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April 12, 2015 Mobile Computing COE 446 IS-95 Tarek Sheltami KFUPM CCSE COE Principles of Wireless Networks.

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Presentation on theme: "April 12, 2015 Mobile Computing COE 446 IS-95 Tarek Sheltami KFUPM CCSE COE Principles of Wireless Networks."— Presentation transcript:

1 April 12, 2015 Mobile Computing COE 446 IS-95 Tarek Sheltami KFUPM CCSE COE Principles of Wireless Networks K. Pahlavan and P. Krishnamurth

2 CDMA CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access Fully digital wireless data transmission system Not designed for voice at all Uses special random numbers to encode bits of information Allows multiple access by assigning different users different random numbers on the same channel. Users have control of a very wide channel bandwidth 1.25 to 5 MHz The only limit to the system is the computing ability of the base station and it’s ability to separate noise from actual data April 12, 2015

3 IS-95 CDMA is an access method. IS-95 was the first ‘operating system’ to use CDMA Invented by Qualcomm Began production in At this point, this is still called 2G wireless. Known as a narrowband system. Being supplanted by CDMA2000 (WCDMA) and UMTS, fully 3G systems. They both use CDMA. Known as wideband systems. April 12, 2015

4 How IS-95 Works When a phone is turned on, it scans one of the forward channels to find a base station identifier Camps on the strongest signal The phone sends out an encrypted pass key and gains access to the network It can then send and receive calls. It is assigned a 1.25 MHz wide frequency to operate on It listens for pages on the forward channel to let it know it has a call incoming This is all very similar to how GSM operates so far April 12, 2015

5 IS-95 Vocoders IS-95 uses extremely advanced vocoders that use variable encoding rates just like GSM They operate at variable rates, up to a maximum of 9600 bps At a minimum, it encodes 1200 bps, so that the phone doesn’t seem dead The quality, though less than AMPS, is much higher than GSM, on average April 12, 2015

6 How IS-95 Works The access method is what makes IS- 95 different The access method is called CDMA CDMA is a transmission technique to pass information from the mobile to the base station and from the base station back to the mobile April 12, 2015

7 Mobile Wireless CDMA Design Considerations RAKE receiver – when multiple versions of a signal arrive more than one chip interval apart, RAKE receiver attempts to recover signals from multiple paths and combine them This method achieves better performance than simply recovering dominant signal and treating remaining signals as noise Soft Handoff – mobile station temporarily connected to more than one base station simultaneously April 12, 2015

8 CDMA.. used in several wireless broadcast channels (cellular, satellite, etc) standards unique “ code ” assigned to each user; i.e., code set partitioning all users share same frequency, but each user has own “ chipping ” sequence (i.e., code) to encode data encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence) decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence allows multiple users to “ coexist ” and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are “ orthogonal ” )

9 April 12, 2015 CDMA..  Let the data rate of the i th user by R i (t)  Let the code assigned to the i th user by C i (t)  i.e. all the codes are orthogonal  Each user uses its code to spread its signal – the signal transmitted by the i th user is S i (t) = R i (t)C i (t)  The signal received BS is the sum of all transmitted signals (ignore multi-path copies for the time being), ∑ S i (t) = ∑ R i (t)C i (t)

10 April 12, 2015 CDMA..  Demodulation (De-spreading):  Receiver dedicates a path structure per user – multiplies the received signal with the k th user code  C k (t) X ∑ S i (t) = C k (t) X ∑ R i (t)C i (t)  = R k (t)  i.e. only the k th signal is retrieved from the k th receiver path

11 CDMA Analogy 10 people in a room. 5 speak English, 2 speak Spanish, 2 speak Chinese, and 1 speaks Russian Everyone is talking at relatively the same time over the same medium – the air Who can listen to whom and why? Who can’t you understand? Who can’t speak to anyone else? April 12, 2015

12 CDMA Spread Spectrum. A signal takes up 6 – 10 times the bandwidth that it needs at a minimum. This seems deliberately inefficient. The military used spread spectrum communications because the signal is: Difficult to block. Difficult to listen in on. Difficult to even identify from noise. Much more difficult to tune into a certain frequency. April 12, 2015

13 CDMA In CDMA, all users share the same 1.25 MHz bandwidth They all transmit a signal that’s the exact same size, 1.25 MHz There’s actually.02 MHz of a guard band, meaning that the actual bandwidth is 1.23 MHz However, with CDMA, unique digital codes are used to separate each of the mobile phones Essentially, this makes each mobile phone speak a different language Also, it’s language is very unpredictable, it starts at a random language and changes in random fashion with a given seed. Also, the base station can speak every language as long as it is synchronized Also, the languages are special in that they will be able to mathematically never interfere with each other Each bit of the conversation is encoded with this special code April 12, 2015

14 CDMA Codes In IS-95, the mobile and base station must be synchronized to a nearly perfect time clock CDMA actually uses GPS satellites to obtain a very accurate, system wide clock This clock is obtained by every cell phone April 12, 2015

15 CDMA Codes.. The base station and mobile phone have an algorithm for generating pseudo random numbers Uses something called Walsh Vectors This mathematical function has a way to generate 128 bit random numbers that are orthogonal to every other random number that is has generated This random number generator has a very large period When they both start at the same seed (the time), both the mobile and base station should generate the same random numbers The random number is actually only 32 bits April 12, 2015

16 CDMA Codes.. This random number is convoluted with the data Also, a time stamp is added And error codes are added The result is 128 bits that represent only 1 bit of data This is a very computationally intense process. But, modern cell phones have fast processors So, the original 9600 bps of conversation has been multiplied to 1.23 Mbps. April 12, 2015

17 CDMA Codes Example These codes are designed to never interfere with any other codes to a very high probability The base station, using the mobile’s known code, can convolute this code with everything that it received This convolution results in only what the mobile sent. The base station does have to be smart enough to recognize between voice traffic and noise April 12, 2015

18 CDMA Encode/Decode slot 1 slot 0 d 1 = Z i,m = d i. c m d 0 = slot 0 channel output slot 1 channel output channel output Z i,m sender code data bits slot 1 slot 0 d 1 = -1 d 0 = slot 0 channel output slot 1 channel output receiver code received input D i =  Z i,m. c m m=1 M M

19 April 12, 2015 CDMA: two-sender interference

20 April 12, 2015

21 IS-95 The data message handler (DMH) collects billing information The interworking, function (IWF) that allows an MSC to connect to other networks The auxiliary (AUX) equipment that can connect to an MT The authentication center (AuC) in GSM is shown as the AC and the operation and maintenance center (OMC) is shown as the operation system (OS)

22 April 12, 2015 IS-95.. CDMA occupies the same frequency spectrum as AMPS and IS-136 Each carrier occupies 1.25 MHz, whereas in AMPS and IS-136 was 30 KHz IS-95 forward channel consists of 4 types of logical channels Pilot Ch Synchronization Ch Paging Ch Traffic Ch

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24 IS-95.. Forward Channel Each carrier contains pilot, synchronization, up to seven paging and number of traffic channels Channels are spread from one another using different spreading codes Modulation scheme is QPSK Any information contained in the symbol form is modulated by Walsh codes Each Walsh code identifies one of the 64 forward channels After the channel symbol spread using orthogonal codes, they are scrambled in the in-phase and quadrature phase line by Pseudorandom Noise (PN)-spreading codes PN-codes are not orthogonal

25 April 12, 2015 Why we have two spreading codes? The orthogonal codes are used to differentiate between the transmissions within a cell The PN spreading codes are used to isolate different cells (BSs) that are using the same frequencies The same PN sequence is used in all BSs The offset for each BS is different. Of course, this requires synchronization Synchronization is achieved by GPS

26 April 12, 2015 The pilot channel Provide a reference signal for all MSs Spread using the PN spreading code to identify the BS No power control in the pilot channel

27 April 12, 2015 The Sync channel Used to acquire initial time synchronization Synch message includes system ID (SID), network ID (NID), the offset of the PN short code, the state of the PN-long code, and the paging channel data rate (4.8/9.6 Kbps) Uses W32 for spreading Operates at 1200 bps

28 April 12, 2015 The Paging channels Used to page the MS in case of an incoming call, or to carry the control messages for call set up Uses W1-W7 There is no power control Additionally scrambled by PN long code, which is generated by the Linear feedback shift register (LFSR) of length 42 The rate 4.8 Kbps or 9.6Kbps

29 April 12, 2015 The Traffic channels Carry user information Two possible date rates RS1={9.6, 4.8, 2.4, 1.2 Kbps} RS2={14.4, 7.2, 3.6, 1.8 Kbps} RS1 is mandatory for IS-95, but support for RS2 is optional Also carry power control bits for the reverse channel

30 April 12, 2015 PN-codes PN-codes are not random, they are deterministic, periodic sequences with the following properties: PN are generated by combining the outputs of feedback shift registers The sequence are repeated every 2 n -1 The initial contents of the stages and the feedback determine the successive contents of the stages

31 April 12, 2015 PN-codes

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33 PN-Codes..

34 April 12, 2015 Walsh Codes

35 April 12, 2015 Walsh Codes..

36 April 12, 2015 IS-95.. The orthogonal codes are used to isolate the transmissions between different channels within a cell The PN spreading codes are used to separate the transmissions between different cells The PN sequences are used to differentiate between several BS

37 April 12, 2015 DS Spread Spectrum

38 April 12, 2015


40 IS-95 reverse channel Fundamentally different from the forward channels Uses QPSK for power efficiency QPSK demodulation is easy MHz range No spreading of the data using orthogonal codes Same orthogonal codes are used for WAVEFORM encoding Two types of logical channels: The access channels and the reverse traffic channels

41 April 12, 2015

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