Presentation on theme: "Strategic Communication in ESL Classrooms Angela Meyer Sterzik Fanshawe College/York University PhD Candidate, M.A. (Applied Linguistics), TESL Angela."— Presentation transcript:
Strategic Communication in ESL Classrooms Angela Meyer Sterzik Fanshawe College/York University PhD Candidate, M.A. (Applied Linguistics), TESL Angela Meyer Sterzik 2010.
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1. Introduction (schema) 2. Strategic Communication Theories 3. A New Taxonomy 4. L2 Problems/Solutions 5. Classroom Applications 6. Question and Answer Period
At your tables …Please discuss: 1. Do you ‘forget’ words in your L1? 2. What do you do if the word is needed to get your message across? 3. How do you FEEL when you ‘forget’ a word in your L1? Why?
What was agreed upon? What was interesting? Examples?
What is Communicative Competence? Being able to participate in a wide variety of communicative situations in a wide variety of topics (Canale & Swain, 1980). Four Communicative Competencies: Grammatical Sociolinguistic Discourse Strategic* * The knowledge of and ability to use verbal and non- verbal strategies to communicate when there is a breakdown in comprehension* (Canale & Swain, 1980).
Interactional: A mutual attempt between participants to negotiate meaning (Canale & Swain, 1980; Tarone, 1980, 1981). An individual attempt is NOT strategic in this perspective Taxonomy (Tarone, 1978, p. 197). 1. Avoidance: topic or message abandonment 2. Paraphrase: approximation/word coinage/circumlocution 3. Conscious Transfer: literal translation/switch 4. Appeal for Assistance 5. Mime
Psycholinguistic The individual language user’s cognitive processes, perceptions of potential problems and possible solutions to a breakdown in communication (Bongaerts & Poulisse, 1989; Doernyei & Kormos, 1997; Doernyei & Scott, 1984; Faerch & Kasper, 1984). 2 criteria : 1. Criterion of consciousness: recognize problem 2. Problem- Orientedness: difficult to reach goal with original plan; problem is perceived (Faerch & Kasper, 1980)
I believe communication strategies can be interactional AND/OR psycholinguistic. Therefore, a definition must include BOTH perspectives. Additionally, I believe one can employ a strategy in any media, in any language (Example – Grammy & Grampy). Linguistic Strategy: The linguistic reaction to a perceived problem in conveying and/or receiving a message (Meyer Sterzik, 2008, p. 56)
I also propose there are 4 types: 1. Productive Communication Strategies 2. Receptive Communication Strategies 3. Avoidance Strategies 4. Learning Strategies *Formerly all classed within “Communication Strategy”* (Meyer Sterzik, 2008, p. 57)
Productive Communication Strategy: “a linguistic reaction in order to covey a message after a problem is perceived in a prior attempt to convey the message” (Meyer Sterzik, 2008, p. 57). Receptive Communication Strategy: “a linguistic reaction in order to receive a message after a perceived problem in a prior attempt to receive the message” (ibid). This workshop focuses on Productive Communication Strategies (PCSs)
D: description (reword/explain form/function/use) e.g.: the black, rubber circles on a car A: antonym/synonym (comparatives and near syn/ant) e.g.: not a child; like a laptop but smaller N: native language (L1/2/3 transfer, translation, switch) e.g.: pig flesh from schweinefleisch C: creation (new or non-words) e.g.: geschnitzelt for paniert E: expressive arts (mime, gestures, drawing, sounds) D: dictionary (paper or electronic dictionary/phrase book) – LAST RESORT (Meyer Sterzik, 2008, p. 59)
Affective Filters – embarrassment, fear, frustration, panic caused by internal AND/OR external factors (Example – faschiertes...) Lexical limits – fewer synonyms/antonyms (Example - nail in tire...) Non-familial L1 (Chinese word for English vs. German for English or Spanish for Italian) These are especially true at the beginner and intermediate levels! (Canale & Swain, 1980; Kellerman, 1991; Lafford, 2004; Meyer Sterzik, 2008). You need to create buy-in with relevance and examples!
Direct Strategy Instruction: 1. What it is 2. Why it is important 3. How to use it 4. When and where to apply it 5. How to evaluate it (Allen, 2003; Carrell et al., 1998; Heeney, 2005; Shih, 1992; Yang, 2002, 2006; Zhang, 2007) What are PCSs? When do I use them? How do I use them? TEACH vocab (‘surrounding’) PRACTICE in safe situations! Assessment MODEL in the classroom
After you have Explained and Modelled PCSs, GAMES are safe, fun, and appropriate practice. Scaffold more at the lower levels – focus on one aspect/skill; only known vocabulary; give a context Gradually reduce scaffolding as proficiency increases – allow strategy choice and use more difficult vocabulary (set linguistic limitations as well)
Game 1: Hedbanz Game 2: Picasso Game 3: TABOO Game 4: Artists’ Guild Game 5: Guesstures Game 6: Luck of the Draw (5-10 minutes per game) At your tables, there are packages to use for the games. Instructions are in your hand out packages. These are not prescriptive: you can easily modify: vocabulary choices, context explained, and/or linguistic limitations set.
Allen, S. (2003). An analytic comparison of three models of reading strategy instruction. IRAL, 41, 319 – 338. Bongaerts, T. and Poulisse, N. (1989). Communication strategies in L1 and L2: same or different? Applied Linguistics, 10 (3), 253 – 268. Canale, M. and Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1 (1), Carrell, P., Gajdusek, L., & Wise, T. (1998). Metacognition and EFL/ESL reading. Instructional Science. 26, 97 – 112. Doernyei, Z. and Kormos, J. (1998). Problem-solving mechanisms in L2 communication: a psycholinguistic perspective. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 349 – 385. Doernyei, Z. and Scott, M.L. (1997). Communication strategies in a second language: definitions and taxonomies. Language Learning, 47 (1), 173 – 210. Faerch, C., & Kasper,G. (1980). Processes and strategies in foreign language learning and communication. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin Utrecht, 5 (1), 47 – 118. Faerch, C., & Kasper, G. (1984). Two ways of defining communication strategies. Language Learning, 34 (1), 45 – 63. Heeney, M. (2005). Collaborative awareness reading training (CART): Student and teacher perceptions of the reciprocal teaching approach. Unpublished Master’s Degree MRP. Toronto: York University. Kellerman, E. (1991). Compensatory strategies in second language research: a critique, a revision, and some (non-) implications for the classroom. In R. Phillipson et al (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: a commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (pp. 142 – 161). Multilingual Matters Ltd. Lafford, B. A. (2004). The effect of the context of learning on the use of communication strategies by learners of Spanish as a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 201 – 225. Meyer Sterzik, A. (2008). Communication Strategies: Enhancing global communication. Unpublished Master’s thesis. York University: Toronto. Shih, M. (1992). Beyond comprehension exercises in the ESL academic reading class. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 289 – 318. Tarone, E. (1978). Conscious communication strategies in interlanguage: A progress report. In H.D. Brown, C. Yorio & R. Crymes (Eds.), On TESOL ’77: Teaching and Learning ESL. Washington D.C.: TESOL Tarone, E. (1980). Communication strategies, foreigner talk, and repair in interlanguage. Language Learning, 30 (2), 417 – 431. Tarone, E. (1981). Some thoughts on the notion of communication strategy. TESOL Quarterly, 15 (3), 285 – 295. Tarone, E., Cohen, A., & Dumas, G. (1976). A closer look at some interlanguage terminology: A framework for communication strategies. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 9, 76 – 90. Yang, Y., F. (2002). Reassessing readers’ comprehension monitoring. Reading in a Foreign Language. 14 (1), 18 – 42. Yang, Y., F. (2006). Reading strategies or comprehension monitoring strategies? Reading Psychology. 27, 313 – 343. Zhang, L., J. (2007). Constructivist pedagogy in strategic reading instruction: Exploring pathways to learner development in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom. Instructional Science. 36, 89 – 116.
I hope you learned something and had fun! I hope you will be able to take some/all of this back to your classes! Questions? Comments? Thank you!