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“I’m still breathing” Pediatric Board Review April Wazeka, M.D. Respiratory Center for Children Goryeb Children’s Hospital Assistant Professor of Pediatrics.

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Presentation on theme: "“I’m still breathing” Pediatric Board Review April Wazeka, M.D. Respiratory Center for Children Goryeb Children’s Hospital Assistant Professor of Pediatrics."— Presentation transcript:

1 “I’m still breathing” Pediatric Board Review April Wazeka, M.D. Respiratory Center for Children Goryeb Children’s Hospital Assistant Professor of Pediatrics UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School Michael G. Marcus, M.D. Dir. Pediatric Pulmonology/Allergy Maimonides Infants & Children’s Hospital Maimonides Medical Center


3 Case Presentation #1 A 5 year old male presents to your office with a chronic cough –Cough is productive, increased at night, recurrent –Worse with exercise and with upper respiratory infections –Growth has been normal –Chest xray findings are normal except for mild hyperinflation

4 Differential Diagnosis: Which is the MOST likely diagnosis? Sinusitis Asthma Gastroesophageal reflux disease Tuberculosis Cystic Fibrosis Psychogenic cough

5 Asthma: Overview Chronic inflammatory disease of the airway Affects 20 million people in the US (6.1million children) Prevalence has increased by almost 40% in all ages in the past decade. Typically develops in childhood-50% before 3 years of age, and the majority before 8 years of age. Boys>Girls until puberty, then greater in Girls 470,000 hospitalizations per year

6 Pathogenesis Airway inflammation also contributes to airflow limitation, which includes: –Bronchoconstriction –Edema –Chronic mucus plugging –Airway wall remodeling All this leads to bronchial obstruction



9 All of the following are asthma Risk Factors EXCEPT: African-American and Hispanic race Low birth weight Residence in central urban location Family history of asthma History of atopy (allergies, eczema) Breastfeeding

10 History Cough Wheezing Shortness of breath, particularly with exercise Chest pain or tightness “Difficulty catching my breath” Vomiting, particularly mucus

11 Physical Exam Wheezing Crackles in the lung Muscle retractions Often can be normal

12 Diagnostic Evaluation Chest xray Immunoglobulins –Identify allergic components –Rule out associated immunodeficiencies Skin testing/RAST testing for allergies Blood count Sweat test to rule out Cystic Fibrosis

13 Treatment Bronchodilators –Short and long-acting Leukotriene modifiers Inhaled corticosteroids –Long term prevention of symptoms; suppression, control and reversal of inflammation. –Block late reaction to allergen and reduce airway hyperresponsiveness –Inhibit inflammatory cell migration and activation –Increase B2 receptor affinity Systemic steroids (acute exacerbation) Methylxanthines (Theophylline) Cromolyn

14 All of the following are side effects of inhaled steroids EXCEPT: –Cough –Hoarse voice –Rash –Oral thrush. –Adrenal suppression –Growth suppression –Osteoporosis

15 Asthma and Exercise Exercise can trigger asthma Symptoms are worse with cold, dry air However, exercise helps lungs function better and prevents obesity As long as asthma is well-controlled and a bronchodilator (rescue medicine) is used beforehand, children with asthma should be able to do sports Pulmonary function testing best first test; then exercise testing.


17 Case # 2 A 4-month-old infant boy is brought to the Emergency Room because of lethargy. Physical Examination Afebrile HR 160 bpm RR 50 breaths/min HbSaO2: 98% on RA Weight: 3.2 kg GENERAL : Very thin, appearing to be malnourished; Lethargic but arousable HEENT : dry mucous membranes CHEST : equal breath sounds; diffuse ronchi ABDOMEN : distended; no organomegaly SKIN : decreased turgor and elasticity NEUROLOGIC : poor muscle tone; poor suck

18 Past Medical History : Which are the most relevant aspects ? A.Perinatal history B.Immunization record C.Social/Environmental history D.Family History E.Nutrition and Growth

19 Case # 2 PMHx: Born at term; No problems at birth. Hospitalized at 1 month of age for pneumonia; Chronic cough; Frequent vomiting and diarrhea Immunizations: None Social Hx: The family lives in a small, poor island of the Carribean FHx: An older sibling died at 1 year of age from unknown illness Nutrition & Growth: breast fed; used to have good appetite but it got progressively worse; poor weight gain in the beginning; actual weight loss lately

20 SERUM CHEMISTRIES Na121 K4.6 Cl94 CO 2 16 BUN4 Cr0.2 Tot Protein3.1 Albumin1.7

21 SWEAT TEST Sodium : 81.05 mmol/L Chloride: 78.12 mmol/L

22 OVERVIEW OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS Genetics: Autosomal-recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in chromosome 7. The CF gene codes for a protein called the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) There are over 1200 known mutations; however 50% of the patients are homozygous for the Δ508 mutation Genetic testing for the 30 most frequent mutations is sensitive for the genotype of up to 90% of Americans Incidence: varies significantly among racial groups Caucasians: ~1/377-3500 live births Blacks : ~1/17,000 live births (US) Asians : ~1/90,000 live births (Hawaii)

23 Pathophysiology of CF The CFTR controls the Cl conductance in the epithelial cells (via the cAMP). The epithelial cells are unable to secrete salt and water on the airway surface. Thus, they can not hydrate secretions that in turn become viscous and elastic and difficult to be cleared by the mucociliary mechanisms. Similar events may take place in the pancreatic and biliary ducts as well as in the vas deferens. Because the sweat glands absorb chloride, salt is not retrieved from the primary sweat as it is transported to the skin surface and as a result its sodium and chloride levels are elevated.

24 Presenting Features of CF Persistent respiratory symptoms50% Failure to thrive43% Abnormal stools35% Meconium Ileus, intestinal obstruction19% Family history17% Hyponatremia, acid-base abnormality 5% Rectal prolapse 3% Nasal polyps; chronic sinusitis 2% Hepatobiliary disease 1%

25 All the following are criteria for the Dx of CF except: A.Typical clinical features (e.g. cough, FTT) B.History of CF in a sibling C.A positive newborn screening testing D.2 sweat chloride concentrations of 32 and 48 mEq/L E.Identification of 2 CF mutations F.Abnormal nasal potential difference

26 All the following are common manifestations of CF except: A.Cough (productive) B.Bulky, greasy stools with droplets of fat C.Diabetes D.Meconium ileus E.Recurrent fever F.Constipation G.Azoospermia H.Biliary cirrhosis I.Pancreatitis

27 Common Respiratory Pathogens in CF Staph Aureus Non-typable Haemophilus Influenza Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Burkholderia cepacia Also: -Candida -Aspergillus Fumigatus -Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

28 Signs and Symptoms of a Pulmonary Exacerbation in CF SYMPTOMS Increased frequency and duration of cough Increased sputum production and change in appearance Increased shortness of breath Decreased exercise tolerance SIGNS Increase in respiratory rate Appearance of ronchii and crackles Decline in indices of pulmonary function Weight loss Chest wall retractions New infiltrate in Chest X-ray

29 CF: Newborn Screening Assessment of Immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) Confirmation of Positive IRT (>140ng/ml) by CF gene mutation analysis Confirmation of results with a sweat test


31 Case Study #3 BG “A” is an ex-24 week preemie with BPD, a history of a PDA, and apnea of prematurity, who is now preparing to be discharged home from the NICU She is now 4 months of age (41 weeks gestational age) She still has occasional apneic episodes, mostly occurring with feeds, with desats to the 80s and bradycardia Baseline oxygen saturations are normal

32 You are the consulting pulmonologist….  What else would you like to know?  What are your recommendations for home management?

33 Apnea of Infancy Unexplained episode of cessation of breathing for 20 seconds or longer, or a shorter respiratory pause associated with bradycardia, cyanosis, pallor, and/or marked hypotonia * Usually refers to infants with gestational age of 37 weeks or more at the onset of apnea

34 Apnea of Prematurity Sudden cessation of breathing that lasts for at least 20 seconds or is accompanied by bradycardia or oxygen desaturation (cyanosis) in an infant younger than 37 weeks gestational age. Usually ceases by 37 weeks postmenstrual age, but may persist for several weeks beyond term. Extreme episodes usually cease at 43 weeks postconceptional age.

35 Apparent Life-Threatening Event (ALTE) Episode in an infant that is frightening to the observer and is characterized by some combination of: –Apnea (central or occasionally obstructive) –Color change –Unresponsiveness –Change in muscle tone, choking, or gagging

36 SIDS Sudden death of an infant under 1 year* of age that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history * Risk much lower >6mos of age

37 Risk Factors for SIDS Sleeping in prone position Co-sleeping Smoking Low socioeconomic status Cold weather Young parents *Apnea appears to resolve at a postnatal age before which most SIDS deaths occur and apnea is not a predictor or a precursor to SIDS

38 Prematurity Preterm infants at greater risk of extreme apnea episodes Risk decreases with time, ceasing at approximately 43 weeks postmenstrual age In infants with recurrent, significant apnea, monitoring may be considered

39 AAP Recommendations 2003 Home monitors should not be prescribed to prevent SIDS Home monitors may be warranted for premature infants who are at high risk of recurrent episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and hypoxemia after hospital discharge. However, the use of home monitors should be limited to approximately 43 weeks postmenstrual age or after the cessation of extreme episodes, whichever comes last

40 AAP Recommendations 2003 Parents should be advised that home monitoring has not been proven to prevent SIDS Pediatricians should continue to promote proven practices that decrease the risk of SIDS— supine sleep position, safe sleeping environments, and elimination of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement, Apnea, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and Home Monitoring. Pediatrics. April 2003; 111 (4): 914-917

41 Obstructive Sleep Apnea Disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction and/or intermittent complete obstruction (obstructive apnea) that disrupts normal ventilation during sleep and normal sleep patterns American Thoracic Society. Standards and indications for cardiopulmonary sleep studies in children. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1996; 153:866-878

42 Airway Obstruction during Sleep Combination of structural and neuromuscular factors Dynamic process Site of airway collapse in children most often at level of the adenoid

43 All of the following are risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea EXCEPT: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy Obesity Craniofacial anomalies Gastroesophageal reflux disease Neuromuscular disorders

44 Prevalence of OSAS Children of all ages Most common in preschool-aged children (age at which tonsils and adenoids are the largest in relation to the underlying airway size) Estimated prevalence rates of approximately 2% Ali NJ, Pitson DJ, Stradling JR. Snoring, sleep disturbance, and behaviour in 4-5 year olds. Arch Dis Child. 1993; 68:360-366.

45 Symptoms Habitual nightly snoring Disturbed sleep Daytime neurobehavioral problems –Think about it with ADHD Daytime sleepiness may occur, but is uncommon in young children

46 Case Presentation #4 Six year old female presents to the ER after a one week history of nasal congestion and mild cough. Two days ago, she developed high fevers, chills, and increased cough. Upon arrival in the ER, she is ill-appearing, tachypneic, and febrile. PE: Rales are appreciated on exam over right posterior lung fields.

47 Case Presentation #4 PMHx: No prior pneumonia or wheezing FHx: +Asthma (brother) ALL: NKDA IMM: Missing part of primary series; no recent ppd done. SHx: No recent travel out of the country. Laboratory: WBC 35,000

48 Radiographic Findings

49 Definition: Pneumonia An inflammation of the lung parenchyma

50 Which is the MOST likely causative organism in this patient? Group B strep Streptococcus pneumoniae Tuberculosis Mycoplasma Legionella

51 Background More than 2 million children die annually of pneumonia worldwide Mortality rare in the developed world In U.S., 35-40 episodes of community- acquired pneumonia /1,000 children per year Respiratory viruses most common cause of pneumonia during the first years of life

52 Pathophysiology Most common event disturbing lung defense mechanisms is a viral infection Alters properties of normal lung secretions Inhibits phagocytosis Modifies normal bacterial flora Often precedes development of a bacterial pneumonia by a few days

53 Factors Predisposing to Pneumonia Agammaglobulinemia CF Cleft palate Congenital bronchiectasis Ciliary dyskinesis TEF Immunodeficiency Neutropenia Increased pulmonary blood flow Deficient gag reflex Trauma Anesthesia Aspiration

54 Organisms Neonates –E.coli –Group B strep –H. influenzae –S. pneumoniae –Listeria –Anaerobes Infants –S. pnemoniae –S. aureus –Moraxella catarrhalis –H.influenzae

55 Organisms Preschool age –S. pneumoniae –Moraxella –H. Influenzae –Neisseria meningitidis School age and adolescent –S. pneumoniae –Mycoplasma –C.pneumoniae (TWAR) –Legionella

56 Clinical Sxs Shaking chills High Fever Cough Chest pain Mild URI sxs Decreased appetite Abrupt onset high fever Respiratory distress Cyanosis *Pattern more variable in infants and young children and PE often unrevealing

57 Physical Exam Retractions Dullness to percussion Tubular breath sounds Rales Diminished tactile and vocal fremitus Decreased breath sounds Laboratory Leukocytosis with left shift WBC <5,000/mm 3 poor prognosis ABG: hypoxemia Bacteremia on blood culture

58 Complications Empyema—pus in the pleural space Pleural effusion Pericarditis Meningitis Osteomyelitis Metastatic abscesses *Antibiotic therapy has reduced spread of infection Pre-antibiotic era mortality rate high in infants

59 Pleural Effusion

60 Therapy Decision to hospitalize based on severity of the illness and home environment Patients with empyema or pleural effusion should be hospitalized Oxygen Thoracentesis Decortication

61 Empiric Therapy Neonates –Rule out sepsis –Parenteral antibiotics –Ampicillin –Cefotaxime or Gentamicin Consider viral causes (HSV, CMV) Infants –Should use parenteral initially –Ampicillin/sulbactam –Or Cefuroxime –Or Ceftriaxone – Once stabilized, can give Augmentin for total of 10 day course

62 Empiric Therapy: School Age and Adolescent Ampicillin or IV Penicillin G if hypoxemic or unstable Ceftriaxone or a macrolide can be added if concerns about resistance or lack of improvement in clinical status Oral Augmentin if stable Macrolide if suspicion of mycoplasma or TWAR

63 Follow-Up Most children have normal xrays by 2-3 months after acute infection* 20% with residual changes 3-4 weeks after infection Children with persistent symptoms should have follow-up xrays to rule out such things as foreign body, congenital malformations, or TB *Grossman et al. Roentgenographic follow-up of acute pneumonia in children. Pediatrics 1979; 63:30-31


65 Case #5 A 2-month-old infant boy is brought to the Emergency Room because of persistent cough and difficulty in breathing. On examination the infant has audible stridor, harsh, “honking” cough, and suprasternal and subcostal chest wall retractions

66 Overview Stridor is a harsh, high-pitched inspiratory sound produced by partial obstruction of the airway, resulting in turbulent airflow. It is associated with variable degrees of difficulty in breathing Usually associated with suprasternal retractions, and when severe with intercostal, subcostal and substernal as well.

67 Sites & Sounds of Airway Obstruction Snoring Inspiratory Stridor Expiratory Stridor Voice quality Cough quality

68 Which are the most common cause(s) of stridor in a 2-month-old infant? A.Infectious B.Trauma C.Congenital, idiopathic D.Neurologic disorders E.Airway hemangioma(s)

69 Neonatal History Developed cyanosis and respiratory distress during the first 24 of life Cardiac Echocardiogram revealed congenital cyanotic heart disease necessitating a Blalock-Taussig shunt He was intubated and mechanically ventilated until 10 days of life.

70 Which is the least likely cause for his stridor: A. Subglottic stenosis B. Vocal Cord Paralysis C. Pulmonary artery sling D. Idiopathic laryngomalacia E. Vascular ring

71 What would be the least useful test in determining the cause of the stridor ? A.High KV films of the airways (“Mag airways”) B.CT scan of the neck and chest C.Barium swallow D.Bedside flexible laryngoscopy E.Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy

72 Causes of Stridor in Infants & Children According to Site of Obstruction & Age Nasopharynx -Choanal atresia * - Thyroglossal cyst - Macroglossia* - Hypertrophic tonsils § - Retropharyngeal or peritonsillar abscess § Larynx - Laryngomalacia* - Laryngeal web, cyst or laryngocele * - Viral Croup § - Spasmodic croup § - Epiglottitis § - Vocal cord paralysis* - Laryngeal stenosis* - Cystic hygroma* - Laryngeal papilloma § - Angioneurotic edema § - Laryngospasm § - Vocal Cord Dysfunction§ Trachea - Subglottic stenosis* - Hemangioma* - Foreign body § - Tracheomalacia* § - Bacterial tracheitis § - External compression* * Neonates, infants § Children,adolescent s

73 Laryngomalacia

74 Laryngocele  Arises as a dilatation of the saccule of the laryngeal ventricle  Stridor can present at birth

75 Laryngeal Cyst

76 Epiglottitis

77 Vocal Cord Paralysis

78 Subglottic Hemangioma  Female:male is 2:1  Usually a submucosal lesion  No color change or bluish discoloration  Frequently associated with hemangiomas elsewhere on the body  Stridor biphasic, increased with crying or valsalva

79 Laryngeal Cleft

80 Vascular Ring Right-sided aortic arch

81 Acute Laryngotracheobronchitis (Croup) Etiology Parainfluenza virus 1 (also 2 & 3) - Respiratory Syncytial Virus - Rhinovirus - Influenza virus A (and less often B) - Adenovirus

82 Croup: Epidemiology Season: fall and early winter Gender: more common in boys Onset of symptoms: mostly at night Duration: from hours to several days

83 Recurrent ( Spasmodic) Croup - Affects about 6% of children - Not associated with obvious infection - Abrupt onset, usually during sleep - Barking cough, hoarseness, stridor - Usually resolves within hours - May be a hypersensitivity reaction - Associated with airway hyperreactivity


85 CASE #6 15-month-old male infant with history of frequent respiratory infections, persistent cough and tachypnea of 6 months duration. Progressive exercise intolerance. Occasional wheezing and fever. PMH: unremarkable until onset of above symptoms; Normal growth until 1year of age; no weight gain for past 3-4 months FHx: Significant for asthma in his 5-year- old sister.

86 Physical Examination VS: T 37.3 o C; HR 140 bpm RR 42 breaths/min HbSaO2: 91% on RA Wt: 10 kg (25 th %ile) General : well nourished but thin child; tachypneic but not in distress Chest : symmetric with mild intercostal retractions; equal but somewhat decreased breath sounds bilaterally; scattered fine crackles Extremities: mild (1+) clubbing Chest X-ray: increased interstitial markings

87 Case #6 What is your Differential Diagnosis? A.Asthma B.Cystic Fibrosis C.Dysmotile Cilia Syndrome D.Interstitial Lung Disease E.Immunodeficiency F.Tuberculosis

88 Interstitial Lung Diseases Heterogenous group of disorders of known and unknown causes but with common histologic characteristics

89 ILD : Epidemiology Prevalence: estimates range from 0.36/100,000 up to ~90/100,000 Affects slightly more males (1.4:1) Affects mostly Caucasians (88%) Affected siblings in about 10% of cases Parental consanguinity: 7% Most common in those <1 year of age

90 ILD : Symptoms & Signs SYMPTOMS Cough : 78% Tachypnea/Dyspnea : 76% Failure to thrive : 37% Fever : 20% SIGNS Crackles : 44% Cyanosis : 28% Clubbing : 13%

91 ILD : Clinical Classification (histologic pattern) - Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (UIP)* -Nonspecific Interstitial pneumonia - Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia - Acute Interstitial Pneumonia (Diffuse alveolar damage) -Respiratory Bronchiolitis* -Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia -Lymphoid Interstitial Pneumonia * Cases have been reported only in adults

92 ILD: Other forms -Alveolar hemorrhage syndromes -Aspiration syndromes -Drug or radiation induced disease -Hypersensitivity pneumonitis -Infectious chronic lung disease -Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis -Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia -Pulmonary lymphatic disorders -Pulmonary vascular disorders OTHER SYSTEMIC DISORDERS -Connective tissue diseases - Histiocytosis -Malignancies - Sarcoidosis -Neurocutaneous syndrome - Lipid storage diseases -Inborn errors of metabolism

93 ILD : Unique forms in infancy -Disorders of lung growth and development -Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (persistent tachypnea of infancy) -Follicular bronchiolitis -Cellular interstitial pneumonitis/pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis -Acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage -Chronic pneumonitis of infancy/genetic defects of surfactant function

94 Any child with cough and/or tachypnea lasting more than >3 months should be evaluated for possible ILD Most laboratory tests are rarely diagnostic but they are useful to exclude other diagnoses

95 Which of the following is the least useful test in this case ? A. Chest X-ray B. Chest CT C. Quantitative Immunoglobulins D. Panel for collagen vascular diseases E. Bronchoalveolar lavage F. Sweat test G. Lung Biopsy

96 ILD : Imaging Studies Plain chest X-rays are usually not helpful High resolution CT (HRCT) with thin sections (1 mm) is the best modality

97 ILD : Diagnostic Studies Pulmonary Function Tests - Restrictive pattern with decreased lung volumes, decreased lung compliance and markedly decreased diffusing capacity Bronchoalveolar Lavage Able to confirm only few disorders (e.g. infections, aspiration) but useful to rule out others (e.g. hemorrhage) Lung Biopsy: it’s the most definitive of the studies. Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Biopsy is becoming the method of choice

98 ILD : Treatment & Outcome Long-term oxygen Steroids (oral and/or IV) Hydroxychloroquine Chemotherapy (Azathioprine, Methotrexate; cyclophosphamide; GM-GSF) OUTCOME (after ~3 years) Improvement : 74% “No change” : 17% Worsening/Death : ~ 9% ** Outcome tends to be better in the young patients

99 Questions?


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