Presentation on theme: "Ass. Wr. Wb. ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Budi Santoso dan Soemarno 2012 Ass. Wr. Wb. ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Budi Santoso dan Soemarno 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Ass. Wr. Wb. ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Budi Santoso dan Soemarno 2012 Ass. Wr. Wb. ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Budi Santoso dan Soemarno 2012
.. Eco-industrial chains construct economic activities into the "resource-product-renewable resource" feedback processes based on ecology laws, improve resource utilization, reduce emissions, and improve the quality of economic activities and environmental benefits. Trust and the good cooperation relationships between the enterprises from eco-industrial chains are the prerequisite and basis for running ecological industry systems. A trust mechanism between enterprises, an incentive and punishment system, and a legal system and industrial policies should be established to promote industrial ecology. Government should play a good role of "guidance" and "coordination". There is a smooth linkage between the upstream and downstream of the industrial ecology chain so that “upstream supplies and downstream receives”, the stability of the industrial ecology system can be achieved. … Research on the Stability of Eco-Industry Chains Jingfu Guo, Wenzi Cui International Journal of Business and Management Vol 5, No 11 (2010) Diunduh dari: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/article/view/8070 ………….1/1/2013
This article reviews the scope of the discipline of industrial ecology and, in the context of an urgent requirement for substantial and rapid change in the face of global sustainability challenges, argues that the discipline could embrace a more proactive, interventionist stance in the form of renewable eco- industrial development. Existing eco-industrialism is presented as flawed, with many cases premised on the use of nonrenewable resources. Renewable eco-industrial development, while still nascent, has the potential both to resolve some sustainability challenges and to offer a new area of endeavor for industrial ecology, albeit one with its own unique difficulties, such as conflict with food production. Renewable eco-industrial development is further argued to bring industrial ecology into a more socially critical stance as it concerns the future allocation of scarce resources. A New Frontier for Industrial Ecology? Peter Wells, Clóvis Zapata Journal of Industrial Ecology Volume 16, Issue 5, Volume 16, Issue 5, pages 665–668, October 2012 Diunduh dari: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1530- 9290.2012.00487.x/abstract………….1/1/2013
Eco-industrial chains construct economic activities into the "resource-product-renewable resource" feedback processes based on ecology laws, improve resource utilization, reduce emissions, and improve the quality of economic activities and environmental benefits. Trust and the good cooperation relationships between the enterprises from eco-industrial chains are the prerequisite and basis for running ecological industry systems. A trust mechanism between enterprises, an incentive and punishment system, and a legal system and industrial policies should be established to promote industrial ecology. Government should play a good role of "guidance" and "coordination". There is a smooth linkage between the upstream and downstream of the industrial ecology chain so that "upstream supplies and downstream receives", the stability of the industrial ecology system can be achieved. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of International Journal of Business & Management is the property of Canadian Center of Science & Education and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. …Research on the Stability of Eco-Industry Chains by Guo Jingfu, Cui Wenzi International Journal of Business Management (2010) Volume: 5, Issue: 11, Publisher: Canadian Center of Science & Education, Pages: 152-155 Diunduh dari: http://www.mendeley.com/catalog/research-stability-eco-industry-chains/ ………….1/1/2013
This paper re-examines environmental regulation, under the assumption that pollution abatement technologies and services are provided by an imperfectly competitive environment industry. It is shown that each regulatory instrument (emission taxes and quotas; design standards; and voluntary agreements) has a specific impact on the price-elasticity of the polluters’ demand for abatement services, hence on the market power of the eco- industry and the resulting cost of abatement. This implies that the optimal pollution tax will be higher than the marginal social cost of pollution, while a voluntary approach to pollution abatement may fail unless the eco-industry itself is willing to participate. Environmental Regulation and the Eco- Industry Maia David and Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné Journal of Regulatory EconomicsJournal of Regulatory Economics.Volume (Year): 28 (2005) Issue (Month): 2 (09) Pages: 141-155 Diunduh dari: http://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/regeco/v28y2005i2p141- 155.html………….1/1/2013
.. Eco-industrial parks are a form of industrial parks that seems to gain more and more interest in the developed and emerging countries. In the introduction, the paper presents the reasons that justify the presence of an eco-industrial park on a territory and continues stressing their main characteristics and their diversity. The authors try to explain which are the problems that can put off the development of an eco-industrial park, presenting not only the advantages but also the risks of eco-industrial parks for their members and for the hosting community. The paper underlines the strengths of this type of parks that may contribute to a sustainable development of developing countries, especially now, when industrial parks are rising all over their territory without taking into account the environmental impacts. The authors’ purpose is to emphasize the economic and environmental benefits for the community and for the firms located on their territory. As a final issue, the paper shows that for Romania the concept of eco-industrial park is new and almost unknown, a reason for the economists to approach it more often in their research. Eco-Industrial Parks – An Opportunity for the Developing Countries to Achieve Sustainable Development Ramona Florina Popescu Tiberiu Cristian Avramescu Zagreb International Review of Economics and BusinessZagreb International Review of Economics and Business, 2008, vol. 11, issue Special Conference Issue, pages 21-30 Diunduh dari: http://econpapers.repec.org/article/zagzirebs/v_3a11_3ay_3a2008_3ai_3asci_3ap_3a21- 30.htm ………….1/1/2013
“ReVenture Park (“ReVenture”) is an ambitious plan to transform a former 667 acre Superfund Site along the Catawba River in Charlotte, NC into the region’s first Renewable Energy Eco- Industrial Park. This project will create one of the most dynamic and multi-faceted renewable energy developments currently being developed in the United States. The project is poised to become a national model for innovative redevelopment of Brownfield industrial property, and it will serve as a template for other large projects that are similarly situated. Featuring multiple clean-energy projects, ReVenture will advance the region’s environmental goals and economic growth by attracting a myriad of renewable energy and alternate fuel projects. The Eco-Industrial Park is designed to leverage synergies between multiple sustainable components including a waste to energy power plant, solar fields, incubator labs, wastewater treatment and reuse, and R&D facilities. When fully developed, ReVenture is estimated to generate over $900 Million of new investment and create more than 1100 ‘green collar’ jobs. “ ReVenture Park: An Eco-Industrial Park Peter Lowitt, FAICP Director-Devens Enterprise Commission 33 Andrews Parkway, Devens, MA, USA Diunduh dari: www.cern.org.cn/abstract/067.pdf………….1/1/2013
In Korea, a total of five industrial cities including Ulsan are carrying out the 1stphase (2005-2009) Eco-IndustrialPark (EIP) project initiated by the South Korean Ministry of Knowledge Economy. The prime target of this project is to transform the existing industrial complexes into EIPs through developing extensive waste and by-product symbiotic networks among tenants in a systematic manner under the coordination of regional EIP center. In this study, the development of a strategic protocol for effective implementation of by-product synergy network derived from two of our maiden attempts, and its successful application to twelve other cases is presented. Triple bottom line performance assessment of all the fourteen cases was presented, and it was envisaged that the strategic protocol helps to facilitate the transformation of existing industrial complexes into EIPs, and also improves the economic and social benefits among partners and community while reducing environmental impacts. Based on the strategies presented in this study, Ulsan EIP center would operate a ‘hub and spoke’ model of industrial symbiosis with four spokes (regional industrial complexes) in the 2ndphase (2010- 2014) of this project, wherein the local knowledge and expertise can be delivered to the spokes with a simultaneous establishment of synergy networks between the hub and spokes. Strategies and achievements of 1st phase Ulsan Eco- Industrial Park project Hung-Suck Park and K. B. Shishir June 2010 Diunduh dari: https://gin.confex.com/gin/2010/webprogram/Paper3261.html………….1/1/2013
While industrial parks have been playing a role of providing communities with economic benefits, they have caused social and environmental problems. To respond to this problem, a variety of sustainable development-related international conventions requested each country to find alternatives satisfying both economic and environmental efficiency. An eco-industrial park(EIP) derived from the industrial symbiosis research could be a suitable instrument for sustainable industrial management. An EIP can be defined as an industrial community that considers both economic and environmental efficiency through cooperation between companies based on the concept of industrial symbiosis reusing and recycling byproducts and wastes generated from companies. In 2005, Korean government has designated five industrial parks as EIP demonstration projects including Banwol- Sihwa, Yeosu, Ulsan, Cheongju, Pohang industrial parks. The first stage of the demonstration project has been running for 5 years to identify symbiotic relationships between companies, to draw necessary techniques, and to find funding sources. Researches related to the Korean demonstration projects are as follows: 1) Park et al (2008) has dealt with the achievements and challenges of Ulsan EIP, et al. ; 2) Jeon (2008) has found the strategies to Cheongju EIP; 3) Ban (2010) has developed performance evaluation indicators of EIP demonstration projects through an expert survey method. But so far no studies have evaluated the performance of EIP demonstration projects in Korea. Thus, this study has intended to evaluate EIP demonstration projects based on the performance evaluation indicators Ban (2010) has presented in his study. The indicators are divided into two categories of micro and macro level. First, micro evaluation indicators consist of the items such as project excavation, commercialization, education and public relations, research, etc. Then macro evaluation indicators are composed of the items such as the economic effects, understanding EIP business of companies, the effects of related technology developments, and the effects of pollution emission reduction, etc. This study has evaluated 5 EIP demonstration parks based on 23 evaluation indicators such as the number of excavation projects, the number of commercialization projects, the number of local newspaper coverages, the number of project excavation forums, building a by-product DB, support budget of autonomous communities, the number of stagnation proposal and acceptance, the number of task performance contract, and the number of jobs(employment) created. Evaluating the Performance of Eco-Industrial Park Demonstration Projects in Korea Yong-Un BanYong-Un Ban, Dept. of Urban Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, South Korea June 2010 Diunduh dari: https://gin.confex.com/gin/2010/webprogram/Paper3255.html………….1/1/2013
.. Sustainability requires a consideration of the social or community dimension as well as ecological integrity and economic efficiency. Further, ecological systems emphasize interaction and interdependence. Definitions of eco-industrial parks have begun to address this by referring to them as communities of business. The paper describes a number of initiatives, particularly in the United States and Canada. The types of interactions among businesses and between businesses and the community are described and initiatives are categorized as engineering or self-designing. The paper lists 11 characteristics of eco-industrial parks which are emerging from the existing projects. …Journal of Cleaner Production 6 (1998) 181–188 Designing eco-industrial parks: a synthesis of some experiences Raymond P. Côté a,*, E. Cohen-Rosenthal Diunduh dari: www.umich.edu/~indecol/EIP-cote.pdf ………….1/1/2013
.. The essential characteristics of eco-industrial parks have been proposed by a number of authors including Research Triangle Institute , Côté et al. , Lowe and Warren , the President’s Council on Sustainable Development  and Peck and Associates , among others. Compared to a traditional industrial park, an eco- industrial park would: 1. Define the community of interests and involve that community in the design of the park. 2. Reduce environmental impact or ecological foot- print through substitution of toxic materials, absorp- tion of carbon dioxide, material exchanges and inte- grated treatment of wastes. 3. Maximize energy efficiency through facility design and construction, co-generation, and cascading. 4. Conserve materials through facility design and con- struction, reuse, recovery and recycling. 5. Link or network companies with suppliers and cus- tomers in the wider community in which the eco- industrial park is situated. 6. Continuously improve the environmental perform- ance by the individual businesses and the com- munity as a whole. 7. Have a regulatory system which permits some flexibility while encouraging companies to meet per- formance goals. 8. Use economic instruments which discourage waste and pollution. 9. Employ an information management system which facilitates the flow of energy and materials within a more or less closed-loop. 10. Create a mechanism which seeks to train and edu- cate managers and workers about new strategies, tools and technologies to improve the system. 11. Orient its marketing to attract companies which fill niches and complement other businesses. Diunduh dari: www.umich.edu/~indecol/EIP-cote.pdf………….1/1/2013 …Journal of Cleaner Production 6 (1998) 181–188 Designing eco-industrial parks: a synthesis of some experiences Raymond P. Côté a,*, E. Cohen-Rosenthal
.. In several industrialised countries, there have occurred initiatives to establish eco-industrial parks. Originally, these were mainly based upon the exchange of resources between heavy industries in industrial complexes. These initiatives are generally referred to with the concepts of industrial symbiosis and eco- industrial parks. Since then, the concept of eco-industrial parks has been extended to another relevant type of industrial park, the so-called mixed industrial park, which consists of various small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), sometimes complemented by a small number of larger industries. Because of the resulting growing ambiguity in the signiﬁcance of eco-industrial park initiatives, a typology is desirable for entangling the confusion that is introduced. It is argued that mixed industrial parks are poorly investigated although they have a major environmental and spatial impact. Starting from a general consideration of eco- industrial park initiatives, this paper describes the societal and environmental problems that are related to the mixed industrial parks, proposes solutions and discusses the counteracting factors. While our argument relates strongly to the traditionally industrialised countries, it is also relevant to newly industrialised countries, as they are faced with similar problems, or will encounter them in the near future. …Technovation 22 (2002) 471–484 Eco-industrial parks: stimulating sustainable development in mixed industrial parks A.J.D. Lambert and F.A. Boons Diunduh dari: users.ugent.be/.../Lambert_EIP%20mixed%20industrial%20parks.pdf ………….1/1/2013
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the eco-industrial park has become the important carrier for the development of circular economy in the US and the EU countries. It is also the new direction and trend for the development of the industrial park. This paper discusses the main characters of the eco-industrial park through the analysis of the eco-industrial park in the US and EU. The Wuhan metropolitan zone is now in the process of its attempt for the construction of resource-conservation and environment-protection society under the guidance of the Chinese Central Government. Based on the detailed discussion on the development status and main problems of the industrial parks in the Wuhan metropolitan zone, the author finally points out some practical suggestion for their future development. The Characters of the Eco-Industrial Park in EU and US and the Inspiration for the Wuhan Metropolitan Zone Li Ming Management and Service Science (MASS), 2011 International Conference on Date of Conference: 12-14 Aug. 2011 Diunduh dari: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?………….1/1/2013
Eco-industrial park (EIP) projects have become more prevalent in China. In order to evaluate the performance of such innovative projects, the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) has set up a new national standard for EIPs, the first of its kind globally. This article examines the applicability and feasibility of the indicator system established in the standard. It first presents the details of this new standard. Then benefits and challenges in the standard's application are analyzed. The analysis shows that the new indicators are eco-efficiency- oriented and do not address the essence of the EIP. In the future, there will be a need to revise this set of indicators by considering the principles of eco-industrial development and local realities in order to ensure that the indicators are indeed used to promote sustainable development of industrial parks. …Assessment of the National Eco-Industrial Park Standard for Promoting Industrial Symbiosis in China Yong Geng, Pan Zhang, Raymond P. Ct, Tsuyoshi Fujita Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 13, Issue 1, pp. 15-26, 2009 Diunduh dari: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1782542………….1/1/2013
Input-output modeling is a useful tool for tracing environmental impacts of consumption. Because it includes impacts originating from production layers of infinite order (capturing the entire economy), input-output modeling is highly relevant for studies operating in a life-cycle context. In this article we show how the input-output approach can be used to enumerate the problem of sustainable consumption. Based on a literature survey including research done by the authors we present measures of the emissions of carbon dioxide at different spatial levels: nation, city, and household. Further, we take more environmental effects into account and introduce the concept of environmental efficiency by combining input-output modeling and data envelopment analysis. Finally, we discuss the policy relevance of the different measures. The article demonstrates that input-output modeling has a wide range of life-cycle oriented applications when combined with other data sources such as detailed trade statistics, foreign input-output and environmental statistics, and household expenditure data. Using Input-Output Analysis to Measure the Environmental Pressure of Consumption at Different Spatial Levels Jesper Munksgaard †,*, Mette Wier ‡, Manfred Lenzen §, Christopher Dey Journal of Industrial Ecology Volume 9, Issue 1-2, Volume 9, Issue 1-2, pages 169–185, January 2005 Diunduh dari: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1162/1088198054084699/full ………….1/1/2013
Industrial Ecology (IE) in industrial estates has a geographic, resource, and/or industry sector focus. In such geographic and/or industry sector settings IE is often labelled as Industrial Symbiosis (IS), for instance by linking utilities and waste/by-product exchange, the organization of a resource chain such as in the case of biomass, or of linkages around a key-organization. The role of industrial symbiosis is analyzed in the planned industrial symbiosis activities in the Rotterdam Harbor and Industry complex and the application process of renewable energy in the Östergötland region in Sweden. The objective of this paper is to discuss a synthesis between the planned activities in Rotterdam and to unfold current industrial symbiosis activities in the Östergötland. Such knowledge can help further developing the application process of industrial symbiosis in Eco-Industrial Parks in China. Planning and Unfolding Eco-Industrial Parks: Reflections on Synergy Paper for the workshops in JinShan Summit, in Zhenjiang City 5 – 7 July and China Europa Forum, Chengbu City July 8 – 11, Hong Kong, July 12 – 14, 2010 Leo Baas Diunduh dari: liu.diva- portal.org/smash/get/diva2:464811/FULLTEXT01………….1/1/2013
Since the world summit on sustainable development in Johannesburg, discussion on eco-industrial parks has started in several industrialised countries and many initiatives occurred to establish eco-industrial parks or to transform existing industrial parks. Originally, eco-industrial parks were mainly based upon theexchange of resources among industrial complexes. These initiatives are generally referred to with the conceptsof industrial symbiosis. After this initial period, the concept of eco-industrial parks has been extended toanother type of industrial park, the so- called mixed industrial park, which consists of various small and medium-sized enterprises some times complemented by a small number of larger industries. The significance of eco- industrial park initiatives needs a typology for clarifying the confusion. It is argued that mixed industrial parks are poorly investigated although they have a major environmental and spatial impact. Starting from a casestudy of a mixed eco- industrial park initiative, this paper describes the related societal and environmental problems and proposes solutions for the first stage of the transformation Stimulating Sustainable Development in MixedEco-Industrial Parks CRISTINA CARRACA, THOMAS PANAGOPOULOS, LUIS CRUZ 1st WSEAS International Conference on LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE (LA '08), Algarve, Portugal, June 11-13, 2008 Diunduh dari: http://www.academia.edu/1151530/Stimulating_Sustainable_Development_in_Mixed_Eco- Industrial_Parks………….1/1/2013
An eco-industrial park (EIP) is a community of firms in a region that exchange and make use of each other’s byproducts, in the process improving their environmental and economic performance. The first EIP formally identified as such was “discovered” in the Danish coastal city of Kalundborg more than a decade ago, and similar cases in other parts of Europe and the United States have been documented since then. Nowhere, however, did a planning authority structure the development of these “localized industrial symbiosis.” To the contrary, all of these cases were ultimately triggered by cost calculations. Could it be then that localized industrial symbiosis is a widespread, if neglected, type of industrial linkage? This is indeed the contention of this article, which examines the genesis of modern EIP before illustrating that urban areas have always exhibited widespread resource recovery between firms. It is then argued that regulatory reform would prove more effective than planning to replicate the Danish experience. Eco-Industrial Parks and the Rediscovery of Inter-Firm Recycling Linkages. Pierre Desrochers Senior Research Fellow, Urban Studies. Institute for Policy Studies. Johns Hopkins University Diunduh dari: direct.mises.org/journals/scholar/Eco6a.PDF ………….1/1/2013
Reflections on implementing industrial ecology through eco- industrial park development David Gibbs and Pauline Deutz Journal of Cleaner Production DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.02.003 Diunduh dari: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/222410669_Reflections_on_implementing_industria l_ecology_through_eco-industrial_park_development ………….1/1/2013 This paper investigates whether eco-industrial parks (EIPs) offer possibilities to implement sustainable development policies. EIPs are based upon industrial ecology principles that suggest industrial systems can operate in a similar fashion to natural ecological systems. Drawing upon a survey of all identifiable EIPs in the USA and Europe and in-depth interview surveys of 16 EIPs, the research discovered few examples of networking between firms or processes using wastes and materials recycling. Most EIPs are at a very early stage of development, where linkages are potential rather than real. The problems encountered in developing EIPs from scratch suggests that a more fruitful approach is to build upon existing and potential linkages within a locality, assisted by a pro-active policy to encourage interchanges.
Eco-Industrial Parks in the Mexico-US Border Region: A feasibility study Perez, Saul URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10161/340http://hdl.handle.net/10161/340 Date: 2007-05 Diunduh dari: http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/340 ………….1/1/2013 This project focuses on finding the feasibility for Eco-Industrial Parks (EIPs) in the Mexico-U.S. Border Region. EIPs are communities of businesses, from different sectors of industry, that cooperate with each other to efficiently share resources (information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure and, specially, residual materials that would otherwise enter as waste streams or be released as pollution), leading to economic gains, improved environmental quality, and enhancement of human resources for business and local community (PCSD, 1997). The project analyzes potential opportunities of material exchange with a variety of wasted resources generated by industrial plants on the Mexico-US border (maquiladoras), using a by-product exchange representation of an EIP. It concentrates on the region of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, the sister-border town of El Paso, Texas, one of the most industrialized border cities with high maquiladora activity. The methods used to gather data for the study consisted of interviews that identified the most prominent material flows from different sectors of maquiladoras of Ciudad Juarez, and a literature search on existing EIPs around the world to gather data on the most common by-products utilized through their exchanges. The project then considered the economic and environmental benefits, and regulatory and industrial issues surrounding a potential EIP By- Product Station. The study shows that there is not a good match between current waste- streams and by-product utilization potential of existing plants.
RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE INDEX OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA Binjie Lai 1, Jinping Tian 1, Lujun Chen1,2 1 School of Environment Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 2 Department of Environmental Technology and Ecology, Yangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Water Science and Technology of Zhejiang Province firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Diunduh dari: www.cern.org.cn/poster/034.pdf ………….1/1/2013 It has been 10 years since the launching of eco-industrial park development program in China. With joint administration by Ministry of Environmental Protection, Ministry of Commerce and Ministry of Science and Technology. However, there is a lack of precise metrics for performance evaluation on eco-industrial park. The existed evaluation systems in China are not only inaccurate but also too complex for application on eco-industrial park. In this article, we use the method of multi-criteria decision analysis to establish the environmental performance index of eco- industrial park, then it is used to evaluate the performance of 24 sector-integrate eco-industrial parks in China between 2009- 2010. Suggestions on national demonstrative eco-industrial park development are also discussed.
Theory and control mechanism of eco-industrial parks Yuan ZengweiYuan Zengwei, Bi Jun, Wang Xiyuan, Zhang Bing, Huang JuanBi JunWang XiyuanZhang BingHuang Juan Center of Environmental Mangagement and Poliey, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing. Jiangsu 210093, China Acta Ecologica SinicaActa Ecologica Sinica [2004, 24(11):2501-2508] Diunduh dari: http://europepmc.org/abstract/CBA/534978 ………….1/1/2013 Following the development of Industrial Ecology (IE) and the widespread promotion of Circular Economy (CE), Eco-Industrial Parks (EIPs) have been rapidly developed throughout the world. An EIP is a district where enterprises are organized according to industrial symbiosis and Circular Economy. It aims to optimize the integrated benefits of environment, economics, and society in the park. However, there is a limited understanding of EIP ecosystematic structure, function and optimized control mechanism. As a result, almost all the present EIPs are inappropriately designed as a closed loop or network to merely recycle waste. This is especially true in China. Unfortunately, such a narrow thinking of EIPs, deeply embedded in decision- makers' mind, has already imposed significant impacts in the development of EIPs in China. This research tries to raise the question and establish the theory of analyzing and optimizing EIP ecosystem.developmentthinking development
Choctaw Eco-Industrial Park: an ecological approach to industrial land-use planning and design 1 1 Audra J Potts Carr Landscape and Urban Planning Volume 42, Issues 2–4Volume 42, Issues 2–4, 7 December 1998, Pages 239–257 Diunduh dari: http://0- www.sciencedirect.com.precise.petronas.com.my/science/article/pii/S0169204698000905 ………….1/1/2013 This project investigates the concepts of industrial ecology and eco-industrial parks and applies those concepts to the redesign of an existing industrial park in Choctaw, OK. The opportunity for developing an eco-industrial park on this site comes from the availability of waste water for non-potable water needs, and the abundance of waste tires as raw materials for products to drive a new set of industrial partnerships. These industrial partnerships include the City of Choctaw Waste Water Treatment Plant, a tire shredding company, a tire pyrolysis company, a hydroponics industry, a hard rubber tire manufacturer, a screen printer, a plastics manufacturer, a toner manufacturer, and a toner cartridge manufacturer. The nature of this relationship and the design of the eco-industrial park is contained within this report. The result of this investigation is a new, common sense, approach to industrial land use that combines economic growth and environmental protection.
Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park Wang LWang L, Zhang J The Journal of Applied Ecology. 2004, 15(6):1047-1050] Diunduh dari: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/15362633 ………….1/1/2013 In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco- industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park.circulation
Study on Driving Forces of Eco-Industries Park towards Sustainable Development HE Yunlong School of Management, Changsha University of Science Technology, P.R.China, 410076 email@example.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=3724 ………….1/1/2013 There are different driving forces to promote eco-industrial park’s sustainable development. This paper discusses the external and internal driving forces how to promote eco-industrial park’s sustainable development. The external and internal driving forces have different level strength. The external driving forces include the government’s behavior, regulations and external competition environment advantage. The internal driving forces include the circulation use of resource, division of labor and cooperation, technological innovation and diffusion. The mechanism of driving forces to eco-industrial park’s sustainable development means the ways that the driving forces come into being, transferring and effecting.
Research on Eco-Industrial Park Planning in China LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 firstname.lastname@example.org Diunduh dari: ………….1/1/2013 Establishing Eco-Industrial Park is an important way to achieve the development of the cycle economics. With the theory of cycle economics’ wide spread, Eco-Industrial Park planning is being carried out in all parts of China. Based on the research of Eco- Industrial Park in and out of China, the article points out the problems in Eco-Industrial Park planning in our China and provides the solution of these problems. Hope it’s valuable to the plan of Eco-Industrial Park in country. The full-scale definition of Eco-Industrial Park (EIP for short) was first put forward by Professor Lowe in America in the year of 1994. An Eco-Industrial park or estate is a community of manufacturing and service businesses located together on a common property. Member businesses seek enhanced environmental, economic, and social performance through collaboration in managing environmental and resource issues. By working together, the community of businesses seeks a collective benefit that is greater than the sum of individual benefits each company would realize by only optimizing its individual performance, Lowe pointed out. www.seiofbluemountain.com/se arch/detail.php?id=3714
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 email@example.com Diunduh dari: ………….1/1/2013 In 1996, the US President’s Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD) gave EIP two meanings. First, EIP is “A community of businesses that cooperate with each other and with the local community to efficiently share resources (information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure, and natural habitat), leading to economic gains, gains in environmental quality, and equitable enhancement of human resources for the business and local community.” It is also defined as “An industrial system of planned materials and energy exchanges that seeks to minimize energy and raw materials use, minimize waste, and build sustainable economic, ecological and social relationships.” In 1997, the US Environmental Protect Agency (EPA) defined EIP as follows. “An Eco-Industrial Park is a community of manufacturing and service businesses seeking enhanced environmental and economic performance through collaboration in managing environmental and resource issues, including energy, water, and materials. By working together, the community of businesses seeks a collective benefit that is greater than the sum of the individual benefits each company would realize if it optimized its individual performance only.” EPA emphasized on the cooperation in the parks. www.seiofbluemountain.com/se arch/detail.php?id=3714
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 firstname.lastname@example.org Diunduh dari: ………….1/1/2013 At present, the common definition of EIP is “a new industrial conformation, which is designed and built according to the idea of circular economy and the theory of industrial ecology. Through trade, different plants or companies are connected to form a complex, which can share the resources and exchange products. In another word, the products or waste of one company can become the raw material or resources of another company. This can make the connected companies be similar to a natural system, establish the circular industrial path of “producer- customer- decomposer”, and realize the sustainable development of regional society, economy and environment through the closed circulation of material, circular use of energy and minimization of waste.” www.seiofbluemountain.com/se arch/detail.php?id=3714
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 email@example.com Diunduh dari: ………….1/1/2013 As an efficient mean of solving environmental problems, EIP has been thought highly of in the following main characteristics. 1.EIP is a complex of nature, industry and society. 2.Achieving the maximum use of resources and minimum discharge of waste through the exchange of by-products and wastes, circular use of energy and waste water and the sharable use of infrastructure among the processing units of the industrial park. 3.Ensuring the steady and sustainable development of the industrial park through the application of modern administration, policy and new technology such as sharing information, saving water and energy, re-circulation and reuse, environment monitoring and sustainable transportation technique. 4.Through constructing and operating park’s infrastructures, the environmental conditions of companies, the park and the whole community will reach a sustainable improvement. www.seiofbluemountain.com/se arch/detail.php?id=3714
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001. firstname.lastname@example.org Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=3714………….1/1/2013 Problems in Eco-Industrial Park Planning 1.Less Concern on Environmental Capacity In all the data, people give much attention to the construction of the EIP’s industry chains. These chains are stretched to form closed cycle. However, people don’t pay enough attention to the Environmental capacity. In certain areas, the environment can’t afford without limit. Too long industry chains and too many items in the park would go beyond the environmental capacity. What’s worse, because of too many industries, the whole environment would crash sooner or later. 2.The Uncertainty among the Relationship of Industry Chains Nowadays, our country’s EIP planning is just on the way, far behind those developed countries. Instead of playing only one role, each industry in a well-developed EIP is the producer, customer, decomposer and restorer. Junior EIP operating mode is easy: Environment—producer—customer— decomposer—environment. Like National Eco- Industrial Demonstration Park in Guigang, Guangxi, its cycle is Cane—sugar making— alcohol made from waste molasses—compound fertilizer made from waste alcohol— cane. Because the waste things can only be used in one way, the cycling would break if any chain doesn’t work well. As a result, the EIP would no long exist. 3.Basis Construction’s Lagging Far behind Building EIP needs good basis construction’s support. Except for common equipment, we should consider the design and circuit of the pipeline in the waste cycling, water reusing and things like that. But lots of EIP aren’t doing well on this. Requested by the EIP plan, much money is needed. 4.Vague Definition and Indistinctive Construction Successfully operated parks have clear definition, like Silicon Valley for its leading industry and another kinds of parks for their related industries. Items are parks’ life and characteristics are parks’ soul. some domestic parks are indistinctive. They’re just a combination of several related companies. 5.Too Few Normative Parks During the wave of cycle economy, some parks in provinces or cities, except for those national ones, are also coming into being, but most of them are not normative. As it’s mentioned above, some are just combinations of several related companies. Once established, reprogramming and re-planning would need more effort and money, and this would do more damage to the environment.
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 email@example.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=3714………….1/1/2013 Conduct a Feasibility Analysis At the beginning of planning the EIP, we must study the region's geographical location, natural resources and climatic conditions, consider the local ecological environment capacity, select entering project carefully for reducing the impact on the environment as possible as we can. For example, the PCSD of the United States is in charge of the overall planning of the Port of Cape Charles Sustainable Technologies Industrial Part. They make an ecological environmental assessment as the first step of the developing action. We should take into account the site’s location situation; investigate whether location situation can provide convenient and efficient conditions of transport and traffic protection for inputting material steam, energy steam, and information steam into the park rapidly.
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 firstname.lastname@example.org Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=3714………….1/1/2013 Flexible Planning Concept The construction of the park has great uncertainty, its plan is a system project, and the various effect factors will have an impact on its results. The park’s operation and development are dynamic; they require us that we should use flexible planning concept to avoid defects that are due to ultimate planning. We can use lots of methods from disciplines on the integrated to find the right answers to solve the problem, for example, we can use the Scenario Plan to the planning.
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 email@example.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=3714………….1/1/2013 Implement a Preferential Policy; Support the Infrastructure Development of Industrial Park The enterprises in the Port of Cape Charles Sustainable Technologies Industrial Park obtain advanced infrastructural facilities condition first, including the laying of the late-model road, industrial parks information and intelligence networks, and so on. At the same time, Cape Charles has received the support of low-cost from the Government, and this reduces the development and operating costs greatly within the park. China can learn from abroad experience to carry out financial, taxation and other financial policies to support the industrial park infrastructure construction.
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 firstname.lastname@example.org Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=3714………….1/1/2013 Orientate Exactly, Develop the Characteristic Industrial Park Industrial parks around the region should choose their owe eco- industrial development model, according to the stupid characteristics advantages, such as resources, the sources of energy supply condition, history and foundation of industrial development, human resources and as well as traditional culture, and so on. Organize Experts to Have the Demonstration. The planning of EIP must be demonstrated in many ways by various experts. The planning, which does not meet the norms of EIP, is not approved and passed. To the existing EIP, which does not according with standard, we should re-plan and re-design it to regulate operations in accordance with the law of Industrial Ecology and the requirements of the EIP of China.
RESEARCH ON ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK PLANNING IN CHINA LI Juan LI Hongwei College of Urban and Rural Constructions Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, P.R.China 071001 email@example.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=3714………….1/1/2013 As an effective way to achieve the cycle economics, EIP is a new topic in China, and there is no mature experience for drawing lessons to it. The planning of EIP needs to be improved in the exploration, which requires us conclude the experience and find out problems as early as possible in the developing of EIP. Of course, at the same time, we must study the successful experience of abroad, with China’s specific national conditions and characteristics of industrial, research the pilots of EIP, and then extend the EIP on this basic and enable China's industrial park on the road of sustainable development. This paper summarized the existing problems in the planning of EIP in China, furthermore, advance some targeted manners to solve the problems, such as conducting a feasibility analysis, flexible planning concept, implementing preferential policies, as well as orientating exactly and developing the characteristic industrial park and so on, looking forward to providing a reference for the EIP in China, which is facing the cycle economics.
THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 Currently, industrial ecology system is still in the black-box analysis stage, which means that analysis of the inherent structures and function of the system remain fairly shallow. The conceptual model of eco-industrial parks is set up according to the natural ecosystem. The model comprises of (1) definition of species in an eco- industrial park, (2) the structure and function of an eco-industrial system, (3) the classification of the enterprises as producers, consumers, decomposers, and (4) the interactions of each component in an eco-industrial park. Methodology is very important for researching eco-industrial parks, and some analysis tools are in brief specialized, i.e. the network analysis, life-cycle assessment, input-output analysis, emergy analysis, industrial metabolism, and mass balance and material flow accounting.
THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 The Conceptual Model of an Eco-industrial Park The conceptual model is set up according to the natural ecosystem. The comparison of natural ecosystem and industrial systems as well as the use of the principles of ecosystems in an eco-industrial park is common for two new rapidly emerging scientific fields in sustainable development research. In the model each enterprise cooperates into an eco-industrial park, and the enterprise is considered as a living organism. Each enterprise has its own metabolism, so we must pay focus on the principles of mass and energy flow. But symbiotic relationships in an eco- industrial system are controlled by each enterprise not natural power, in this model, there are 3 types of interactions: positive, neutral and negative are classified, which properly reflect the relationships existing nature (1). 1.Ewa L.B., Marcin B., Andrzej M., Andrej D.. The conceptual model of an eco-industrial park based upon ecological relationship. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2009(17):732~741.
THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 The ecosystem Natural ecosystem including plant, animal, microbe and environment is a functional ecological unit. Ecosystem has two main components, i.e. community and habitat, the former is defined as the total living biotic components of an ecosystem, whereas the latter refers to a place where species normally reside and is often described in terms of physical features. The members of the industrial community can be described as “living organisms” because they need food, i.e. substrates, energy of renewable or non-renewable sources and have simple or complicated industrial metabolism. The eco-industrial system makes two kinds of products. The first kind of products is the desired products of market value. The second group of products is by-products, i.e. waste. Some by-product can be potentially used as an input material for another enterprise within the recycling of substance. What is the “habitat” of the eco-industrial system? The industrial habitat comprises of a certain area with the infrastructure and resources. We believe that the habitat of the eco-industrial should include area, water, energy information and transportation, some of which don’t exist in the natural habitat.
THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434………….1/1/2013 The eco-industrial system: The theoretical basis of an eco-industrial system Actually there are many close relationships between industrial ecosystems and nature. For example, the original materials of industrial ecosystems come from natural system. The wastes from industrial ecosystem leak into the natural world. Therefore every industrial ecosystem has three inherent issues, i.e. exhaustion, stagnancy and the final products. The main goals of a good ecological industrial are to minimize the ecological exhaustion and stagnancy and maximize the quantity and optimize the quality of final products (1) In the resource exploitation, when the output from a system is much higher than the input into it, which is far away from the minimum cost for restoring its damaged function, an ecological exhaustion will happen. On the other hand, when the input of a system far exceeds its output, resulting in an excessive quantity of materials and energy leaking into the environment, an ecological stagnancy will happen. The exhaustion, stagnation and final products of an eco-industrial system are affected by the input and output of the industrial species within the whole system. Traditionally, there are three levels of species in natural ecosystems according to the function of the species and the structure, i.e., autotrophs, heterotrophs and decomposers. And the food chains of natural ecosystem transport the food and energy among different component species. Similar to natural ecosystems, according to the function and the position in industrial ecosystem the substances in industrial ecosystem include three parts: raw materials, the medium product or waste, and the final product. We can categorize the three parts into basal species, intermediate species and top species respectively. In the paper, the basal species refers to the raw materials, and the intermediate species refers to the medium product and waste, and the top species refers to the final product in the industrial ecosystem. 1.Ewa L.B., Marcin B., Andrzej M., Andrej D.. The conceptual model of an eco-industrial park based upon ecological relationship. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2009(17):732~741.
THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 Definition of the industrial species Industrial species is defined as all the materials participating in chemical reactions in one industrial ecosystem (the materials only participating in physical reactions are not included). According to the position and function in the industrial production wet species can be divided into basal species, intermediate species and top species. Basal species are the virgin materials for production from nature, which may supply the basic and important nutrition source for the industrial system. Intermediate species are those products processed from raw materials that would be processed into final products. Top species are those products processed from basal and intermediate species that cannot be further processed into other products and are sold in society. Mass and energy flows differ in the industrial ecosystem in comparison to natural system. This is contributed to the fact that some living organisms, i.e. producers, may utilize the unlimited energy source (solar energy), transforming it into organic compounds, which are ultimately the energy source for consumers and decomposers. The later, by means of mineralization of organic matter, finally supply inorganic substances for producers. However, most energy, which was earlier bound by producers, is lost.
THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013. The concept of diversity in an eco-industrial system Diversity in an eco-industrial system can be seen as crucial for ecosystem survival (1). Ecosystems either adapt to their internal scarcity by optimizing the use of the scarce resource through diversity or are flexible and able to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Templet defined diversity in economic systems as the number of sectors using energy and the equitability of the energy flows between them. Ring used diversity in ecosystems and economic systems to show the information flows. Diversity can denote, as in this paper, the number of different actors involved in an industrial ecosystem. It is important to study the actors, because they mobilize the roundput vs. throughput flows. Diversity can create possibility for increasing connectedness and cooperation in waste and by-product utilization within ecosystems and within industrial ecosystems (2). The IE hypothesis is that diversity could contribute to IE in that when one firm departs from the recycling system, the system recovers through diversity as some other actors fulfils its recycling or waste raw material supplying role (3). 1.Ring,I.. Evolutionary strategies in environmental policy. Ecological Economics, 1997(23): 237 ~250. 2.Korhonen,J.. Four ecosystem principles for an industrial ecosystem. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2001(9):253~259. 3.Ahvenainen, J.. Understanding industrial ecology from a biological systems perspective. Total Quality Environment Management, 1992:343~354.
Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 The network analysis of eco-industrial parks The network analysis of an eco-industrial park originated from the economic analysis of monetary flows. Hannon first applied economic input-output analysis to investigate the distribution of ecological flows in an ecosystem. Since Patten and Finn first published their papers on the analysis of flows in ecological networks (2), there have been many studies of methods for and applications of ecological network analysis. Ecological network analysis is currently one of the important methods for exploring the interactions between an ecosystem’s structure and functions. The method can quantitatively analyze the direction of ecological flows and the interactions among them in an ecological network, and thus reveal the integrity and complexity of ecosystem behaviors. Ecological network analysis has been widely applied to study natural ecosystem (1). Network structure establishes the pathways (direct and indirect) over which conserved material can flow between entities in connected systems (3). The relationship between pathway numbers and length is a critical component of this structure because it describes how quickly indirect pathways increase, and with this also, proportional opportunities for material to move and for positive “nonzero-sumness” to be realized in a well-connected system, the number of pathways in a network increases (4). 1.. Zhang Y., Yang Z., Yu X. Ecological network and emergy analysis of urban metabolic systems: model development, and a case study of four Chinese cities. Ecological Modeling, 2009, 220: 1431~ 1442. 2.. Finn,J.T.. Measure of ecosystem structure and function derived from analysis flows. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 1976, 56(2):363~380. 3.. Fath, B.D., Patten, B. C.. Review of the foundations of network environment analysis. Ecosystem, 1999(2):167~179. 4.. Fath, B.D., Patten, B. C.. Network synergism: emergence of positive relations in ecological systems [J]. Ecological Model, 1998(107):127~143. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com
Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 Life-cycle assessment LCA is an analytical tool for an environmental management for using to quantify impacts of products, processes and services. An ISO standard has been developed for LCA that provides a framework, terminology and some methodological choices. It comprises a life cycle inventory phase (LCI), life cycle impact assessment and an interpretation stage. The approach is intrinsically holistic in nature and considers direct and, ideally, related processes and hidden flows of raw materials and intermediate inputs, and waste and other materials and energy outputs associated with the entire existence or product chain or system. The use of LCA has also evolved in the development of different approaches based on the concept of life cycle thinking that is accounting impacts and effects in all the phases of the life cycle. Such approaches include life cycle cost analysis and life cycle design, among many others. The LCA procedure often involves a comparison of a small number of substitutable products assumed to provide a similar consumption service. Initiatives have also been taken to develop best available practice of LCA application. As an analytical approach, LCA can be used both as a descriptive tool and a change-orientated. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com
Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 Input-output analysis The input-output analysis is based on a detailed accounting of the transacting between different sectors of the economy: the producing sectors (also called industries), the household sector, the government sector and the rest of the world. The input-output analysis has been improved by many researchers in different fields for the sake of the conflicts between economic and environment. Physical input-output table (PIOT) measures all delivers in physical units, such as million tons. PIOT seems to become an important tool in input-output analysis, in fields where material flows and their links are paramount, such as in environmental, resource and energy economics. PIOT allows national-level analysis that extends upon conventional input-output methodology and classifications to incorporate environment resource and waste output sectors to provide measures of physical flow of materials and goods within the economic system and between the economic system and the nature environment. The PIOT method traces how nature resources enter, are processed, and subsequently as commodities, are moved around the economy, used, and finally returned to the natural environment in form of residuals. PIOT undertakes the detailed investigation of physical flow of environmental resources inputs and commodity weights and residuals, and given this intersectoral specification and transactions matrix structure, has the ability to evaluate the cumulative environmental burden of private consumption and other final demand for the products of different industries. Currently, PIOT has been applied to describe the eco-industrial system, especially to assess the environmental effect of the production and utilization phases of products. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com
Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 Emergy analysis Emergy in terms of embodied energy was first presented in 1983 by Odum (1). Emergy was used by Odum to evaluate the work previously done to make a product or service, which was described as the available energy (exergy) of one kind previously required to be used up directly and indirectly to make the product or service. It represents all the work given by the environment to sustain a certain system and produce a certain level of output. Emergy, specially, Solar Emergy, is “the available solar energy used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product”. Emergy analysis considers all systems as the networks of energy flow and determines the energy value of the streams and systems involved. Emergy analysis presents an energetic basis for quantification or valuation of ecosystems’ good or services. Emergy attempts to assign the “correct” value to products and services based on a theory of energy flow in systems ecology. Since the early 1980s, emergy and emergy analysis have been used widely to analyze systems as diverse as ecological, industrial, and economic. Unfortunately, like many groundbreaking ideas, emergy has encountered a lot of resistance and criticism, particularly from economists, physicists, and engineers. Consequently, it has not been used much outside a small circle of researchers. This limited use of emergy analysis despite its broad relevance may be due to inadequate attention to details, poor communication of its potential importance, and lack of clear links with related concepts in other disciplines. However, much more work is needed to connect emergy with concepts in other disciplines and to overcome a preconceived negative notion of emergy that is prevalent among many researchers outside of systems ecology. 1.Odum H T. Environmental accounting: emergy and decision making. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996:290~370. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com
Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 Industrial metabolism The concept of industrial metabolism was presented by Ayres in 1988 (1). He considers “metabolism of industry” as “the whole integrated collection of physical progress that convert raw materials and energy, plus labor, into finished products and wastes…”. The main goal of industrial metabolism studies is to gain improved knowledge and to understand the societal uses of natural resources and their total impacts on the environment. The basic idea of industrial metabolism is to analyze the entire flow of materials, identify all possible emission sources and assess the effects associated with these flows. 1.Ayres, R.U., Simonis, U.E.. Industrial metabolism: restructuring for sustainable development. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1994:198~245. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com
Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434 ………….1/1/2013 Mass balance and material flow accounting (MFA) The MFA approach aims to reveal the fundamental nature of system source of flows and provides an overview of the structural nature of the material basis of economies. It is an important tool in all kinds of investigations where it is important to follow material fluxes. An essential principle of MFA is that of “materials balance” in order to derive consistent and balanced measures of material inputs and outputs across the economy-environment system boundary. The approach has also incorporated the identification and quantification of physical flows of “bulk” material categories within at least a limited number of subsystem components of the economic region under study. MFA includes different methods, which have their different objects in focus. Three types are mentioned here: Material Intensity per Unit Service (MIPS), Total Material Requirement (TMR) and Substance Flow Analysis (SFA). MFA has been widely used by researchers, for example, Ayres applied this approach to study on heavy metals in river basins; Frosch and Gallopoulos on PVC plastic, iron, and platinum in the U.S. economy; Ayres et al. on global carbon and nitrogen; and Thomas and Spiro on global lead and cadmium. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com
Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=7434………….1/1/2013 This paper formulates the concept of an eco-industrial park mimicking the natural ecosystem in order to find a new path of sustainable development in the industrial practice. The conceptual model is set up according to the natural ecosystem. The model comprises of : 1.Definition of species in an eco-industrial park, 2.The structure and function of an eco-industrial system, 3.The classification of the enterprises as producers, consumers, decomposers, 4.The interactions of each component in an eco-industrial park. At the same tine, this paper analyzes the methodology of researching eco-industrial parks, including : 1.The network analysis, 2.Life-cycle assessment, 3.Input-output analysis, 4.Emergy analysis, 5.Industrial metabolism 6.Mass balance and material flow accounting (MFA). THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LI Zhongcai The College of Management and Science, Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, P.R.China, 264005 Lzc2004620@sohu.com
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 Eco-industrial chains are the key and basis to build Eco-industrial Parks. Eco-industrial chain is the ecological agglomeration of industries with the aims to promote the exchange of by-products and waste, and the step usage of energy and wastewater. It is not a long time for China to build Eco-industrial Parks, but some modes of building Eco-industrial chains have been shaped. Through the positive analysis on the modes of the Eco-industrial chain in China’s Eco-industrial Parks, it is expected to sum up some experiences and patterns in order to provide theoretical reference for the construction of Eco-industrial Parks.
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 Eco-industrial Parks and Eco-industrial chains Based on the principle of ecology, industrial ecology, and Eco-economics, Eco-industry is a complex mode of industrial development with multi-layer, multi-structure, and multi- function, which applies modern science and technology to transfer industrial waste as usable materials, and realizes the recycled production and intensive management. The Eco-industrial Park is a man-made compound Eco-industrial system where Eco- industries are constructed in a limited area to realize the Eco-agglomeration of industries. In an Eco-industrial Park, the relationship of industrial symbiosis and metabolism is built, and a kind of industrial symbiosis organization is shaped to link enterprises for sharing resources and exchanging by-products. In the industrial symbiosis organization, according to the different roles played by each enterprise, the enterprises are divided into three types, which are producer, consumer, and decomposer or reductor. The enterprises of producer produce the direct consumer goods or the primary products for other enterprises to use as raw materials. The enterprises of consumer use the products from the enterprises of producer to produce the final products or mid products for society. The enterprises of decomposer decompose the by-products or waste from the process of production and the end-of-life products, extract or reduce useful materials, and provide them for other enterprises as regenerated materials. The enterprises in a scope of area, imitating the producer, consumer and decomposer in a natural Eco-system, will form an Eco-industrial chain, which acts as the enterprises’ alliance based on the resources link (including material, by-product, information, capital and talented person) to promote cycle flow of resources in the area . Through the exchange of by-products and waste, the step usage of energy and wastewater and the sharing of infrastructure among the members, the enterprises on the Eco-industrial chains may progress coordinately both in the economical benefit and environmental benefit.. 1.Wang Zhaohua, Yin Jianhua, Wu Chunyou, Research on the structure model of the Eco- industrial chain in the Eco-industrial parks (in Chinese), China Soft Science, no.10, p149-152, 2003.
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 The principles to promote Eco-industrial Parks in China (1): 1.Balanced distribution, from point to area. The main thinking in the promotion of Eco-industrial Parks in China is to choice firstly some places where there is a superiority in resources, industrial development and Eco-industrial basis for the construction of the different types of exemplary Eco-industrial Parks. The exemplary Eco-industrial Parks are distributed separately in the eastern, central and western part of China with overall consideration, and attach importance to the exemplary instruction on the similar industry or area. 2.Selecting the appropriate mode of Eco-industrial Parks. China has a vast territory. There is a big difference in the industrial development between areas. The construction of Eco-industrial Parks should be carried out according to the advantage and basis of the industry and area, in order to make full use of the local resources or district superiority. It is an appropriate way to work out the specific promoting strategy and build an Eco-industrial Park with its own characteristics. 1.Luo Hong, Meng Wei, Ran Shenghong, Theory and practice about Eco-industrial Parks (in Chinese), Chemical Industry Press, p136-139, 2004.
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 The industrial selection in the development of Eco-industrial Parks in China In light of pollution intensity, the industries are divided into three kinds in China, that is the industry with heavy pollution, with mid-intensive pollution, and with light pollution. Since the industries with heavy pollution and mid-intensive pollution take up a great part of proportion, these industries are in the great necessity for pollution prevention and ecological development. The industries with heavy pollution include papermaking, sugar refining, chemical industry, mining, ore dressing, metal smelting, electric power, building materials etc. The industrial selection of Eco-industrial Parks in China focus firstly on the industry with heavy pollution to launch the testing projects, such as Guigang sugar refining Eco-industrial Park, Shihezi papermaking Eco-industrial Park, Baotou aluminium industry Eco-industrial Park, Baotou steel industry Eco- industrial Park, Lubei chemical industry Eco-industrial Park, Fushun mining industry Eco-industrial Park, and etc.
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 Analysis on the structure and industrial symbiosis network of Eco-industrial Parks The structural theory of industrial park Markusen (1996) gave four kinds of typical industry district from the angle of the structure (1). 1.Marshallian district: the agglomerating district of small and medium enterprises. 2.Hub-and-spoke district: a core enterprise is taken as the center. 3.Satellite platform district: the agglomerating district of enterprises’ subdivision whose headquarter is outside there. 4.Complex district: including the above three types of industry districts. 1.Wang Jizi. Innovative spaces: enterprise clusters and regional development (in Chinese). Beijing University Press, p156-157, 2001.
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 The industrial symbiosis network of Eco-industrial Parks (1) The industrial symbiosis network is the main organizational form for the cooperating companies in an Eco-industrial Park. Wang Zhaohua (2005) proposed four types of representative operating patterns of industrial symbiosis network with the reference to the trend of Eco-industrial Parks across the world. 1.Relying on oriented industrial symbiosis network. It is an industrial symbiosis network formed relying on the core enterprises, which may be subdivided into two types according to the number of the core enterprises. The first is called as the relying on oriented industrial symbiosis network with single-center; the second the relying on oriented industrial symbiosis network with multi-center. 2.Equaling oriented industrial symbiosis network. There is no relying relationship in the network. 3.Nesting oriented industrial symbiosis network. It is a complex network, which absorbs the advantages of the above two networks. It is composed of several large companies which draw many other small or medium enterprises through business relationship to form the nesting network. 4.Virtual oriented industrial symbiosis network. It is the pattern of cooperating companies beyond the constraint of district. 1.Wang Zhaohua, Yin Jianhua. Research on operation pattern of industrial symbiosis network in Eco-industrial parks (in Chinese). China Soft Science, no.2, p80-85, 2005.
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 Analysis on the structure and industrial symbiosis network of Eco- industrial Parks in China The Eco-industrial Park is a special kind of industrial park. Considering the factors of industry, comprehensiveness, remaking and new building, Eco-industrial Parks in China may be divided into three representative types. 1.The Eco-industrial Parks of industry type, such as sugar refining Eco-industrial Park and etc. 2.The remaking comprehensive Eco-industrial Parks, which is remade or upgraded from the existed industrial parks. 3. The new building comprehensive Eco-industrial Parks, such as Huangxing (Hi-tech) Eco-industrial Park, Nanhai (environment protection) Eco-industrial Park. The Eco-industrial Parks of industry type have a core company generally. It belongs to the hub-and-spoke district, where the relying on oriented industrial symbiosis network with single-center is formed around one Core Company. For example, the Core Company of Guigang Eco-industrial Park is Guigang Sugar Group. The new-building comprehensive Eco-industrial Parks have the characteristics of Marshallian district, owing to the agglomeration of small and medium enterprises according to its multi-industry development planning, where the equaling oriented industrial symbiosis network and the virtual oriented industrial symbiosis network are formed. In the remaking comprehensive Eco-industrial Parks, there exist lots of enterprises, the industrial communities with multi-core enterprises are shaped, and many transnational corporations are attracted there to set up their satellite enterprise. Therefore, they appear to be the complex district, where the relying on oriented industrial symbiosis network with multi-center or the nesting oriented industrial symbiosis network may be formed gradually depending on the Eco-industrial chain relationship inside and outside the industrial communities.
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 Analysis on the modes of Eco-industrial chains in Eco-industrial Parks in China The modes of building Eco-industrial chains are relevant to the type, structure and industrial symbiosis network of Eco-industrial Parks. THE ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS OF INDUSTRY TYPE The Eco-industrial chains in the Eco-industrial Parks of industry type are built on the basis of local resources and around the key business of the core enterprise. Here we take Guigang Eco-industrial Park as an example, which are representative of this kind of Eco-industrial Parks, to discuss the mode of building Eco-industrial chains. Guigang City, Guangxi province, is an important base of sugarcane, which are the distinctive resources and the basis for the local economical development. Guigang Eco-industrial Park covers almost the whole Guigang City, based on Guigang Sugar Group including five sugar refineries. It takes the opportunity of building Eco-industrial chains to regulate the sugar industrial structure and decrease the environmental pollution. And it aims to collect nearly all the waste from all sugar refineries in Guangxi province, which are located within 300 kilometer around Guigang City, into the park for treatment and reuse. This may produce great social benefit. Two basic Eco-industrial chains are formed in the park based on sugar refineries. 1.Sugarcane→sugar refining→papermaking with bagasse 2.Sugar refining→ethyl alcohol refining from sugar honey→compound fertilizer production with the waste ethyl alcohol
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 The remaking comprehensive Eco-industrial Parks Here is the example of Eco-industrial chain building in Tianjin Eco-industrial Park in Tianjin ETDA. Utill the end of 2002, there were 3,518 foreign enterprises, and over 10 thousand national enterprises in Tianjin ETDA. The agglomeration of lots of enterprises comes to form 4 kinds of industries: electronic communication, mechanical manufacturing, medical and chemical industry, and food and drink industry.: 1.The Eco-industrial chains in the electronic and informational industrial community Around Motorola Corp. and Samsung Electronic Corp., there are over 300 auxiliary enterprises in the Park or in the neighbour district which produce about 400 kinds of necessary products, such as components and parts, LED, battery, mould plastics parts etc. Owing to the short distance, high speed transportation and communication system, the energy consumption, waste and cost are all decreased. 2. The Eco-industrial chains in the food industrial community Dingxin Group, around its famous product “Kangshifu” snack noodle, sets up a complete system of material flow, energy flow, and information flow. Each enterprise of the Group takes the idea of ecological design, cleaner production and environmental management into its purchasing, production, products and services. With the principle of co-existence and mutual benefit among enterprises in the Group, a flexible structure of Eco-industrial chain is brought into being. 3.The Eco-industrial chains in the automobile manufacturing industrial community There are two automobile factories in the Park. The product metabolism chain around automobile comes into a shape. The coordinate development between the automobile manufacturing industry and the electronic and informational industry appears. Based on such, the Eco-industrial net may come to form. 4. Vein industry As to waste metabolism, the vein industries, such as medium water for recycling and new soil sources, is maturing. The integrated water sources system promotes the recycle of water, optimizes the water structure in the park, and improves the water quality. The new soil source engineering not only solves the problems of environmental pollution of solid waste, but also improves the local soil structure, and increases the bearing capacity of the soil sources. The industrialization of these two projects have gained both environmental and economical benefit for the park.
POSITIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MODES OF THE ECO- INDUSTRIAL CHAINS IN CHINA’S ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS Zheng Ji-liang, Yang Lin Faculty of Management & Economics, Kunming University of Science & Technology, P.R.China, 650093 Diunduh dari: www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=1306 ………….1/1/2013 The new building comprehensive Eco-industrial Parks Huangxing Eco-industrial Park is a new building one, based on Changsha area, Hunan province. It aims to develop Hi-tech industries, including electric industry, new material and environmental protection industry. The Park plans to introduce three types of enterprises, that is the producer, the consumer, and the decomposer. 34 enterprises and over 10 virtual enterprises are chosen as the members of the initial Eco-industrial system. In the 34 enterprises, 15 enterprises act as producer, 11 enterprises act as consumer, and 8 enterprises act as decomposer. Eco- industrial chains in 3 industrial communities are planned to form, and the zero waste unit of Yuanda air conditioner group is planned also. 1.The chain between the electric industry and the environmental protection industry Yuanda air conditioner factory in the electric industry creates a large amount of metal waste in the process of production, which are retrieved by a hardware factory in the environmental protection industry. Of them, good waste materials are used to produce small parts, waste iron chippings and shavings are used to produce water treatment agent for the wastewater treatment plant in the Park, or to produce other chemical products. 2.The chain between the new material industry and the electric industry The incendiary-prevent agent factory in the new material industry produces incendiary- prevent agent, which is provided as the additive for the plastic factory. The product of incendiary-prevent plastics is sold to the factories of electrical home appliance or integrated circuit to produce incendiary-prevent plastic shell. The foam nickel produced in the new material industry becomes the material for the battery factory in the electric industry to produce the new type of nickel-hydrogen battery. 3.The chain between the new material industry and the environmental protection industry The plastics retrieving department in the new material industry will send waste plastics to the green adhesive factory in the environmental protection industry to produce adhesive.
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Scarcity of resources and environmental quality degradation stimulated government policy toward a new concept of Eco-Industial Park in managing and developing industrial estate in Indonesia. For applying the concept of EIP need conducted measurement of recent industrial estate status to EIP. This Article aim to develop a measurement instrument and to measure some selected industrial estates. Measurement using developed instrument indicate that most industrial estastes have low status. The low status is generally influenced by the lowering of value at enviromental management and product exchange indicators..
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Konsep Eco Industrial Park Eco Industrial Park (Sering disingkat dengan EIP atau diterjemahkan kedalam bahasan Indonesia dengan Kawasan Industri Berwawasan Lingkungan) sebagai sekumpulan pabrik atau bisnis jasa (a community of manufacturing and service businesses) yang berlokasi di suatu kawasan, dimana masing-masing pengelola pabrik/bisnis jasa berkerjasama dalam pengelolaan lingkungan dan sumberdaya untuk memperoleh performa lingkungan, ekonomi dan sosial yang prima (enhanced environmental, economic, and social performance)(1). Definisi yang lebih sederhana EIP adalah sistem industri yang direncanakan terjadi pertukaran material dan energi untuk meminimalkan pemakaian bahan baku dan energi, limbah dan membangun ekonomi yang berkelanjutan, menjaga ekologi dan membangun hubungan sosial(2). Pengembangan EIP didasarkan pada kebutuhan untuk meminimalisasi limbah yang dihasilkan oleh kegiatan industri sedini mungkin sekaligus meningkatkan kinerja perekonomian perusahaan/industri dan tanggap terhadap lingkungan (sosial) sekitarnya. 1.Lowe, Ernest A. 2001. Eco-industrial Park Handbook for Asian Developing Countries, Report to Asian Development Bank, October 3, China Chemical Industry Press, p. 1~12. 2.Anonim. 2006. Studi Pengembangan Eco Industrial Park Di Indonesia, Pusat Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lingkungan Hidup dan Energi, Balitbang Departemen Perindustrian, Jakarta, hal.26
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Beberapa kelebihan pengembangan EIP antara lain adalah : 1.Meningkatkan keunggulan kompetitif industri karena peningkatan efisiensi, sehingga mampu menghasilkan produk yang kompetitif. 2.EIP akan mampu mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan. Hal ini karena EIP memungkinkan dikuranginya sumber-sumber pencemaran karena adanya efisiensi dan kerjasama dalam pemanfaatan sumberdaya. 3.Peningkatan performa ekonomi industri yang berpotensi untuk meningkatkan kinerja perekonomian masyarakat. Hal ini disebabkan dengan membaik kondisi perusahaan maka perusahaan memungkinkan untuk lebih dapat menyerap tenaga kerja dan pembukaan sub-sub kontrak yang baru untuk perusahaan kecil di sekitarnya.. Pengembangan EIP membutuhkan perencanaan dan pengambilan keputusan yang kompleks dan terpadu antar bidang yang terkait dengan pengembangannya. Kesuksesan pengem-bangan EIP sangat tergantung pada keberhasilan kerjasama antar pemerintah (public agencies), perencana profesional, kontraktor dan perusahaan yang berada di kawasan tersebut. Ketidakmampuan untuk mengatasi fragmentasi antar stakeholder EIP merupakan sumber kegagalan utama bagi pengembangan EIP (1). 1.Lowe, Ernest A. 2001. Eco-industrial Park Handbook for Asian Developing Countries, Report to Asian Development Bank, October 3, China Chemical Industry Press, p. 1~12.
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Proyek pengembangan EIP dibagi ke dalam 3 kelompok dasar. Pembagian kedalam tiga kategori tersebut berguna dalam pengelolaan EIP, walaupun dalam kasus-kasus tertentu ketiga kategori tersebut dapat saling bertampalan (overlapping). Ketiga kelompok dasar tersebut adalah (1): 1.Eco-Industrial Park or estate (EIP) adalah kawasan industri yang dikembangkan dan dikelola untuk memperoleh sebuah kawasan bisnis yang excellence karena diperoleh keuntungan-keuntungan di bidang ekonomi, lingkungan dan sosial. 2.By-product Exchange (BPX) adalah sekumpulan perusahaan yang bekerja sama untuk saling menggunakan kembali produk atau material yang berupa (energi, air dan bahan lain) daripada membuangnya sebagai limbah. 3.Eco-industrial Network (EIN) adalah sekumpulan perusahaan yang bekerjasama untuk memperbaiki performa lingkungan, ekonomi dan sosial pada suatu kawasan. 1.Lowe, Ernest A. 2001. Eco-industrial Park Handbook for Asian Developing Countries, Report to Asian Development Bank, October 3, China Chemical Industry Press, p. 1~12.
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Penyusunan Instrumen Pengukuran Status Kawasan Industri Terhadap EIP Instrumen pengukuran dikembangkan dengan penerapan metode AHP untuk mengukur status kawasan industri terhadap EIP. Langkah-langkah pengukuran tersebut adalah sebagai berikut : (1). Penyusunan struktur variabel status kawasan industri terhadap EIP Struktur ini meliputi penetapan indikator-indikator dan perumusan variabel variabel untuk pengukuran serta hirarki masing-masing variabel tersebut. Struktur variabel kinerja pelayanan publik tersebut akan disusun dalam 3 hirarki. Ketiga hirarki tersebut adalah sebagai berikut : 1.Hirarki Pertama; berupa tujuan dari analisis ini yaitu pengukuran status kawasan industri terhadap EIP. Hirarki pertama ini mempunyai nilai 1. 2.Hirarki Ke dua; berisi tiga indikator (kelompok variabel) utama untuk pengukuran status kawasan industri terhadap EIP. Ketiga indikator tersebut adalah (1) Pengelolaan Lingkungan Kawasan Industri (PG-LINK) (bobot 0,088), (2) Pengembangan Jejaring Antar Industri (IND-NET) (bobot 0,243) dan (3) Pertukaran Produk Antar Industri (PROD–EX) (bobot 0,699). 3.Hirarki Ke tiga; berisi rumusan variabelvariabel yang akan digunakan pada masing-masing indikator pengukuran. Jumlah variabel yang digunakan dalam pengukuran ini berjumlah 15 variabel. Pereincian variabel-variabel tersebut adalah 6 variabel pada indikator pengelolaan lingkungan, 5 variabel pada pengembangan jejaring antar industri, dan 4 variabel pada pertukaran produk antar industri.
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Kelimabelas variabel tersebut adalah : 1.Persentase ruang terbuka hijau (RTH), 2.Lebar rata-rata Buffer Zone (LBZ), 3.Penerapan Konsep Produksi Limbah Nol (CZW), 4.Monitoring sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan (MSDAL), 5.Audit Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (ASDAL), 6.Konservasi Ekologi di Kawasan Industri (KEKI), 7.Penerapan Konsep Kluster Industri (CCI), 8.Kerjasama Prasarana Lingkungan di Kawasan Industri (KPLKI), 9.Kerjasama Produksi Antar Industri di Kawasan Industri (KPIKI), 10.Kerjasama Antar industri dengan UKM/Masyarakat Sekitar (KIUMSKI), 11.Keterkaitan Industri di Kawasan Industri (KIKI), 12.Pertukaran Bahan Antar Kawasan Industri (PBMKI), 13.Efisiensi Pemanfaatan Energi Industri dengan kerjasama di Kawasan Industri (EPEIKI), 14.Penghematan Air di Kawasan Industri dengan kerjasama pemanfaatan di Kawasan Industri (PAAIKI), 15.Pemanfaatan sumberdaya sisa oleh Masyarakat sekitar Kawasan Industri (PSDSM).
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Penentuan bobot masing-masing variabel Pada setiap hirarki, masing-masing kriteria/variabel tersebut akan dibandingkan tingkat kepentingannya. Perbandingan ini untuk mendapatkan bobot relatif masing-masing kriteria tersebut. Penilian tingkat kepentingan kriteria tersebut diwujudkan dalam pemberian skor 1 sampai 9. Berdasarkan penilaian tingkat kepentingan tersebut, selanjutnya akan dihitung bobot masing-masing kriteria dengan menggunakan rumus yang dikembangkan oleh Eigen yang berupa nilai Eigen (Eigen value). Perhitungan nilai Eigen ini akan dihitung dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Expert Choiche versi 9 (EC versi 9). Perangkat. Lunak EC versi 9, ini sekaligus akan dapat menghitung tingkat konsistensi dari penilaian tingkat kepentingan masingmasing kriteria. Tingkat konsistensi ini diwujudkan dalam nilai rasio inkonsistensi (Inconsistency Ratio). Apabila nilai rasio inkonsistensi lebih kecil dari 0,1 maka penilaian tingkat kepentingan tersebut dapat diterima. Perhitungan Bobot masing-masing variabel pada masing-masing hirarki dihitung dengan menggunakan EC versi 9. Perhitungan bobot juga secara otomatis akan menghitung Rasio Inkonsistensi (RI). Hasil perhitungan bobot tersebut akan dapat diterima bila nilai RI < 0,1. Hasil perhitungan bobot tersebut Tabel berikut ini.
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Bobot Masing-Masing Variabel Pengukuran Status Kawasan Industri Terhadap EIP (Hasil Analisis 2006) NAMA VARIABEL NOTASI BOBOT Persentase ruang terbuka hijau RTH 0,00591 Lebar rata-rata Buffer Zone LBZ 0,00803 Penerapan Konsep Produksi Limbah Nol CZW 0,03443 Monitoring sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan MSDAL 0,01634 Audit Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan ASDAL 0,01634 Konservasi Ekologi di Kawasan Industri KEKI 0,00690 Penerapan Konsep Kluster Industri CCI 0,08950 Kerjasama Prasarana Lingkungan di Kawasan Industri KPLKI 0,01367 Kerjasama Produksi Antar Industri di Kawasan Industri KPIKI 0,04085 Kerjasama Antar industri dengan UKM/Masyarakat Sekitar KIUMSKI 0,04085 Keterkaitan Industri di Kawasan Industri KIKI 0,05776 Pertukaran Bahan Antar Kawasan Industri PBMKI 0,25103 Efisiensi Pemanfaatan Energi Industri dengan kerjasama di Kawasan Industri EPEIKI 0,08368 Penghematan Air di Kawasan Industri dengan kerjasama pemanfaatan di Kawasan Industri PAAIKI 0,08368 Pemanfaatan sumberdaya sisa oleh Masyarakat sekitar Kawasan Industri PSDSM 0,25103 Rasio Inkonsistensi 0,00000
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013. Penentuan nilai skor masingmasing variabel Langkah berikutnya dalam penilaian kinerja pelayanan publik adalah penentuan nilai skor masing-masing kriteria pada hirarki ketiga. Nilai skor ini akan disusun dengan nilai 1, 2 dan 3. Urutan skor tersebut menunjukkan nilai yang berturutan, dimana nilai 1 menunjukkan yang terendah, sementara nilai 3 menunjukkan nilai skor yang paling tinggi. Pemberian nilai skor ini memperhatikan halhal sebagai berikut : 1.Hubungan/korelasi antara variabel dengan tingkat kinerja pelayanan publik. Korelasi tersebut dapat positif dan negatif. Hubungan positif berarti bahwa semakin besar nilai variabel, maka semakin besar pula kinerja pelayanan publik. Sebaliknya hubungan negatif menunjukkan semakin besar nilai suatu variabel maka kinerja pelayanan publik semakin rendah. 2.Nilai skor masing-masing variabel ditetapkan berdasarkan pada standar perencanaan kawasan industri. Apabila nilai variabel tersebut kurang dari yang ditetapkan di standar perencanaan, maka diberi nilai 1, apabila sama dengan standar Diberi nilai 2, dan apabila lebih besar dari standar perencanaan diberi nilai 3. 3.Apabila variabel kinerja pelayanan minimum tersebut belum memiliki standar pelayanan minimum, maka digunakan nilai rata-rata nasional atau nilai rata-rata dari variasi data yang dikumpulkan. Nilai skor masing-masing variabel disajikan dalam Tabel-2 berikut ini.
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Nilai Skor Masing-Masing Variabel Pengukuran Status Kawasan Industri Terhadap EIP (hasil analisis 2006).
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013. Perhitungan total skor Berdasarkan bobot, skor masingmasing kriteria selanjutnya dilakukan perhitungan total skor. Selanjutnya total skor tersebut ditentukan klasifikasi tingkat kinerja. Klasifikasi tingkat kinerja ini akan ditetapkan ke dalam tiga klasifikasi, yaitu rendah, sedang dan tinggi Penghitungan total skor dilakukan pada kabupaten/kota sampel. Perhitungan total skor dilakukan dengan penjumlahan perkalian antara bobot dan nilai skor masing-masing kriteria. Formula pengitungan total skor tersebut adalah : SkorTot = Σ Bobot Ki. Skor Kix x 10 Dimana: SkorTot = Skor Total Kinerja Pelayanan; Bobot Kix = Bobot Kriteria i pada daerah x; Skor Kix = Skor Kriteria i pada daerah x.
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013. Klasifikasi Status Pengukuran Kawasan Industri terhadap EIP Berdasarkan total skor yang diperoleh maka kemudian ditentukan status kawasan industri terhadap EIP Ideal. Status kawasan industri tersebut diklasifikasikan ke dalam 3 tingkatan, yaitu rendah, sedang dan tinggi. Klasifikasi tersebut diperoleh dengan menghitung interval dari total skor. Perhitungan interval tersebut menggunakan rumus : SkorTot Maks– SkorTot Min Interval (Int) = ———————————— 3 Berdasarkan nilai interval tersebut maka ditetapkan tingkat status kawasan industri terhadap EIP ideal. Berdasarkan perkalian skor dan total tersebut maka akan didapat total skor berkisar pada nilai 10 dan 30. Berdasarkan skor total tersebut maka disusun status kawasan industri terhadap EIP. Klasifikasi status tersebut adalah : 1.Rendah, apabila total skor < 16 2.Sedang, apabila total skor17 – 23 3.Tinggi, apabila total skor > 24.
PENGUKURAN STATUS KAWASAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KONSEP ECO INDUSTRIAL PARK Hermawan Prasetya Pusat Pengkajian Peningkatan Daya Saing Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi J.Tek.Ling. 2007. 8 (1) : 6-14 Diunduh dari: ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL/article/.../425 ………….1/1/2013 Status Kawasan Industri Terhadap EIP di Indonesia Kawasan industri terpilih yang dijadikan sampel pengukuran status EIP, rata-rata sudah beroperasi selama 15 tahun. Kawasan industri yang paling lama beroperasi adalah SIER dengan lama operasi 32 tahun, sementara kawasan industai KABIL merupakan kawasan industri yang paling baru, dengan lama operasi 3 tahun. Pengukuran status kawasan industri terhadap EIP dilakukan dengan mengalikan bobot dan nilai skor masing-masing variabel sehingga di dapat nilai total skor. Berdasarkan total skor tersebut, maka ditetapkan statusnya sebagaimana rentang nilai total skor. Dari nilai total skor ini dapat diketahui bahwa dari semua kawasan industri terpilih tersebut, tidak terdapat kawasan industri yang mempunyai status tinggi. Sebagian besar kawasan industri terpilih hanya mempunyai tingkat rendah (61,5 %). Sisanya (sebasar 38,5 %), kawasan industri yang terpilih berstatus sedang. Selanjutnya apabila dilihat status kawasan industri per indikator, maka dapat dilihat bahwa untuk indikator Pengelolaan Lingkungan (PG-LINGK) dan Pertukaran Produk (PROD-EX) rata-rata mempunyai nilai yang kurang dari 50 % dari nilai maksimal. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ratarata kawasan industri yang terpilih mempunyai kelemahan dalam pertukaran produk dan pengelolaan lingkungan.
Research on industrial symbiosis patterns in Eco-industrial Park based on Industrial Ecology theory Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM), 2010 International Conference on Date of Conference: 22-24 Oct. 2010 Wang Zhaohua Sch. of Manage. & Econ., Beijing Inst. of Technol., Beijing, China Volume: 7 Page(s): V7-669 - V7-672 Diunduh dari: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp;jsessionid=2yH1QvJCGj11YYtqXnyTNGGxb2ZhjV0fWXm 8wZgGpnSkBQhmMsLD!- 10518043?arnumber=5619429&contentType=Conference+Publications………….1/1/2013. Applying the theory of Industrial Ecology, the paper conducts a comparable research on the industrial symbiosis in the process of establishment of Eco-industrial Park (EIP). Through the analysis of the two examples: Kalundborg Eco-park in Denmark and Guitang Eco-park in China, we put forward two industrial symbiosis operational patterns: Individual Entity Symbiosis and Comprehensive Entity Symbiosis. On the basis of the above analysis, the paper draws several operating rules about the two symbiosis patterns, and gives some countermeasures to the establishment of the EIP in China.
Multiobjective Optimization Model for Industrial Ecosystem Based on Input-Output Analysis: A Case Study of Combined Heat and Power Plant Eco-industrial Park Du Jing (Dalian Univ. of Technol., Dalian) Management Science and Engineering, 2007. ICMSE 2007. International Conference on Date of Conference: 20-22 Aug. 2007 Page(s): 1316 - 1321 Diunduh dari: ………….1/1/2013 The operation of Industrial Ecosystem (IES) should benefit both profitable and environmental objectives. There should be some quantitative relationships between the two objectives among different sectors of IES. For specifying these relationships, Leontief Input-Output(I-O) analysis is an effective economic method. The framework of IES's 1-0 analysis is developed in this paper that denotes both the value of production and the consumption of environmental resources. Based on the analysis, a multiobjective optimization model is proposed which gives attention to the economy and environment at the same time and the feasible solution procedure is provided. The case study of a Combined Heat and Power(CHP) eco-industrial park further confirms that the model will play an important role in the decision-making and evaluating of IES.
Eco industrial parks: a tool towards the reduction, reuse and recycling (3R’s) of by-products and wastes: case study in Paracambi EIP, Rio de Janeiro State L. B. Elabras Veiga, A. Magrini & A. S. Szklo. Diunduh dari: http://library.witpress.com/pages/PaperInfo.asp?PaperID=18988………….1/1/2013 This paper presents the Eco Industrial Park (EIP) concept, an environmental management tool that is being spread in many nations as an industrial model that can reconcile the three “Es” of sustainability – environment, social equity and economic efficiency – as it reorganizes industrial practices and activities in order to meet sustainable development goals. This mutual benefit results in more sustainable communities and environment, in the reduction of pollution, by products and waste discarded in the environment, increasing companies’ competitiveness and access to new markets. Although this is an emerging concept, there are many EIP projects being implemented, and many of them already operating in North America, Europe, Asia, Central and South America, including in Rio de Janeiro State (RJS), Brazil. This paper highlights the problem of waste generation increase from the industrial sector. All over the world, economic growth has increased resource consumption and environmental degradation. Industrialization brought wealth and development; however it has also brought many externalities. One of these externalities is the high level of by products and waste discarded by societies, being disposed in the environment without proper treatment and management. The objective of this paper is to present how EIPs can contribute to the reduction, reuse and recycling (3R’s) of by products and waste from the industrial sector. As a case study, this paper presents the Paracambi EIP, located in RJS, in which the methodology of the software Facility Synergy Tool (FaST), developed by the US-EPA, was a major tool used in order to develop by products and waste synergies among the different industrial typologies suggested for this EIP.
Industrial Ecology and Eco-Industrial Parks: Principles and Practice Ramona Florina D. Popescu University of Pitesti - Faculty of Economics June 5, 2008 The International Scientific Session "Challenges of the Knowledge Society", organised by "Nicolae Titulescu" University and University of Bucarest, Bucarest, Romania. Diunduh dari: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1317231………….1/1/2013 Industrial ecology and eco-industrial parks are two concepts with a relatively recent history that have been gaining more and more interest among specialists and authorities in their search for sustainable development. The paper presents the two concepts and explains the relation between them, with an emphasis on the theoretical nature of the first and the practical nature of the latter. The author indicates the goals of industrial ecology and shows how such goals may be put into practice through projects such as eco-industrial parks. The article reviews a part of the recent literature and studies regarding eco-industrial parks, and points out the limits concerning the applicability of industrial ecology's principles. As a final part, the author pleads for the study of industrial ecology in universities, especially in the developing countries.
BONOLI, A. and ANDTONDELLI, S. (2007) INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS. In: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 1-5 October 2007, S.Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Diunduh dari: http://warrr.org/226/………….1/1/2013 The research investigates waste management criteria for setting new eco-industrial parks, by developing a requirement system for selecting and assessing the industries to be localised in an eco- industrial park by a pilot application in a new industrial area called Raibano, in the Rimini province. Starting from the site analysis and its economic characterisation, the waste management system in the province and the municipalities involved by the development are considered, in order to identify the possible options for the reuse of second raw materials. The developed methodology can be reproduced in other sites and it represents a support for municipal and provincial planning, because it supplies objective criteria for the configuration of eco- industrial parks, which could be useful for the negotiation with private sectors operators..
A Theoretical Framework for the Management of Industrial Ecosystems Leonardo de Q. B. Cavalcante 1, Raymond P. Côté 2, José C. L. da Silva Filho 3, Monica C. S. de Abreu 4 1, 3, 4 Faculdade de Economia e Administração (FEAAC), Universidade Federal do Ceará 2 School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Dalhousie University Faculdade de Economia e Administração (FEAAC), Universidade Federal do Ceará, Avenida da Universidade 2486, Fortaleza CE, 60020-180, Brasil, Phone: +55 (85) 3366 7790 School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax NS, B3H 4R2, Canada, Phone: +1 (902) 494 3632 firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Diunduh dari: www.cern.org.cn/abstract/006.pdf ………….1/1/2013 An alternative to organizations to drive industrial systems to a more sustainable path is to stimulate the process of eco-industrial development (EID). By that means, there will be the creation of win-win relationships between business organizations and local communities and the improvement of economic, social and environmental performances. Although EID is a strategic initiative for translating the theories and approaches of industrial ecology (IE) into practice, the researchers of this field have been working without a good theoretical connection with the fields of organization studies and contemporaries management theories, particularly one that copes with corporate governance of eco-industrial parks (EIP). Three factors work together to the lack of organizational and management issues in the field of industrial ecology (IE): (1) the mechanistic viewpoint of industrial ecosystem, (2) the techno- environmental approach to industrial ecosystem and (3) the lack of social science contribution to industrial ecology. Due to such factors, IE has deficiencies concerning strategic management which restrict the incorporation of the approaches of industrial symbiosis and eco-industrial development (EID) into managerial practices. Whenever EID has been tangential to the corporate level strategy, industrial symbioses are not supported by prerequisite investments, such as management, measurement, and accountability systems as well as skilled staff for overall synergism. As a result, the implementation of industrial symbioses is isolated, fragmented, and uncoordinated. Moreover, it is deficient in quantitative standards for the evaluation of the sustainability performance. All those features generate various problems during the establishment of an eco-industrial network, such as: technological, economic, informational, cultural, organizational and regulatory. Therefore, most eco-industrial parks (EIP) are far from reaching all of their objectives respecting sustainability. For avoiding such problems, it is necessary to accomplish the incorporation of the concepts of eco-industrial development into corporate level strategy of business organizations pertaining to an industrial ecosystem. This process requires a special kind of management system which could translate the EID concepts into action. Without governance at industrial ecosystem level, the alignment between EID concepts and companies will not be effective. Consequently, the opportunity to create value through eco-industrial development can be missed..
Diunduh dari: www.cern.org.cn/abstract/006.pdf ………….1/1/2013 In order to develop a theoretical framework for the management of industrial ecosystem, it was applied a process of building theory from case study research according to Eisenhardt (1989; 2007). A priori constructs were selected for providing better grounding of construct measures. In this way, 44 variables are distributed along five macro variables: (1) development of industrial ecosystem strategy; (2) alignment management; (3) industrial symbiosis management; (4) accountability management; and (5) system adaption management. Theories and hypotheses were not taken in consideration for preserving theoretical flexibility. Based on a theoretical sampling, focusing efforts on a theoretically useful case, it was selected an industrial ecosystem developed by Natura Cosméticos S.A., a cosmetic firm based on socio-biodiversity products that figured as the number two on 2012 Global 100 List. This industrial ecosystem has special characteristics due to its location, nearby natural essences suppliers, at the Amazon Rainforest, in the North Region of Brazil. For strengthening grounding of theory by triangulation of evidence, multiple data collection methods were employed: (1) semi-structured interview with managers of Natura and its suppliers; (2) documental research; (3) direct observation without participation. The preliminary theory generation was done through an iterative tabulation of evidence for each construct, sharpening construct definition, validity, and measurability. The internal validity was built by searching evidence for reasons behind relationships between constructs. Afterwards, the preliminary theory was compared with both conflicting and similar literature. Such process builds internal validity, raises theoretical level, and sharpens construct definitions and generalizability. A Theoretical Framework for the Management of Industrial Ecosystems Leonardo de Q. B. Cavalcante 1, Raymond P. Côté 2, José C. L. da Silva Filho 3, Monica C. S. de Abreu 4 1, 3, 4 Faculdade de Economia e Administração (FEAAC), Universidade Federal do Ceará 2 School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Dalhousie University Faculdade de Economia e Administração (FEAAC), Universidade Federal do Ceará, Avenida da Universidade 2486, Fortaleza CE, 60020-180, Brasil, Phone: +55 (85) 3366 7790 School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax NS, B3H 4R2, Canada, Phone: +1 (902) 494 3632 firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Diunduh dari: www.cern.org.cn/abstract/006.pdf ………….1/1/2013 QUITE BRIEF INSIGHT ABOUT THE RESULTS It is a challenge to translate the concept of eco-industrial development into practice. For doing so, EID projects should be bottom-up, voluntary, long-term and triple bottom line oriented. Also, they should be based on more communication than technology in order to shorten distances between companies pertaining to industrial ecosystem. In general, EID projects should follow two stages: (1) building awareness of industrial symbiosis; (2) creation of IS solutions by companies themselves. Their effectiveness requires the employment of corporate governance based on a management system made up of five subsystems: 1.Development of industrial ecosystem strategy, 2.Alignment management, 3.Industrial symbiosis management, 4.Accountability management, and 5.System adaption management. These five management subsystems are applied recursively to create increasingly community, cooperation, interaction, efficiency, resources and system. CONCLUSIONS OF THE WORK: The proposed theoretical framework for the management of industrial ecosystem is not exhaustive. This remains open to new discoveries and must be systematically checked with new data. As new managers involved in EID projects are heard and new data on other industrial ecosystems are collected, the proposed theoretical framework could be refined and not simply rejected, if discrepancies are found. Furthermore, it could evolve into a management framework for eco-industrial parks (EIP). A Theoretical Framework for the Management of Industrial Ecosystems Leonardo de Q. B. Cavalcante 1, Raymond P. Côté 2, José C. L. da Silva Filho 3, Monica C. S. de Abreu 4 1, 3, 4 Faculdade de Economia e Administração (FEAAC), Universidade Federal do Ceará 2 School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Dalhousie University Faculdade de Economia e Administração (FEAAC), Universidade Federal do Ceará, Avenida da Universidade 2486, Fortaleza CE, 60020-180, Brasil, Phone: +55 (85) 3366 7790 School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax NS, B3H 4R2, Canada, Phone: +1 (902) 494 3632 firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
A Generalized Framework and Methodology for Product Planning in Eco-Industrial Parks Shi Lei 1, *, Zheng Donghui 2, Shen Jingzhu 2, Li Yourun 2, Qian Yi 1, ( 1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) Diunduh dari: http://www.chinacp.org.cn/newcn/chinacp/iccppaper-22.htm ………….1/1/2013 A product planning framework and methodology for Eco- industrial Parks (EIPs) was studied. Following the discussion of guiding principles, a generalized framework was firstly proposed on how to obtain a sustainable product system. Then, an integrated product planning methodology was set up for a given EIP. Finally, the methodology was applied illustratively to a real EIP project. The conception of EIP is still evolving, and the standardized one has not yet gained. According to the United States President’s Council on Sustainable Development (1996), an EIP can be considered to be an industrial system of planned materials and energy exchanges that seeks to minimize energy and raw materials use, minimize waste, and build sustainable economic, ecological and social relations.
A Generalized Framework and Methodology for Product Planning in Eco-Industrial Parks Shi Lei 1, *, Zheng Donghui 2, Shen Jingzhu 2, Li Yourun 2, Qian Yi 1, ( 1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) Diunduh dari: http://www.chinacp.org.cn/newcn/chinacp/iccppaper-22.htm ………….1/1/2013.. Guiding principles of product planning According to Stanley (1999), industrial ecology is an approach based upon systems engineering and ecological principles that integrate the production and consumption aspects of the design, production, use and termination (decommissioning) of products and services in a manner that minimizes environmental impact while optimizing utilization of resource, energy, and capital. Following the ideas behind industrial ecology, Hanssen (1999) has developed a systematic structure for Environmentally Sound Product Development by integrating environmental performance, customer quality and life cycle economy in decision-making. Four main strategies for product system improvements were mentioned: 1. Reformulating user requirements, to find new innovative solutions beyond the scope of today’s product systems; 2. Improvement in the performance of the product system, in relation to user requirements; 3. Substitution of the whole product system, or substitution/elimination of parts of the system; 4. Optimization of the processes and operation of each system unit or in the interaction between system units. Hardin Tibbs (1992) provided a more detailed framework with seven elements for industrial ecology: 1. Improving the metabolic pathways of industrial processes and materials use; 2. Creating loop-closing industrial ecosystems; 3. Dematerializing industrial output; 4. Systematizing patterns of energy use; 5. Balancing industrial input and output to natural ecosystem capacity; 6. Aligning policy to conform with long-term industrial system evolution; 7. Creating new action-coordinating structures, communicative linkages, and information.
A Generalized Framework and Methodology for Product Planning in Eco-Industrial Parks Shi Lei 1, *, Zheng Donghui 2, Shen Jingzhu 2, Li Yourun 2, Qian Yi 1, ( 1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) Diunduh dari: http://www.chinacp.org.cn/newcn/chinacp/iccppaper-22.htm ………….1/1/2013 Product planning framework Analysis of the flow of materials used in an economic system, the way they are used and the impact of their use on the environment could form the corner stone for product planning, and then generate criteria on the basis of which one could plan products development work in an EIP. Fig. 1a shows the material flow model made up of three subsystems: processes (production system), products, and society (consumption system). Here, the product system is highlighted because of its roles in bridging the production and consumption systems. The production system takes in new materials from the natural donor, and generates both products and wastes. Some wastes are reused by the production system itself, and the remaining are discarded into the natural acceptor. The products enter the consumption system, and are then discharged with three different terminals: some are reused without any modifications; some are recycled into the production system; and the remaining has to be thrown into the natural acceptor.
A Generalized Framework and Methodology for Product Planning in Eco-Industrial Parks Shi Lei 1, *, Zheng Donghui 2, Shen Jingzhu 2, Li Yourun 2, Qian Yi 1, ( 1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) Diunduh dari: http://www.chinacp.org.cn/newcn/chinacp/iccppaper-22.htm ………….1/1/2013 From the Fig. 1a, the economic, environmental and social performances of the product system depend on the feedstocks from the Nature, the way of production, the way of consumption, the ratio of waste reuse/recycling, and the product in itself. In Fig. 1b, we present a possible framework within which the five influencing factors above are discussed. A sustainable product system can be achieved by taking the following 5 paths: ① the dematerialization of products (replacing resources by services and techniques, such as information techniques, nano-techniques, molecular manufacturing, and so on); ② the greening of products (alternatives of forbidden products, bio-degradatable products, recyclable products, and other environmental benign products); ③ the greening of processes (energy integration, mass integration, the green catalysis system, the non-solvent reaction system, the mild reaction system, and so on); ④ the greening of feedstocks (alternating or reducing toxics use, replacing minerals by biomass); and, ⑤ the resourcelization of wastes (waste reclamation techniques). By applying the product life cycle ideas in DFE and considering all aspects of product improvements in Green Chemistry, therefore, the framework with 5 product improvement paths provides a holistic and systematic way of product planning.
A Generalized Framework and Methodology for Product Planning in Eco-Industrial Parks Shi Lei 1, *, Zheng Donghui 2, Shen Jingzhu 2, Li Yourun 2, Qian Yi 1, ( 1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) Diunduh dari: http://www.chinacp.org.cn/newcn/chinacp/iccppaper-22.htm ………….1/1/2013 Fig.1a The material flow in economic system Fig.1b Product planning framework
A Generalized Framework and Methodology for Product Planning in Eco-Industrial Parks Shi Lei 1, *, Zheng Donghui 2, Shen Jingzhu 2, Li Yourun 2, Qian Yi 1, ( 1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) Diunduh dari: http://www.chinacp.org.cn/newcn/chinacp/iccppaper-22.htm ………….1/1/2013.. Product planning methodology for EIPs: an application procedure In the above Section, a conceptual framework for product planning is outlined. Now we give an application procedure to illustrate how to apply the framework systematically to real product planning in an EIP. Take the Shenjia EIP project being carried out as an example. An application procedure of the product planning methodology includes the following steps: Step 1: construct the remaining products set by excluding the forbidden products (mainly due to international, governmental, and regional regulations) from the existing products set; Step 2: construct extended products set by adding the region- planned products to the remaining products set; Step 3: based on the extended products set, construct the product superstructure following the 5 paths included in the framework above; Step 4: decrease the products superstructure through the convergency analysis of resources and technology; Step 5: decrease further the products superstructure through the marketing prediction analysis; Step 6: decrease finally the products superstructure through the compatibility analysis with the existing process system in the EIP.
A Generalized Framework and Methodology for Product Planning in Eco-Industrial Parks Shi Lei 1, *, Zheng Donghui 2, Shen Jingzhu 2, Li Yourun 2, Qian Yi 1, ( 1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China) Diunduh dari: http://www.chinacp.org.cn/newcn/chinacp/iccppaper-22.htm ………….1/1/2013.. The main idea behind this procedure lies in: a products superstructure is firstly constructed following the guiding principles of product planning (Step 1- Step 3), then a dominant product system is identified under constraints in consideration, such as resource scarcity, technical feasibility, market prediction, compatibility with existing system, and so on (Step 4- Step 6). Therefore, the dominant product system provides a strong base for guiding how to attract enterprises, as well as the site planning and mass integration in the EIP. It needs to pay attention that we should construct the product superstructure on a larger level (at least on the same level) than the EIP in consideration. In this case, the product superstructure is based on the Quzhou region level because the Shenjia EIP is still in the cradle and its existing product system is interlinked so strongly with other parks. In Step 3, how to apply the 5 improvement paths to constructing the product superstructure is the most critical. Generally speaking, the existing steady-going product system is basically balanced with its surrounding resources, markets, and social environment except for some man-made disastrous interruption, which makes us to focus on its backbone product series. In the case, 7 product series have been identified in Quzhou region: agricultural fertilizers, inorganic salts, nitrogenous organic compounds, halogenide products (mainly chlorochemicals and fluorochemicals), benzene derivatives, silicochemicals, and biomass derivatives (mainly heteronuclear compounds and amino-acids). Taking the 5 paths, therefore, the following product series are highlighted: l Plastic manufacturing series (Path 1); l Fine fluorochemicals (Path 1); l Alternatives to chloro-agricultural pesticides (Path 2); l Hydrogeneration product series (Path 3); l Dimethyl carbonate derivatives (Path 4); l Biomass derivatives distilled from plants (for example, oranges) (Path 4). l HCl-consumed product series (Path 5). Apply the step 4-6 to Shenjia EIP where chlorochemicals dominate, only HCl-consumed product series and orange- distilled product series are preferred (the details is omitted).
The application of industrial ecology principles and planning guidelines for the development of eco-industrial parks: an Australian case study Brian H Roberts Centre for Developing Cities, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia Journal of Cleaner Production DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.02.037 Diunduh dari: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/223004844_The_application_of_industrial_ecology _principles_and_planning_guidelines_for_the_development_of_eco- industrial_parks_an_Australian_case_study ………….1/1/2013 Eco-industrial parks (EIPs) provide a basis for applying the concept of industrial ecology. In Australia, eco-industrial parks are new and are being considered by state governments as a way of achieving more sustainable industrial development. However, for many firms, local government and communities, industrial ecology is a concept that is misunderstood and treated with suspicion. This paper uses research undertaken to investigate the application of industrial ecology to ensure more sustainable industry development in the State of Queensland, Australia, to develop a set of principles and planning guidelines for use by governments to facilitate the development of eco-industrial parks. Synergy Park, 22 km west of Brisbane, is Australia’s first planned eco-industrial park to be built. The planning and development of this eco-industrial park was a significant challenge to the developer and public agencies concerned with this project. The case study presented in this document provides useful lessons and advice for planners and developers involved with the planning and development of eco-industrial parks.