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Dilutions, Solution Stoichiometry and Titrations Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 1/1
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/2 Diluting Concentrated Solutions dilute solutionconcentrated solution + solvent M i V i = M f V f finalinitial Since the number of moles of solute remains constant, all that changes is the volume of solution by adding more solvent.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/6 Diluting Concentrated Solutions Add 6.94 mL 18.0 M sulfuric acid to enough water to make 250.0 mL of 0.500 M solution. M i = 18.0 MM f = 0.500 M V i = ? mLV f = 250.0 mL = 6.94 mL 18.0 M 250.0 mL V i = MiMi Mf VfMf Vf 0.500 M = Sulfuric acid is normally purchased at a concentration of 18.0 M. How would you prepare 250.0 mL of 0.500 M aqueous H 2 SO 4 ? x Why?
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/11 Solution Stoichiometry aA + bBcC + dD Moles of A Volume of Solution of A Moles of B Volume of Solution of B Mole Ratio Between A and B (Coefficients) Molar Mass of B Molarity of A
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/12 Solution Stoichiometry H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2NaOH(aq)Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) What volume of 0.250 M H 2 SO 4 is needed to react with 50.0 mL of 0.100 M NaOH? Moles of H 2 SO 4 Volume of Solution of H 2 SO 4 Moles of NaOH Volume of Solution of NaOH Mole Ratio Between H 2 SO 4 and NaOH Molarity of NaOH Molarity of H 2 SO 4
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/13 Solution Stoichiometry H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2NaOH(aq)Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) 2 mol NaOH 1 mol H 2 SO 4 0.250 mol H 2 SO 4 1 L solution 1 L 0.100 mol 1 L 1000 mL = 0.00500 mol NaOH Volume of H 2 SO 4 needed: 1000 mL 1 L 10.0 mL solution (0.250 M H 2 SO 4 ) 0.00500 mol NaOH 50.0 mL NaOH Moles of NaOH available: x x x xx
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/25 Titration How can you tell when the reaction is complete? HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)NaCl(aq) + 2H 2 O(l) Titration: A procedure for determining the concentration of a solution by allowing a carefully measured volume to react with a solution of another substance (the standard solution) whose concentration is known. Once the reaction is complete you can calculate the concentration of the unknown solution.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/26 Titration unknown concentration solution Erlenmeyer flask buret standard solution (known concentration) An indicator is added which changes color once the reaction is complete
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/31 Titration HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)NaCl(aq) + 2H 2 O(l) 48.6 mL of a 0.100 M NaOH solution is needed to react with 20.0 mL of an unknown HCl concentration. What is the concentration of the HCl solution? Moles of NaOH Volume of Solution of NaOH Moles of HCl Volume of Solution of HCl Mole Ratio Between NaOH and HCl Molarity of HCl Molarity of NaOH
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.Chapter 3/32 Titration HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)NaCl(aq) + 2H 2 O(l) 20.0 mL solution 0.00486 mol HCl = 0.243 M HCl Concentration of HCl solution: Moles of NaOH available: 1 L 0.100 mol = 0.00486 mol NaOH 48.6 mL NaOH 1000 mL 1 L Moles of HCl reacted: 1 mol NaOH 1 mol HCl = 0.00486 mol HCl 0.00486 mol NaOH 1 L 1000 mL x x x x
H12 – C3 3.19, 3.20, 3.22, 3.87*, 3.89, 3.91*, 3.93*, 3.120*
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19.4 Neutralization Reactions. Neutralization During a neutralization reaction, an acid and a base react to produce a salt and water. Salts are ionic.
Molarity by Dilution Diluting Acids How to Calculate Acids in concentrated form are diluted to the desired concentration using water. Moles of acid before.
Concentrations of Solutions Behavior of solutions depend on compound itself and on how much is present, i.e. on the concentration. Two solutions can contain.
General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 8 Solutions 8.4 Percent Concentration.
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1 Solution Stoichiometry Solution Stoichiometry uses molarity as a conversion factor between volume and moles of a substance in a solution.
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MOLARITY – Ch 13, p. 412 Quantifies the concentration of a solution. Molarity (M) = mol solute = n = mol volume solution V L Read as “moles solute per.
NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS Section Neutralization Reactions Acid + Base Water + salt Hydronium ions + hydroxide ions water + water H 3 O + + OH -
Solution stoichiometry Volumetric calculations Acid-base titrations.
Volumetric Calculations How to analyze titration data and perform dilution calculations.
& 9.11 Titration Calculations Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chapter 9 Acids, Bases, & Salts Base (NaOH)
Solution Concentration. Calculations of Solution Concentration Mole fraction Mole fraction – the ratio of moles of solute to total moles of solution.
Notes 15.2 Describing Solution Composition. Mass Percent Mass percent= mass of solute X 100 mass of solution = grams of solute X 100 grams of solute +
Percent by mass, % m/m can be calculated as: Example: Determine the percent composition by mass of a 100 g salt solution which contains 20 g salt. Solution:
What is the concentration of the solution?. What is in the flask?
Acid - Base Titration. What is a Titration? A titration is a procedure used in chemistry to determine the concentration of an unknown acid or base. A.
ACIDS AND BASES Acid Base Titration A very accurate method to measure concentration. Acid + Base Salt + Water H + + OH - H 2 O Moles H + = Moles.
Chapter 14 Section 14.2 Solution Concentration. The concentration of a solution is a measure of how much solute is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent.
Acid-Base Reactions. Neutralization acid + base salt + water HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H + + Cl - + Na + + OH - Na + + Cl - + H 2 O (l)
Acid Base Titrations Chemistry 12◊ Chapter 14. Titration: A titration is a technique for finding an unknown concentration of one chemical from the known.
Slide 1 of 28 Chemistry © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 28 Neutralization Reactions Excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach can cause.
Volumetric analysis. Mole concept map For the reaction A + B C, where A is the limiting reagent, concentration particles mass volume (gas) MOLE (A)
Basic Chemistry Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Molarity and Dilution Chapter 12 Solutions.
19.4 Neutralization Reactions > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts 19.1.
Business Exam At 7:00 PM arrive early Covers chapters MC questions, 4 Fill ins, and 2 work out Time 1hr 30 min Review during Wednesday.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 8, Section 5 1 Learning Check What is the molarity (M) of a solution prepared by diluting 10.0 mL of 2.7 M NaOH.
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Steps in preparing a solution of known molar concentration: 250 mL 1) Decide how much (volume) solution you want to make and what concentration (Molarity)
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Examples-Molarity and Dilutions. Example What is the molarity of a solution that contains 4.5 moles of sucrose in L of water?
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