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1 I’m always smart when I’m with you.
Links to Literacy: An Introduction to Short-Term Literacy Intervention

2 Program Overview What is the Links to Literacy tutoring model?
Links to Literacy provides short-term, research-based literacy intervention. Who does this program serve? Although each site serves a unique population, Links to Literacy provides literacy tutoring to transient elementary-school children. What is expected of a literacy tutor? Literacy tutors need to be responsible, flexible, and willing to work within the Links to Literacy schema.

3 What is expected of a literacy tutor?
Adhere to the program schedule and policies and procedures. Work within the Links to Literacy tutoring model. Do not undermine your student’s culture and beliefs. Work effectively with other tutors, the tutor coordinator, and the site staff. Take care of yourself!

4 What is expected of a literacy coordinator?
Work with shelter staff to establish the program. Communicate weekly with shelter staff. Provide initial and ongoing literacy training to tutors. Create and maintain supplies for tutoring. Provide support to tutors (re: initial assessment of students) Provide lesson-planning and behavior-management support to tutors. Encourage and support tutors—help them see their successes.

5 Links to Literacy Tutoring Model
Purpose Goals Methods

6 Links to Literacy Tutoring Model
Purpose Many children who experience homelessness are significantly behind grade level. These children are underserved because they change schools mid-year and extra services are allocated at the beginning of the year. Because of the instability homeless children experience, academic goals must be addressed in temporary settings. Links to Literacy provides feasible short-term goals and a research-based lesson plan to achieve them. Goals Methods

7 Links to Literacy Tutoring Model
Purpose Goals Specific Program Goals Engaging students in literacy Bolstering academic confidence Improving literacy skills Five Key Early Reading Skills (Highlighted in No Child Left Behind) Phonemic awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Methods

8 Links to Literacy Tutoring Model
Purpose Goals Methods Links to Literacy meets its goals through a researched-based literacy lesson plan with four components: The tutor reads (Read Aloud) The child reads Word study/Phonological Awareness The child writes

9 Getting Started as a Tutor
Here is an overview of what to expect in the first four lessons as a tutor. The section in grey indicates the focus for each lesson. First Session Second Session Third Session Fourth session Read Aloud Bring 3 or 4 books and let the child choose which one to read. Introduce the test and ask comprehension and prediction questions. Bring books to choose from based on the child’s interests. Remember to read them ahead of time and think of appropriate questions to ask. Ask 2 or 3 questions from the “Questions to Help Comprehension” list. Use one question as a writing prompt. Continue reading books based on child’s interest. Fill out a graphic organizer after reading to help with comprehension. The Child Reads Based on the child’s writing, choose an appropriate leveled book with coordinator’s help. Read the book ahead of time and introduce it to the child. Emergent Readers: Do a shared reading activity with a color song. Choose and introduce an appropriate book. Reread part of the book from the last session to work on fluency. Emergent Readers: Do the same shared reading activity as the last session. Introduce a new book. Consider incorporating a poem or two into the lesson for fluency work. Emergent Readers: Choose a section of the book to use as a shared reading activity. Word Study/Phonological Awareness Give alphabet assessment (letter and sound recognition) Based on the child’s reading and writing levels, choose a word skill to develop and use a suggested game. Work on the same skill as last time. If the child is bored, make a new game, otherwise keep using the old one. Writing Fill out an “All About Me” poster, paying attention to the student’s writing skills and interests. Have the child write a response to a book read during the lesson. Emergent Readers: Have the child dictate a sentence and illustrate it. Have the child write a response to a comprehension question. Emergent Readers: The child dictates and illustrates a sentence. Work on a story or expository text. Emergent Readers: Do a shared writing activity.

10 All About Me Poster Before During After This activity is done
on the first lesson. Tutor and child can each fill out a poster, or work on child’s together. Use markers and/or crayons to fill out the poster. Ask child about his/her interests. Tutors can share stories about their interests with child. Ask about what kind of books the child likes to read. Use the information from the poster and conversation to select a couple of books to bring to the next lesson.

11 Alphabet Assessment Before During After Should be given to
child during first lesson. This is not only intended for Kinder age children. Since a child’s knowledge is unpredictable it should be given to children K-3. Ask child to identify the letters known and the sound the letter makes. Circle the letters not known and does not identify automatically (if child has to think about what letter or sound it is, then circle it and review) The letters and sounds that are not known should be focused on over the next several lessons. Tutor should not focus on more than two or three letters per lesson. (for letter ideas see word study section)

12 The Tutor Reads Why have the tutor read during the lesson?
To demonstrate that books are relevant to students’ lives and interests. To present students with a model of adults as readers. To teach a child about how books and print work. To develop vocabulary. To work on comprehension. To expose emergent readers to phonemic awareness concepts like rhyme and alliteration.

13 The Tutor Reads How does a tutor read aloud to a student?
Choose a book that will interest the student. Read the book ahead of time and look for appropriate places to stop and ask questions. Sit beside the child. Make sure the child can see the pictures and the words. Allow the child to hold the book, help turn the pages, or point to what interests him. Talk about the book before, during, and after reading it aloud.

14 Conversation About the Book Read
The Tutor Reads Conversation About the Book Read Before During After Read the story before the lesson. Think about how to introduce the book, where to stop and ask questions, what vocabulary may be new. Read and point to words in title. Go over terms: author illustrator Talk about the cover. Make predictions about what may happen in the book. Ask appropriate comprehension questions. Have the child make predictions. Note: It is important to balance conversation with read-aloud. Only ask questions at natural stopping points. DO NOT ASK QUESTIONS EVERY PAGE. Ask younger children to retell the story using props (pictures copied from the book). Ask children to retell the story. Graphic organizers can help (on the following pages). Help the child make connections between the read aloud and other books you’ve read together.

15 The Tutor Reads One of the skills to be gained from reading is comprehension. The following explains the importance of this skill and lists activities that can be used. What is comprehension? the skill of gaining meaning from text (to process what is being read and understand it.) Why focus on this skill? Gaining meaning from and understanding the text is the central goal of reading. Many children who have not had the experiences of being read to need help to learn how to get meaning from what they read. To develop more detailed comprehension strategies, such as main idea, sequencing, etc.

16 The Tutor Reads How does a tutor work on comprehension?
Tutors, who are themselves skilled readers, can be powerful models for how to get meaning from a text (this can be accomplished whether or not it is the tutor or child reading the story). By using activities that focus on (but not limited to): Predicting Making Connections (personal, world or text) Story Structure Summarizing Included on the following pages are simple yet effective story mapping and comprehension activities called graphic organizers, which can be found on educational websites.

17 Story House The story house is used as an instructional tool for comprehension after reading a narrative text, such as The Three Bears. The objective is to teach story structure - such as characters, setting, plot, solution - to emergent and early readers (Kinder-2) Before During After Use the template to cut out the pieces from construction paper or draw story house on dry erase board Read story Discuss with child what each component means and that every story has these four components. Model the activity for the child as many times as needed until child can do it independently. Review each component with child after the story house has been filled out.

18 Venn Diagram This diagram is used to make comparisons between two books about the same subject (such as birds), two books by the same author, two characters in a story, etc. The outer circles are used to write the differences and the inner circle is used to write the similarities. Before During After Go over the meaning of the terms: similar different (give examples) Read book(s) Help child to brainstorm through conversation about what it is you are comparing/contrasting. Tutor or child can fill out the diagram. Review diagram

19 Description Web This activity is used to either activate prior knowledge before reading a text, or to extend knowledge after reading a text, using the same web. Information generated by the web is an excellent springboard for written expression. Before During After Choose either a story book or informational text. While introducing and looking at the cover of the text activate the child’s prior knowledge: “What do you already know about ______?” (main topic of book) Write the main topic in the oval of the web. As the child discusses his/her prior knowledge either child or tutor can write descriptors on the spokes extending from the oval. Read text. Child can add descriptors to web. Can use information written on web to write about the text and what the child learned.

20 Character Journal The goal of this activity is for the child to comprehend how character(s) develop throughout a story. Character journals support the child in identifying the details of the character(s) as they are presented by the author as the story unfolds. This is an on-going project that can be extended over several lessons. Excellent activity for grades 2 and up. Before During After Let child choose a chapter book appropriate for his/her reading level. Make a blank book for journal. Tutor and child can fill out the journal together. Tutor should model for child the details to write down about the character(s). When a character is introduced in the text write down the name, have child draw a picture of the character and any details. As you continue to read keep an on-going list of details learned about the character (s), along with illustrations if the child wants to add them. If this project is extended over several lessons review journal entries made during previous lessons to help child see character development.

21 Story Journal This activity is similar to the character journal
Story Journal This activity is similar to the character journal. The difference is the focus of the journal, which is now on recording important details or events. Before During After Let child choose a chapter book appropriate for his/her reading level. Make a blank book for journal. Tutor and child can fill out the journal together. Tutor should model for child the details to write down about the story. As the tutor and child read through each chapter stop to write down the events/ developments that take place. The child can add illustrations to his/her journal entries. Review previous lesson entries before starting a new lesson with child.

22 Comprehension Questions
The following are questions that focus on specific elements of the story to help the child work on comprehension. The answers can be discussed orally or written out. The tutor does not have to use the questions about every story element in one lesson. The tutor can focus on one or two elements, such as Setting and Plot for each lesson. Tutor should go over the questions he/she is planning on using during the lesson to familiarize the child. These questions are appropriate for all grade levels. However, the older the child the more detailed the answers and discussion.

23 Making Predictions This activity can be used for all age levels with story and chapter books.
Before During After Tutor should read book beforehand and mark points in the story where the child should make a prediction. Follow questions outlined on work- sheet. Stop at appropriate places to make predictions. Ask child to give the reason(s) for his/her Go over predictions to see if the child was correct. If child was not correct, the tutor can go back to that part of the story and review the reasons why the story turned out differently.

24 KWL Chart The K stands for “I know”, W for “I would like to know”, L for “ I learned.” This chart is used with a non-fiction selection, such as a book about dolphins. This activity is appropriate for all age levels. If the child is learning to write, then the child can dictate the information to the tutor to write down. Chart can also be drawn on construction paper which would allow the child to add illustrations about the subject. K W L The first column, “K”, is filled out before the book is read. Have child think about what information he/she already knows about the subject of the book. Write information down in first column. The second column, “W”, is also filled out before reading the book. about what he/she would like to know about the subject. Write down these questions in second column. Read book. The last column, “L”, is filled out after reading the book. Ask the child to think about the new information he/she learned from the book. Write down new information in third

25 Summary for Non-Fiction To summarize the child must understand the main idea of the text and be able to support it with details. Summarizing can be a difficult skill. It will develop through example and practice. The older the child, the more details he/she should be able to use to support the main idea. Activity can be used for grades 2 and up. Before During After Choose a non-fiction text of interest to the child, such as sharks. Go over these terms: summary main idea (Explaining these terms will help the child to know what to look for before he/she starts reading.) The first time the child does this activity the tutor should model it. The child may need modeling over several lessons before he/she can do it independently. When the child is ready to do activity independently, have the child explain his/ her answers. Go over completed activity.

26 How will this inform the next lesson?
The Tutor Reads Reflection Reflection is an essential part of documenting Links to Literacy . Its primary goal is to inform the next lesson, but it also serves as informal assessment of the student’s progress. Document this lesson How will this inform the next lesson? How was the child successful? What was challenging for the child? Did the child enjoy this activity? Would the child enjoy more activities like this? How can I build on this? Should the next activity be harder or easier? Did the student make good predictions and connections before and during the story? Could the child summarize and retell the read aloud? Would the student enjoy more stories like this? Was there another topic discussed that might be more interesting?

27 The Tutor Reads Resources Included Resources Suggested Resources
Character/Story journals and questions Graphic Organizers Story House Venn Diagram Description Web KWL Chart Making Predictions Summary for Non-fiction Suggested Read Aloud Lists (on following pages) Suggested Resources Recommended Reading from the New York Public library reading/recommended.cfm Kaye, Peggy (1984). Games for Reading: Playful Ways to Help Your Child Read. New York: Pantheon Books. Kaye, Peggy (2002). Games with Books. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

28 The Child Reads Why include the child reading in the lesson plan?
Lots of easy reading makes reading easy. Students need to practice at their level of fluency in order to become better readers. Reading encourages students to see themselves as readers. Gain meaning from what is read (comprehension skills): The character/story journals and graphic organizers listed in The Tutor Reads section are also appropriate for The Child Reads, especially if the child is reading a chapter book. If the child is on a chapter book level, then the tutor and child can take turns reading the text. The tutor should model inflection (reading with emphasis) for the child. The end goal of Links to Literacy is to improve reading.

29 Three Methods for Having the Child Read
The Child Reads Three Methods for Having the Child Read Shared Reading Guided Reading Rereading for Fluency Who? Emergent Readers Independent Readers What? With strong and specific support, emergent readers study concepts of print and alphabetic knowledge. Tutors help students read new books at a particular level. Students reread a text for fluency, mastery, and comprehension. How? The tutor helps the emergent reader read a simple piece of text and answer questions about concepts of print. Tutors help students read a new book by introducing new material and helping to develop reading and comprehension strategies. Through repeated readings of short text, like book excerpts or a poem, a student’s reading begins to sound more like talking.

30 The Child Reads Shared Reading Before During After
Choose a short passage the student can learn to recite. Good ideas for passages include: Nursery rhymes Color songs Section of the read-aloud Poems (Obtain or create a copy of the text which is written in big, standard, easy-to-read print.) Read the passage slowly to the child, pointing to the words. Read the passage with the child. Repeat this until the child can recite it well. Have the child read the passage, pointing to the word. Guide the child’s finger if voice and print do not match. Ask the child to identify features of the text, for example: a letter the child knows a word the child knows a capital letter a period any word a sentence

31 The Child Reads Guided Reading Before During After
Choose a text that interests the student and the student can read at about 90% accuracy. Introduce the text: Review the vocabulary. (No more than 10 words.) Talk about the cover and the title. Predict what the text might be about. Take a picture walk through the text, pointing out new vocabulary. The student reads the text independently. Don’t stop the student unless meaning or place are completely lost. If a student gets stuck on a word have the student: Look at the beginning, middle or end of the word. Think about what makes sense. Look at the picture If all else fails, tell the child the word. Praise the student. Pick a couple mistakes and go back and review them. Ask comprehension questions. Reread the text.

32 The Child Reads Rereading for Fluency Before During After
Choose a text or part of a text that has been read before and that is easy for the child. Demonstrate fluent reading. Talk about how good readers sound like they’re talking when they read. Ask the student to try to sound like that while reading. Listen to the student read. Time the reading. (Not necessary every time.) Tutor and student should evaluate the student’s reading: Did it sound like talking? What part was hard? Tutor should model fluent reading. Be explicit about why your voice goes up or down, or why you emphasize certain words Graph how many words the student read per minute. (Not necessary every time.) Model, practice, and have the student read the passage again.

33 How will this inform the next lesson?
The Child Reads Reflection Reflection is an essential part of documenting Links to Literacy . Its primary goal is to inform the next lesson, but it also serves as informal assessment of the student’s progress. Document this lesson How will this inform the next lesson? General Questions How was the child successful? What was challenging for the child? Did the child enjoy this activity? Would the child enjoy more activities like this? How can I build on this? Should the next activity be harder or easier? Shared Reading Was the passage too hard? What print features did the child identify? Could this same text be used again next time? What print features would be focused on? Guided Reading Was this book too hard? What words did the child stumble on? What passage could be used for rereading for fluency next time? Rereading for Fluency Did the child read fluently? At what rate did the child read? What words did the child stumble on? Should this same text be used next time?

34 The Child Reads Resources Included Resources Suggested Resources
Color Songs for Shared Reading Responding to Oral Reading Graph and Instructions for Rereading for Fluency Suggested Resources Fountas, I.C., & Pinnell, G.S. (1996). Guided Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Fountas, I.C., & Pinnell, G.S. (1997). A Coordinator’s Guide to Help America Read. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

35 Word Study Why include word study in the lesson plan?
To build reading and writing ability. To demonstrate patterns and rules in words. To directly focus on word knowledge skills the student has not yet mastered.

36 Word Study Three Areas of Word Study Hearing Sounds in Words
Connecting Sounds to Print Finding Patterns Within Words Who? Emergent Readers Independent Readers What? Students learn to hear features and patterns of spoken language that are represented in written language. Students learn the connection between print and sound. Students learn complex features and patterns of written language. How? Through activities that focus only on listening and speaking, students hear and produce patterns that will later be used in written language. Through activities that connect sound and print, students are taught the principles that govern that connection. By playing games that focus on patterns in language, students learn specific features of written language.

37 Hearing Sounds in Words and Connecting Sounds to Print
Word Study Hearing Sounds in Words and Connecting Sounds to Print This staircase demonstrates how early literacy skills build upon one another. Please refer to the supplemental information to determine what skill is appropriate for the child. Segmenting Individual Sounds Onset and Rime (c-at) Syllable Segmenting Sentence Segmenting Alliteration Rhyming

38 Finding Patterns within Words
Word Study Finding Patterns within Words Use a sample of the child’s writing to pick an appropriate word study skill level. Evaluate which of these skills the child uses correctly. Pick the skill lowest on this staircase that the child sometimes confuses. Focus on that skill for several lessons, creating new games using that same skill to keep it interesting. Nasals (-ink, -ump) Vowel +r (-ar, -er) “When two vowels go walking…” Silent “e” Blends like bl, tr, st Sh, Th, Wh Short Vowels

39 Word Study Assessment Using Spelling Patterns to Determine Word-Study Goals Sample Spelling Errors from Child’s Writing What Does the Child Know? What Should I Choose as Goals for Word Study? cat = SZ hop = FRPM Words are made up of letters (but no representation of letter sounds) Teach letter names and sounds; do picture sorts of beginning sounds. cat = k bed = bt hop = p Child can isolate some of the sounds in words and match them to letters. cat =kt hop = hp stamp = sop Child can represent beginning and ending sounds in word, but doesn’t consistently represent vowels. Teach short-vowel word families by comparing same vowel families (cat, sat, mat to man, pan, fan) cat = cot hop = hip chin = chen Child represents all the sounds in the word, but confuses vowels. Teach short-vowel families by comparing different vowels (e.g. cop, top, stop to cap, tap, flap) float = flote stopped = stopt Child represents short vowels and blends; represents long vowels, but not with correct spelling. Teach long vowels by comparing spelling patterns; teach word endings (-ed, -ing, -ful, etc) * Adapted from Book Buddies: Guidelines for Volunteer Tutors of Emergent and Early Readers by F. R. Johnston, M. Invernizzi & C. Juel; NY, NY: Guilford Press (1998). ISBN

40 Word Sorts Before During After
Choose 2 or 3 categories to sort by. (Example: words that begin with “sh” and “s”.) Write about 10 words from each category on separate index cards. Discuss the categories with the child, making sure that he or she recognizes the difference between the categories. Mix up the cards. Have the child sort them into piles based on category. If this is a new and difficult sort, offer support for the child. Each time these words are sorted, the child should become more independent. Review the piles of sorted words and discuss any mistakes the child made. Sort the words again.

41 Bingo The Bingo board can be used for various word study lessons
Bingo The Bingo board can be used for various word study lessons. To reuse the board have it laminated and use with a dry erase marker. Before During Choose the word study lesson for Bingo. Examples: 1. sight word recognition (about, could, though) 2. word families (at, ick, uck) 3. beginning/ending sounds (sh, th, ch) 4. sound to symbol (matching the letter “B” to a picture of a bear) Sight Words: write a sight word in each square. Tutor should have a list of these words to call out to child. Word Families: write a word family in each square. The tutor should write the initial sounds/ blends, etc that can be used with these families on little pieces of paper. The tutor calls out the sound, blend, etc. Child uses initial sound to make a word with a family in a square. Beginning/ending sounds: sounds are written in the squares. Tutor calls out a word that begins or ends with the sound and child marks the sound on the board. Sound to symbol: write a letter in each square. Call out pictures that start with each sound.

42 UNO Before During After
Choose 4 easily distinguishable categories (Example: -at, -ate, -ay, -ai) Write 6 words from each category onto index cards. To make the sort easier, write the relevant word part in red. (Example: Train, Cat) Choose 4 sight words unrelated to the categories and write them on index cards along with the word “Wild!” Discuss the words and categories with the child. Shuffle the cards. Deal both tutor and child 5 cards. Flip over the top card from the pile. The first player can put down a card from the same category as the face up card or a wild card. If a wild card is played, the player chooses what the category will be next. When a player has no cards with that pattern, he draws one card from the pile, but can’t play it. It’s then the next player’s turn. The player who runs out of cards first wins. Discuss the word patterns. Go over the wild cards. Play again.

43 Go Fish Before During After
Choose 10 word families (Example: -at, -ap, -an, -ip, -in) Write 4 words from each family onto index cards. To make the sort easier, write the relevant word part in red. (Example: Fan, Cat) Discuss the words and word families with the child. Shuffle the cards. Deal both tutor and child 5 cards. The first player asks, “Do you have any words that rhyme with ______?” If yes, the first player gets the card and lays down the match. Then the first player asks for another rhyming card. If no, the second player says “Go Fish” and the first player draws a card. The turn is over. Play continues until one player runs out of cards. The winner is the player with the most matches. Discuss the word patterns. Play again.

44 Sight Word Memory This is a great game to get a child engaged and to help them remember sight words. This activity can be used with all ages and also with word family words (cat, bat, pig, wig). Before During After Use several words taken from the grade appropriate sight word lists included or words from a text that the child has difficulty recognizing. Write these words twice on an index card and then cut them apart. Go over the words with the child by reading them together. Shuffle up the cards and lay them face down on the table. Model for the child by flipping over two cards saying each word as you flip. If the two words match it is a pair and can be taken off the table. If the words do not match, flip them back over and switch turns. After all cards are paired, go over any that the child had difficulty recognizing through out the game. Tutor can add a few new words for the next lesson and take out words that are too easy.

45 File Folder Games File Folder Games by Karen Finch is a wonderful resource that gives the tutor specific skills to work on and makes it fun! Games are divided according to grade level, Kinder through Fourth. The games focus on specific skills, such as blends, synonyms and prefixes. The games do take a lot of time, but are worth the efforts! It is suggested that if the game focuses on a specific rule, such as reading hard and soft “g” then the rule should be written on the back of the folder. Tutors find them easy to use and it helps target particular skills for reading and spelling.

46 How will this inform the next lesson?
Word Study Reflection Reflection is an essential part of documenting Links to Literacy. Its primary goal is to inform the next lesson, but it also serves as informal assessment of the student’s progress. Document this lesson How will this inform the next lesson? How was the child successful? What was challenging for the child? Did the child enjoy this activity? Would the child enjoy more activities like this? How can I build on this? Should the next activity be harder or easier? Record specific words the child had difficulty with. How much could the student do without support? What specific questions did the student struggle with? It is strongly recommended that a tutor focus on one literacy skill for all sessions with a particular student. Exceptions should be made only if the skill is too hard or if the child demonstrates nearly complete mastery. (Independently and correctly uses that skill 100% of the time.) Would the child enjoy this activity again? What would make this skill enjoyable?

47 Word Study Resources Included Resources Suggested Resources Silly Soup
Letter Identification Activities Word Sorts Uno Go Fish Bingo Sight Word Memory Sight Word Lists File Folder Games Suggested Resources Bear, D.R., Johnston, F., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S. (2004). Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary and Spelling Instruction. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Invernizzi, C., Johnston, F.R., & Juel, C. (1998). Book Buddies: Guidelines for Volunteer Tutors of Emergent and Early Readers. New York: Guilford Press. Fitzpatrick, Jo. (1997). Phonemic Awareness: Playing with Sounds to Strengthen Beginning Reading Skills. Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press, Inc. Finch, Karen. (1992). File Folder Games. Greensboro, North Carolina: Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company, Inc.

48 The Child Writes Why include the child writing in the lesson plan?
To practice hearing and then writing sounds in words. To teach standard spelling and punctuation. To help children use written language to communicate.

49 Three Approaches to Writing
The Child Writes Three Approaches to Writing Shared Writing Book-Making Writing Process Who? Emergent Writers Independent Readers What? The student applies knowledge of sound to letter correlation to create standard text. Students create books with predictable patterns which can then be used for shared reading. Students create standard expository or fiction text includes bookmaking. How? The tutor supports the student by supplying information and helping the student figure out what she knows By using sight words and applying knowledge of letter to sound correlation, students create books that they can read. Through editing and a series of drafts, students create a standard text of original work.

50 The Child Writes Shared Writing Before During After
Bring a sentence strip and at least two different color markers. Set a picture alphabet in front of the tutor and the child. (Included in this handbook.) Child and tutor each pick a different color marker. Have the child compose a sentence. Say the sentence and count the words together. Begin to write the sentence, drawing attention to concepts of print, such as capital letters and punctuation. Ask the child to listen to the sounds and have her write the ones she hears, referring to the picture alphabet for guidance. Have the child put down two fingers for spaces. Read the sentence. Have the child count the words. Cut up the sentence and scramble the words. Have the child put the words in order. (Help if it’s too difficult.)

51 The Child Writes Book-Making Before During After
Choose a simple repeatable sentence that uses sight words the child is learning. (ex. I like ______.) Prepare a small book with 4 to 6 pages. Talk about what words will fill in the blank. (ex. Colors, animals, -at words) Model writing the first sentence for the child. Have the child write as much of the book as possible. Illustrate the book with the child’s drawings, stickers or cut out pictures. Have the child read the book, pointing to the words. If appropriate, invite the child to read the book to a another child or tutor After reading the book together several times, let the child take the book home

52 The Child Writes Writing Process Why? How? Pre-writing Writing
To get ideas flowing, increase writing fluency, establish vocabulary, organize ideas Brainstorm ideas with student, perhaps using a web as a graphic organizer. Writing To create a draft, get ideas down on paper quickly. Write on every other line (this makes room for editing and revisions); don’t worry about mechanics at this time. Revising To make the paper better in regard to content, clarity, vocabulary, organization. Have the child first read the text to you; brainstorm with child about your suggestions for what might make the paper, clearer, more organized and more meaningful. Editing To make the paper better in terms of punctuation, capitalization, spelling and grammar. Use the same process as revising, but focus on punctuation, capitalization, spelling and grammar. Publishing To share writing with others. There are many forms this can take. For example, it can be made into a book or read out loud.

53 The Child Writes Language Experience The Tutor Reads
Language experience is an approach the Links to Literacy lesson plan that includes all four components. Its primary focus is the student’s composition, so it has been included under writing. The Tutor Reads The child chooses a topic of interest. The tutor and child choose a book on that topic which is too difficult for the child to read and the tutor reads the book to the child. The Tutor and Child Write The tutor and child work together to write several sentences or a paragraph about what was read (depending on child’s age and ability) The child illustrates it. Although the tutor may do a lot of the writing, it is the child’s ideas and in the child’s own words. The Child Reads The child reads the composition. Because the ideas and language are her own and the topic is familiar, the child should be able to read the short selection independently or with minimal support from the tutor. The tutor and child practice the reading until it is smooth and fluent. Word Study The tutor pulls out words from the paragraph that are relevant to the word study skill the child has been working on. The tutor and child talk about the relevant part of the word together and brainstorm other words that use that pattern.

54 Story Starters The story starters included are intended to make writing easy for the child. The starters give the child an idea for his/her story and often set-up the structure by providing characters, setting and problem. These can be used with kinder by having them dictate the story, or children in first grade and up can write it out. The starters included in this manual were found on: Many other ideas can also be found on the web.

55 Fill in the blank story These are a great writing activity
Fill in the blank story These are a great writing activity. The basic structure of the story is pre-written with words missing for the child to fill in. This activity can help a child become familiar with sentence structure, parts of speech and sequencing. The following example was taken from Games for Writing by Peggy Kaye. The stories can be used again if laminated. Activity is appropriate for all grade levels. Before During After Read the story to child with blanks so they are familiar with the story and can start forming ideas of what he/she wants to add. Child or tutor can fill in the blanks. Allow the child to be as silly as he/she wants to be, but what is added should make sense. Tutor should encourage child to use descriptive words when filling in the blanks. Tutor or child can read over completed story.

56 Dice Game This writing activity was taken from Games for Writing by Peggy Kaye. A die, pencil and paper are needed. Children of many ages love this game. It is non-threatening to the child because he/she does a little bit at a time and it involves the tutor sharing the writing and brainstorming. This game can often get a reluctant writer to participate. Before During After Talk with the child about the story he/she wants to write, such as: characters setting what is the story going to be about? Establishing these elements of the story before writing practice story structure and brainstorming. The tutor and child will be writing the story together. Each person takes a turn rolling the die. The number on the die is the number of words that person has to write in the story, which do not have to make a complete sentence: “Mary had a blue “ It is important to read over what has been written to see if the sentences make sense. If what the child added does not make sense, read it out loud. This teaches the child the habit of rereading and editing. The child can add illustrations.

57 How will this inform the next lesson?
The Child Writes Reflection Reflection is an essential part of documenting Links to Literacy. Its primary goal is to inform the next lesson, but it also serves as informal assessment of the student’s progress. Document this lesson How will this inform the next lesson? How was the child successful? What was challenging for the child? What did the child enjoy about this activity? Would the child enjoy more activities like this? How can I build on this? Should the next activity be harder or easier?

58 The Child Writes Resources Included Resources Suggested Resources
Alphabet picture cards Sticker book activity Useful phrases for simple bookmaking activities Environmental print to use for pre-school, emergent readers Story Starters Fill in the Blank Story Dice Game Suggested Resources Kaye, Peggy. (1995). Games for Writing: Playful Ways to Help Your Child Learn to Write. New York: Farrar, Straus &Giroux.

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