitic: Moroccan Arabic, HebrewTurkic: TurkishInuit: West GreenlandicMayan: TzeltalJapaneseBasque
22Languages with low manner salience in frog stories Romance: French, Galician, Italian, Portuguese, SpanishSemitic: Moroccan Arabic, HebrewTurkic: TurkishInuit: West GreenlandicMayan: TzeltalJapaneseBasque
23Languages with high manner salience in frog stories Germanic: Dutch, English, German, Icelandic, Swedish, YiddishSlavic: Polish, Russian, Serbo-CroatianFinno-Ugric: HungarianSino-Tibetan: Mandarin ChineseTai-Kadai: ThaiAustronesian: Tsou
35Manner of motion verbs in about two hours of British and American conversation (Hi-M) 34 types:clamber, climb, crawl, dash, dive, drag oneself, drift, drive, flee, float, flop, fly, glide, hike, jump, leap, march, poke, plunge, run, rush, slide, sneak, stagger, step, swim, tread, trip, trot, trudge, walk, wander
36Motion verbs in about two hours of Spanish conversation (Lo-M) (Colombian women) 9 types of path verbs (97% of tokens):ir, venir, alcanzar, bajar, entrar, llegar, pasar,salir, volver[=go, come, reach, descend, enter, arrive, pass, exit, return]2 types of manner verbs (3% of tokens):caminar, pasear[=walk]
375 types of path verbs (98% of tokens): Motion verbs in about two hours of Turkish conversation (Lo-M) (students)5 types of path verbs (98% of tokens):gitmek, gelmek, çıkmak, dönmek, geçmek[=go, come, exit/ascend, return, cross/pass]1 type of manner verb (2% of tokens):yürümek [=walk]
38Why should languages differ systematically in manner salience? Linguistic typology may facilitate regular encoding of a domain:lexicalization patternsconstruction typesDiachronically, patterns of expression become entrenched: languages have habitual styles of expression.
39Talmy’s binary typology lexicalization patternPath verb: MOTION + DIRECTION enter, exit, ascend, descend, etc.Path satellite: MOTION + DIRECTION in, out, up, down, etc.Manner verb: MOTION + MANNER walk, run, crawl, sprint, etc.
40Expression of path of motion in the two types of languages construction typeVerb-framed: MAIN VERB + NOUN enter the houseSatellite-framed: MAIN VERB + SATELLITE + PREP.PHRASE go in-to the house
41Expression of manner of motion in the two types of languages VERB-framed languages:Manner is expressed in a construction associated with the main verb:enter runningexit on the tips of the toesSATELLITE-framed languages:Manner is expressed in the main verb:run intiptoe out
42Examples of the two types of languages VERB-FRAMEDRomanceSemiticTurkicJapaneseKoreanBasqueSATELLITE-FRAMEDGermanicSlavicFinno-UgricSino-TibetanTai-Kadai
43Examples of the two types of languages Lo-MHi-MVERB-FRAMEDRomanceSemiticTurkicKoreanJapaneseBasqueSATELLITE-FRAMEDGermanicSlavicFinno-UgricSino-TibetanTai-Kadai
44Examples of the two types of languages Lo-MHi-MVERB-FRAMEDRomanceSemiticTurkicKoreanJapaneseBasqueSATELLITE-FRAMEDGermanicSlavicFinno-UgricSino-TibetanTai-Kadai
45Does Talmy’s typology match up with Lo-M and Hi-M:languages?
46OWL'S EXIT: PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
47OWL'S EXIT: PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB verb-framed
48OWL'S EXIT: PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB verb-framedsatellite-framed
49OWL'S EXIT: PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB serial-verbverb-framedsatellite-framedsatellite-framed
50OWL'S EXIT: PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB bipartite-verbserial-verbverb-framedsatellite-framedsatellite-framed
51The two additional lexicalization patterns serial verb constructionsMandarin: fei1 chu1 lai2 yi1 zhi1 mao1tou2ying [=fly exit come one owl]bipartite verbsMalay (Austronesian):ter-keluar ‘abruptly exit’ter-masuk ‘abruptly enter’Klamath (Penutian):kol-hi ‘run inside’kc’i-Lii ‘crawl inside’
52Typology and manner salience Lo-M:languages that are Verb-framed: Romance, Semitic, Turkic, Inuit, Mayan, Japanese, BasqueHi-M:languages that are satellite-framed: Germanic, Slavic, Finno-UgricHi-M:languages that don’t fit the typology: Mandarin, Thai, Tsou
53From a dichotomy to a trichotomy Verb-framed languages PATH VERB + SUBORDINATE MANNER VERBSatellite-framed languages MANNER VERB + PATH SATELLITEEquipollently-framed languages MANNER VERBAL + PATH VERBAL
54Types of equipollently-framed languages serial verb languages: Niger-Congo, Hmong-Mien, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, Mon-Khmer, some Austronesianbipartite verb languages: Algonquian, Athabaskan, Hokan, Klamath-Takelman, some Austronesian (Tsou)“generic verb languages”: Jaminjungan
55Jaminjungan (Eva Schultze-Berndt) closed class of 30 generic verbs (obligatory inflectional morphology)large open class of uninflecting coverbs (manner, path, posture, configuration, contact, transfer, social interaction, perception…)
56five verbs of locomotion -iyga ‘GO’-ruma ‘COME’-unga ‘LEAVE’-arrga APPROACH’-wardagarra ‘FOLLOW’
57some coverbs of manner of motion some coverbs of pathburduj ‘MOVE UPWARDS’jid ‘MOVE DOWNWARDSmalang ‘CROSS’wurlurlu ‘ENTER 3D CONTAINER’some coverbs of manner of motionwarlnginy ‘WALK’yugung ‘RUN’mingib ‘CRAWL’digurrgba ‘LIMP’
58Codability of manner: a processing proposal Various factors act to make manner highly codable in Hi-M:languages.Expression by:a finite rather than nonfinite verb (e.g., English vs. Spanish)an uninflected coverb (e.g., Jaminjung vs. Turkish)a single morpheme rather than a phrase or clause (e.g., Mandarin vs. French)a fixed syntactic position (e.g., English vs. Spanish)
59LANGUAGE / CULTURE typology of lexicalization patterns available expressive deviceslinguistic constraints on typological realizationavailable morphosyntactic optionscultural preferences
60Beyond typology: ideophones Basque isil-isilik there how start ground-ABLATIVE (=start to [walk] quietly along the ground)Japanese doya-doya enter come (=come in noisily)
61Manner lexicons of ideophones? Zulu: gulukudu ‘rush in headlong’Ewe: minyaminya ‘stealthily’Emai: kítíkítí ‘at-a-stomp’Ilocano: widawid ‘swinging the arms while walking’Japanese: tyo^ko-maka ‘moving around in small steps’
62Yo Matsumoto“Languages such as Japanese tend to have a small set of manner verbs and to make such finer manner distinctions in adverbials, especially in onomatopoeic or semi-onomatopoeic terms.”“Some languages such as English are manner-in-verb languages, in which verbs tend to make rich manner distinctions, while languages like Japanese are manner-in-adverb languages, in which manner distinctions are primarily made by adverbials.”
63Manner expressed by posture verbs Tzeltal Mayan (Penny Brown): V-language with rich lexicon of posture verbs, e.g. (picture of dog in frog story, limping away after having been stung by bees)xpejkunaj xben hilel‘He looks like he’s low-crouching walking’
64LANGUAGE / CULTURE typology of lexicalization patterns available expressive deviceslinguistic constraints on typological realizationavailable morphosyntactic optionscultural preferences
65Qualifications to Talmy’s typology: Constraints on the expression of manner Boundary-crossing Constraint (Aske, Slobin & Hoiting)Unique Vector Constraint (Bohnemeyer)Lexical and morphosyntactic constraints
66Boundary-crossing constraint (Aske, Slobin & Hoiting) Satellite-framed language:run toward houserun into houseEquipollently-framed language:run approach houserun enter houseVerb-framed languagerunning enter house
67No speaker of a verb-framed language ever said that the owl ‘exited flying’.
68Unique Vector Constraint Bohnemeyer: “All direction specifications in a single simple clause referring to a single continuous motion event must denote … the same direction vector …”
692 vectors ENGLISH: She ran downstairs and to the door. SPANISH: Ella bajó la escalera y corrió a la puerta ‘She descended the staircase and ran to the door.’
70Translation from Hi-M to Lo-M Salí por la puerta de la cocina (=I exited the kitchen door)pasé por los corrales (=passed by the animal pens)y me dirigí a casa de Jasón (=and directed myself to Jasón’s house)I ran out the kitchen door,past the animal pens,towards Jasón’s house.
71LANGUAGE / CULTURE typology of lexicalization patterns available expressive deviceslinguistic constraints on typological realizationavailable morphosyntactic optionscultural preferences
72OWL'S EXIT: PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
73OWL'S EXIT: PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB Russiansatellite-framedEnglishDutchGerman
80LANGUAGE / CULTURE typology of lexicalization patterns available expressive deviceslinguistic constraints on typological realizationavailable morphosyntactic optionscultural preferences
81Differential use of resources (frog stories) Japanese: frequent use of multiverb constructions including manner (Sugiyama)te-forms, e.g., mai-ori-te-kuru ‘flutter-descend-and-come’ (=fly down to)i-forms, e.g., nori-koeru ‘ride-cross’ (=ride across)main verb – secondary verb, e.g., tobi-tsuku ‘jump-attach’ (=jump onto)Korean: infrequent use of comparable constructions (Oh)
82Western Austronesian (Huang & Tanangkingsing) [“weak” V-languages?] Saisiyat, SquliqMANNER and PATH verbs in series in a single clausemore frequent manner expressions in frog storiesTagalog, Cebuanodispreference for multiple verbs in a clauseless frequent manner expressions in frog stories
83“Oral cultures” (Berthele) Unwritten Swiss dialects spoken by smallface-to-face groups (frog story data):German (S-lg), Romansch (V-lg?)preference for semantically empty motion verbs (‘go’ ‘come’)limited diversity of manner verbspreference for ellipsispreference for redundant path expressionREDUCED MANNER SALIENCE
84Manner Salience Preliminary operational definition: the proportion of motion event descriptions, in representative texts, that include a manner of motion verb
85Manner SaliencePreliminary operational definition:the proportion of motion event descriptions, in representative texts, that include a manner of motion verbRevised operational definition: the proportion of motion event descriptions, in representative texts, that provide explicit information about manner of motion
86Methodological question: What are the proper data? Linguistic judgments:Don’t provide evidence for manner salience as defined.Don’t provide frequency data.Narrative discourse (oral, written) (fiction, news reporting):Provides consistent, quantifiable evidence for determining a language’s manner salience.Conversation:Provides corroborative, quantitative usage evidence.But: other types of discourse may increase demands for specification of manner (e.g., precise description of behavior).
87child: je monte [=I ascend] An example: French child language transcript of child age 2;3 (CHILDES)father to child: remonte sur le lit, comme ça[=re-ascend on your bed, like this]……mother to child: qu’ estçe tu fais?[=what are you doing?]child: je monte [=I ascend]transcriber’s note: philippe grimpe dans son lit[=philippe climbs in his bed]
88And: context may allow constraints to be lifted An example: Boundary-crossing with a manner verb in contexts where boundary-crossing is expected (Stringer 2003, from Beavers, Levin, & Tham 2004):mother shouting from inside house to children to come inside: Allez, courons dans la maison![=Go on, let’s run in the house!]
89MANNER SALIENCE PART TWO: SOME COGNITIVE CONSEQUENCES LANGUAGE/ CULTURECOGNITIONPSYCHO-LINGUISTICRESOURCESLANGUAGEUSEDISCOURSEMANNER SALIENCE
90From linguistics to cognition lexical expansion and granularity of conception of the manner domain: thinking for speakingconstructing semantic space in acquisitionattending for understandingmental imagerymemory for detail
92Cognitive consequence: granularity of semantic space Languages differ in how finely they divide up the domain of manner of movement.Therefore learners face different tasks in constructing mental representations of manner of movement.
93ENGLISH: walk, stroll pace SPANISH: pasear [walk] pasear [walk]
97English-speaking preschool children use at least 32 types of manner-of-motion verbs: bump,chase, climb, crawl, creep, dance, float, flop, fly, hike, hop, jog, jump, march, paddle, pounce, race, roll, run, rush, scoot, skip, slide, slip, sneak, step, swim, tread, trip, trot, walk, wiggle
98French-speaking preschool children use as few as 6 types: courir, faire du ski, glisser, nager, sauter, voler [=run, ski, slip, swim, jump, fly]Spanish-speaking preschool children use as few as 8 types: bailar, caer(se), correr, chocar(se), escaparse, nadar, saltar, volar [=dance, fall, run, crash, escape, swim, jump, fly]
99American preschoolers are trained to experience manner-of-motion verbs in their bodies In preschool activities and in gymnastics, there are lessons in acting out manner-of-motion verbs.
100A Berkeley teacher shows children how to “do a lot of different walks” “Hop on one foot – forward, backward.”“Let’s prance: lift up those knees!”“Do a stomp walk. I wanna hear your feet— big heavy feet.”“Tiptoe. Shh! Don’t let your heels touch.”“Crawl forward. Crawl back.”
101A Berkeley gymnastics instructor drills preschoolers on types of motion “Hop to me. Remember: hopping is on one foot.”“Now let’s crawl.”“Jump along a line and land on your feet.”
103Listening and reading: Embodied language evokes embodied concepts EMBODIED BODYLANGUAGE IMAGE-SCHEMAIN MESSAGE OF EVENT
104The “same” eventEnglish: come barreling towardDutch: come tearing up toSpanish: approach
105A proposalNews reports that are read or listened to in Hi-Manner Salient languages produce more dynamic mental images than reports of the same events in Lo-Manner Salient languages.
106Computational consequences: machine comprehension of texts Srini Narayanan1997 PhD DissertationInternational Computer Science InstituteBerkeley:Embodiment in language understanding:Perceptuo-motor representations in metaphoric reasoning about event descriptions
107Stumbling leads to falling… Falling is failure… “In 1991, in response to World Bank pressure, India boldly set out on a path of liberalization. The government loosened its strangle-hold on business, and removed obstacles to international trade. While great strides were made in the first few years, the Government is currently stumbling in its efforts to implement the liberalization plan.”
108A computational “Metaphor Reasoning System,” with capacity to model human motor patterns in interaction with features of the physical terrain, can successfully interpret news reports on economics from the Wall Street Journal, the Economist, and the New York Times.
109Consequences for the study of metaphor There are crosslinguistic commonalities in metaphorical structuring of domains, but differences in nuances provided by manner verbs.
110Şeyda Özçalışkan PhD Dissertation 2002 Psychology, Berkeley Metaphor meets typology: Ways of moving metaphorically in English and Turkish
111Examples from novelsEnglish manner: She had the impression now that he had clambered back inside himself and shut the door.Turkish path: İstanbul’u dinliyorum,” diye geçirdi içinden [=“I’m listening to Istanbul,” he let it pass from his inside.]
112Examples from newspapers English manner: The economy continues to steam ahead and inflation continues to lie on the floor… (Dallas Morning News, 1999)Turkish path: Gelmez denen ekonomik kriz vurdu geçti [=The economic crisis that was thought as not coming, hit and passed.] (Hürriyet, 1999)
113Consequences for translation The perspective of the target language dominates.The dominance of the target language is most evident when source language and target language represent opposite types.
114Translation from Hi-M to Lo-M I ran out the kitchen door,past the animal pens,towards Jasón’s house.Salí por la puerta de la cocina (=I exited the kitchen door)pasé por los corrales (=passed by the animal pens)y me dirigí a casa de Jasón (=and directed myself to Jasón’s house)
115Hi-M:lg Lo-M:lg Attention to manner-of-motion is diminished. MANNER VERBS KEPTEnglish to Spanish 62%English to Turkish 68%
116Lo-M:lg Hi-M:lg Attention to manner-of-motion is maintained. MANNER VERBS KEPTSpanish to English 95%Turkish to English 80%
117Hi-M:lg Lo-M:lg English: He stomped from the trim house. Spanish: Salió de la pulcra casa.[=He exited from the trim house.]
118German:Eine Stunde schlich ich noch um das Haus herum…[=For another hour I crept around the house…]French:Une heure durant, jefis le tour de la maison…[=For an hour, Imade a circuit of the house…]
119Lo-M:lg Hi-M:lg Spanish: …luego de diez minutos de asfixia y empujones, llegamos al pasillo de la entrada.[=…after ten minutes of asphyxiation and pushes, we arrived atthe exit.]English:…after ten minutes of nearly being smothered or crushed to death, we finally fought our way to the exit.
120Mental imagery evoked by event descriptions: A pilot experiment Task: Read a passage from a novel and report mental imagery.Texts: Event descriptions drawn from Spanish novels, with inferable manner of motion.Subjects and conditions:English monolinguals; read exact translationSpanish monolinguals; read originalSpanish-English bilinguals; read each version
121Sample text: English version from Isabel Allende’s House of the Spirits He got off the train at the station of San Lucas. It was a wretched place. … From there, one could see the whole valley through an impalpable mist that rose from the earth the night rain had soaked. He combed the landscape for the town of San Lucas, but was only able to make out a far off hamlet that was faded in the dampness of the morning. … He picked up his bags and started to walk through the mud and stones of a path that led to the town. He walked for more than ten minutes, grateful that it was not raining, because it was only with great difficulty that he was able to advance along the path with his heavy suitcases, and he realized that the rain would have converted it in a few seconds into an impassable mudhole.
122Sample English reports of mental imagery (95% of subjects) dodge occasional hazards in the trailmove clumsilyrock from side to sidestagger, trudgeslow, sluggish movement, stumbling over the rocks on the pathwalk apprehensively / at a slow pace / slowly hobbling / slowly and arduously; a very jerky process
123Spanish monolinguals report little or no imagery Chilean: “No lo imagino bajándose del tren sino parado en el andén y no lo veo recorriendo un trajecto muy largo para llegar al pueblo; más bien lo veo a una distancia ya del mismo, mirándolo. Reitero que no lo observo moverse en dirección al pueblo sino como imágines estáticas, más como fotografías.”[I don't picture him getting down from the train but rather standing still on the platform and I don't see him going along a very long trajectory in order to arrive at the village; rather I see him at a distance from it, looking at it. I repeat that I don't observe him moving in the direction of the village but rather as static images, more like photographs.]
124Spanish-English bilinguals follow the language—somewhat… Mexican-American in Spanish (first report, from Spanish text): “Pareciera que se mueve, camina, pero no miro ninguna clase de acción detallada de parta de él. Se que camina y debe de lastimarse los pies con pedregal pero miro más las piedras y el camino que la manera en que camina. ... Pareciera que flotara por veces como si estuviera sentado en un carro."[It would seem that he moves, walks, but I don't see any sort of detailed action on his part. I know that he walks and must have his feet burdened with the stony ground but I see the stones and the path more than the manner in which he walks. ... It would seem that he were floating at times as if he were seated in a cart.]
125Mexican-American in English (second report, from English test): “I'm still seeing very little manner of movement but I see more concrete walking and I can sort of make out a pace. I see less of the surroundings. The story feels different. There is less detail in regards to the scenery.”
126Mexican-American in English (first report, from English text): “Trudgingly, sighing with great difficulty. Lugging his things, stumbling through the muddy path. Not quickly, dragging.”Mexican-American in English (second report, from Spanish text):“Still pictures: he's here, then there. No movement image.”
127Memory for details of manner of motion Kyung-ju Oh PhD Dissertation 2003 Department of Psychology, BerkeleyLanguage, cognition, and development: Motion events in English and Korean
129(Non-Manner Information) 1. In this clip, where was the person walking?1) Into the building ) away from the camera ) Out of the building2. What was the person carrying?1) A backpack ) A shopping bag ) Nothing3. What was the color of shirt (and/or the jacket) the person was wearing?1) Black or dark gray ) Light blue or white ) Red or orange
130(Manner Information)In this clip, the person was walking _____________ he was in the “normal pace” clip ) faster than ) at the same speed as ) slower thanIn this clip, the person’s steps were _____________ his steps in the “normal pace” clip.1) wider than ) same as ) narrower thanIn this clip, the person’s arms were swinging _____________ they were in the “normal pace” clip.1) wider than ) to the same degree as ) narrower thanIn this clip, the person was exerting _____________ he was in the “normal walk” clip.1) more energy than ) about the same level of energy as ) less energy than
132Alan W. Kersten1 Christian A. Meissner2 Differential Sensitivity to Manner of Motion in Adult English and Spanish Speakers (Society for Research in Child Development, 2003)Alan W. Kersten1 Christian A. Meissner2Bennett L. Schwartz2 Mireya Rivera11Florida Atlantic University2Florida International University
133Experiment 1Examined attention to novel manners of motion by English and Spanish speakers in a category-learning taskParticipants were presented with a number of animated events, each involving two novel, bug-like creaturesWere asked to indicate in which of four categories they thought each event belonged
135Path ConditionThe four categories were distinguished on the basis of the path of the moving creature with respect to the stationary creatureIncluded to rule out the hypothesis that any differences between the two groups on the manner discrimination were a result of general performance differences (e.g., motivation, intelligence)
137Manner of Motion Condition The four categories could only be distinguished on the basis of the manner of motion of the moving creature in each eventEach creature moved its legs in one of four different ways with respect to its body
139Experiment 1 Conclusions English speakers performed better than Spanish speakers on a manner of motion category discriminationManners of motion were novel, thus precluding a conscious labeling strategyThese results provide evidence that people learn to attend to attributes that are prominently marked in their native language
140General conclusion: attending for understanding Speakers of satellite-framed languages appear to build up richer mental images of manner of motion while experiencing events.This seems to be true whether events are experienced through verbal report or direct perception.
141Broader consequence: Eyewitness testimony Linguistic forms contribute to the creation of mental images.Mental images remain in memory and can be further shaped by language.Evaluation relies on memory.“Eyewitness” testimony can be shaped by lexical forms of interrogation.
147ConclusionsEach language provides preferred perspectives for encoding dimensions of events.Perspectives must be adjusted in translating between languages.
148Acquisition of a new language provides new perspectives. Contrastive analysis is essential in foreign language teaching, and it should be sensitive to typological contrasts between the learner’s first language and the new language being acquired.
149ADDENDUM 1 What does gesture add? Study in progress:with Susan Duncan & David McNeill, University of Chicagowith Berkeley undergraduatesTask: Videotape of mental imagery report to naïve listener.Subjects: Spanish-English bilingualsHypothesis: Spanish speakers will use gesture to enrich verbalization.
150English: “…he climbed up…” [TWO HANDS MOVE UPWARD IN GRASPING MOTION] Sample event: “Struggling against the storm, I climbed to the upper story along a window grating. Then I walked along the terrace until finding a door I went into the inner corridor…”English: “…he climbed up…” [TWO HANDS MOVE UPWARD IN GRASPING MOTION]“…found some places to hold…” [TWO HANDS MAKE GRASPING MOTION]“…he climbed up…” [INDEX FINGER OF RIGHT HAND MOVES DIAGONALLY UPWARD WHILE SAYING “up”]
151“…entra…” [=enters] [INDEX FINGER TRACES ASCENDING S-CURVE] Sample event: “Luchando con la tormenta, trepé hasta la planta alta por la reja de una ventana. Luego, caminé por la terraza hasta encontrar una puerta. Entré a la galería interior…”Spanish: “…se sube al segundo piso…” [=he ascends to the second floor] [INDEX FINGER OF RIGHT HAND MOVES DIRECTLY UPWARD]“…entra…” [=enters] [INDEX FINGER TRACES ASCENDING S-CURVE]
152ADDENDUM 2 Consequences for translation: Typological effects vary by domain With regard to pronouns of address,translators must adjust English you tothe perspectives on status and solidarityare lexicalized in the target language.
153Poor man: “Tomorrow…I will pay you.” English:Doctor to poor man and wife: “When do you think you can pay this bill?”Poor man: “Tomorrow…I will pay you.”Spanish:“¿Cuándo creéis que podréis pagarme estas visitas?”[=2nd pers. pl. fam.]“Mañana…le pagaré.”[=2nd pers. sg. polite]
154With regard to distinctions of tense and aspect, translators must take theperspectives offered by the targetlanguage.
155back to the frog story “aspect-rich” languages: Spanish English Turkish“aspect-poor” languages:GermanHebrew
157Some temporal perspectives on ‘run’ and ‘fall’ English: The dog was running from the bees and the boy fell down from the tree.Spanish: El niño se cayó. Corría el perro. [=The boy fell-PFV. The dog ran-IPFV.]German: Er fiel runter und dann lief der Hund davon.[=He fell down and then the dog ran away.]
161ADDENDUM 3 Broadening the question of manner: Attention to manner across domains Manner of speaking: chatter, gibber, jabber, splutter, whisper, murmur, mutter, shout, scream, shriek, yell, bellow…Manner of object destruction: cut, rip, shred, tear, smash, shatter, crumple, crumble, crunch…
162Applying the same research tools Types of speech act verbs in Swedish frog stories written by adults (Åsa Nordqvist, 2001)fräsa [hiss], hoa [hoot], hojta [shout], morra [growl], muttra [mutter], pipa [squeak], skrika [yell], skrocka [chuckle], viska [whisper] …
163Newspaper reports“The crowd roared as he denounced President Clinton…” [New York Times]“He reeled off a list of fundamental questions…” [Washington Post]“We are not concerned about the world criticism of … this Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan,” droned the mullah into a portable amplifier that echoed his voice through the stadium.” [San Francisco Chronicle]
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