2What To Expect Learning Stations Activities Group Activities Computer LabCooperative Learning OpportunitiesPrimary Source ActivitiesDBQPowerPoint with DiscussionUnit Assessment
3K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN What I LearnedAbout the Civil WarWhat I KnowAbout the Civil WarWhat I Want to LearnAbout the Civil War
4The Precursor: Westward Expansion Sectional Conflict - - Very Real and Very ImportantEach section wanted expansionEach wanted new states to be created in its own imageSenate BalanceEconomic MotivesMerchants and Industrialists of Northeast wanted an expanding marketFree states proved to be a much better market for their products
5The Precursor: Westward Expansion Economic MotivesSouthern Planters wanted new plantationsWhy? Soil on the old plantations no longer viable year after year of the same crop (poor crop rotation)Start a new plantation, start overBetter economic opportunities through expansion
6The Precursor: Westward Expansion TTYN: Describe the term Manifest DestinyWithin this context (westward expansion), it was a term/ideology promoted by politicians to win popular support for expansionism
7The Precursor: Westward Expansion and the effects of Manifest Destiny
8The Precursor: Westward Expansion The Opening of ChinaOpium WarsAmerica persuades the Chinese Emperor the same concessions as that of Britain; gave birth to the idea of enormous wealth as a result of trade w/ ChinaLed to the projecting of a railroad to the Pacific CoastEach section wanted the RR to bring Chinese trade its wayTTYN: How does Manifest Destiny fit into this equation?Remember the Puritans -- "city upon a hill, "courageous pioneers believed that America had a divine obligation to stretch the boundaries of their noble republic to the Pacific Ocean; If successful, the South believed that the China trade would create an equilibrium of wealth and population and therefore, equalization of the House of Rep.; NE merchants and idustrial giants saw the $$$, aka big profits.
9Oregon, Texas, and the Mexican War Arrival of James Polk as a national figureSouthern Platform (and now Polk’s) – reoccupation of Oregon and reannexation of TexasNorth – “Fifty-four-forty or fight”Eastern TX introduced cotton and plantation systemTX achieved independence in 1836TX wanted annexation“The war was unnecessarily and unconstitutionallyinitiated by the President.”Abraham Lincoln, 1848Polk orders American troops to occupy disputed territory between the borders of the U.S. and MexicoStrained relationship b/t U.S. and Mex over boundary linesPolk announced that Mex had fired upon American soldiers on American soil, Polk called on Congress not declare war but to recognize that a state of war already existed.The onset of war aroused patriotic spiritCongress calls for 50K troops – 300K volunteeredThe war further exposes the deep divide b/t the Southern Dems and the Whigs (future Rep)Polk – disciple of Jackson; Jacksonian Democrat, aligned with the position of the South; Remember the Common Man; the “re’s” political hocum (political conjecture); In other words, can’t “re” something you never owned, but…..; Had half of the Oregon Territory and the Louisiana Purchase did not result in the purchase of TX;
10Oregon, Texas, and the Mexican War Polk negotiates with Britain for the Oregon TerritoryEnter CA – Remember China and Manifest Destiny1845 – TX annexedMexican WarThe Gadsden PurchaseSmall Group ity“The Gadsden Purchase”Small Group ActivitySee Learning Packet“Bear Flag Republic” – short lived, but effective; February 2, 1848, at the close of the Mexican War, the Republic of Mexico was compelled to abandon its claim to Texas and to cede to the United States the territory now comprising most of New Mexico, Arizona, California, Colorado, Utah and Nevada. The territory ceded to the United States by Mexico constituted about 200,000 square miles or two-fifths of all her territory.
11Lands acquired from Mex. (CA, NV, UT, AZ, and NM) Passed in Congress The Wilmot Proviso“ Neither slavery not involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said country”– Wilmot ProvisoLands acquired from Mex. (CA, NV, UT, AZ, and NM)Passed in CongressDefeated in Southern-dominated SenateThe issue of slavery in the territories would become the defining issue in the years that followed
12TTYN: Interpret the following quotes The Wilmot Proviso“ Neither slavery not involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said country”– Wilmot ProvisoTTYN: Interpret the following quotes“…the Wilmot Proviso is an unconstitutional act that would deny Southerners the right to move freely with their property into commonly held American territory.”- John Calhoun“…while the Constitution protected slavery in the states where it already existed, we should never knowingly lend ourselves directly or indirectly, to prevent that slavery from dying a natural death – to find new places for it to live in, when it can no longer exist in the old.”- Abraham Lincoln
15Learning Stations: The Compromise’s Learning Stations - Working cooperatively, each group will rotate through the Compromises of the Civil WarEach student will complete the Compromises of the Civil War Learning Packet
16Henry Clay What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820Henry ClayThe “Great Conciliator”The “Great Compromiser”
17Missouri CompromiseSEC. 8. And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not included within the limits of the state, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be, and is hereby, forever prohibited: Provided always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed, in any state or territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforesaid.Discussion:According to the document, what is prohibited in the territory north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude?According to the document, what will happen to a person who escapes to the territory described above?Why do you think this document from 1820 is relevant when discussing the Civil War?Note also escaped slaves may be reclaimed.
18What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820What was going on…Westward ExpansionThe Industrial North vs. the Agrarian SouthFirst crisis in the North-South sectionalism over the admission of MissouriMissouri –Slave State and Maine – Free State = Balance
19What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820Why the Missouri Compromise was important…
20What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820Why the Missouri Compromise was important…For the future, no other slave states should be admitted in the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri – the 36°30′East of the line was room for two more slave states and two free statesWould stabilize the senateCompromise would become problematic when the area west was suitable for settlementWhy 36-30? Misinformation by Lewis and Clark; belief that the territory west of the line was not suitable for settlement and should be left for Indians; two more states (Iowa and Mi free states and Arkansas and FL slave states);
21Slave and Free Areas after the Missouri Compromise, 1820 Have students draw 36030’ on their National Map Handout to the Pacific Coast.Ask: What do you think of the decision? Why? Show Jefferson’s opinion (next slide).
22What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820Thomas Jefferson’s Opinion“..the Missouri question aroused and filled me with alarm…I have been among the most sanguine in believing that our Union would be of long duration. I now doubt it much.”letter to William Short, April 11, 1820“…like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union.”letter to John Holmes, April 22, 1820Define sanguine, fire bell and knell.Discussion:Why is he alarmed? What does Jefferson mean when he calls the compromise the “knell of the Union”?
23What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850Compromise of 1850 is considered a turning pointShifted the public emphasis from expansion to preserving the UnionMay be considered the first in a chain of events of the 1850’s that led up to the Civil WarFugitive Slave law was bitterly opposed by many throughout the NorthSouth remains bitter over the loss of CA as slave state because there was no place for another slave state
24TTYN: Interpret the following quote What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil WarThe Compromise of 1850TTYN: Interpret the following quote“I had never in my life up to this time suffered from the Slave Institution. Slavery in Virginia or Carolina was like Slavery in Africa or the Feejees, for me. There was an old fugitive law, but it had become or was fast becoming a dead letter, and, by the genius and laws of Massachusetts, inoperative. The new Bill made it operative, required me to hunt slaves, and it found citizens in Massachusetts willing to act as judges and captors. Moreover, it discloses the secret of the new times, that Slavery was no longer mendicant, but was become aggressive and dangerous.”-Ralph Waldo EmersonMendicant - refers to begging or relying on charitable donations
25What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850
26What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850It being desirable, for the peace, concord, and harmony of the Union of these States, to settle and adjust amicably all existing questions of controversy between them arising out of the institution of slavery upon a fair, equitable and just basis: therefore,1. Resolved, That California, with suitable boundaries, ought, upon her application to be admitted as one of the States of this Union, without the imposition by Congress of any restriction in respect to the exclusion or introduction of slavery within those boundaries.2. Resolved, That as slavery does not exist by law, and is not likely to be introduced into any of the territory acquired by the United States from the republic of Mexico…8. Resolved, That Congress has no power to promote or obstruct the trade in slaves between the slaveholding States; but that the admission or exclusion of slaves brought from one into another of them depends exclusively upon their own particular laws.According to the document, which institution is causing conflict between the states?According to the document, did California enter the Union as a free or slave state?According to the document, what does Congress not have the power to do?How do you think the country reacted?
27What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska ActThe Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 undid the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850.The tension between pro-slavery and free soil factions over slavery in new territories increasedStephen Douglas' bill left the Kansas territory open to the rule of popular sovereignty.Settlers in Kansas and Neb called upon Congress to grant them territorial statusRaised the question of extending slavery into the territoriesStephen Douglas introduced a bill that appeared to provide an easy solution – allowing settlers “popular sovereignty” to decide if they wished to become a free or slave stateBoth Kan and Neb lay ABOVE the lineWould mean that the Missouri Compromise was null and voidOpened the possibility of slavery to land long since guaranteed to freedomIncreased antislavery sentiment in the NorthEnforcement of the fugitive slave provisions in the Comp of 1850 aroused Northern ire
28What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska ActIn the political arena, arguments between the Democratic Party, who supported popular sovereignty and states' rights, and their opposition, the Whigs, heated up and had lasting effects leading up to the outbreak of the Civil War.On the ground, fighting developed in "Bloody Kansas," such as John Brown's raid on Pottawattamie Creek
29“one of the most effective pieces of political Uncle Tom’s Cabin“one of the most effective pieces of politicalpropaganda ever produced.”- Salmon Chase
30K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN What I LearnedAbout the Civil WarWhat I KnowAbout the Civil WarWhat I Want to LearnAbout the Civil War
31Martyr or Terrorist? Small Group Reading Activity John Brown – Martyr or TerroristRead the two readings on John BrownWorking cooperatively, respond to the question at the end of reading #2.Present your remarks to class***Refer to Notes Packet
32Martyr or Terrorist? Martyr Terrorist Discussion: Exit Slip: Is John Brown a martyr or terrorist? Or both?
33John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry, VA, October 1859 Martyr or Terrorist?John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry, VA, October 1859What Students Should Understand: On the evening of October 16, 1859 John Brown, a staunch abolitionist, and a group of his supporters left their farmhouse hide-out en route to Harpers Ferry. Descending upon the town in the early hours of October 17th, Brown and his men captured prominent citizens and seized the federal armory and arsenal. Brown had hopes that the local slave population would join the raid and through the raid’s success weapons would be supplied to slaves and freedom fighters throughout the country; this was not to be.
34Martyr or Terrorist? John Brown’s Raid What Students Should Know: First held down by the local militia in the late morning of the 17th, Brown took refuge in the arsenal’s engine house. However, this sanctuary from the fire storm did not last long, when in the late afternoon US Marines under Colonel Robert E. Lee arrived and stormed the engine house, killing many of the raiders and capturing Brown.Letter:To Eugenia Burton, Enfield, England October 18, 1859This has been one of the saddest days that Harper's Ferry ever experienced. This morning, when the armorers went to the shops to go to work, lo and behold, the shops had been taken possession of by a set of abolitionists and the doors were guarded by Negroes with rifles.—George Mauzy
35Martyr or Terrorist?“I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.”Brown was quickly placed on trial and charged with treason against the state of Virginia, murder, and slave insurrection. Brown was sentenced to death for his crimes and hanged on December 2, 1859.
36Dred Scott7-2 decision ruled that blacks “are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word ‘citizens’ in the Constitution.”Scott had no standing in federal courtAccording to Taney, neither the Declaration of Independence nor the Constitution had been intended to apply to blacks.“So far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect”Dred Scott v. SandfordA slave, suing for his freedom on the grounds that his master had removed him for several years to military bases in both the free state of Illinois and the Wisc. Territory before returning to the slave state of MissouriHis master – an army doctorSupreme Court 1856Chief Justice Roger Taney of Maryland – an uncompromising supporter of the South and slavery
37Dred ScottIn March of 1857, the United States Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, declared that all blacks -- slaves as well as free -- were not and could never become citizens of the United States.The court also declared the 1820 Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, thus permitting slavery in all of the country's territories.Taney - Congress had exceeded its authority when if forbade slavery…for slaves were private property protected by the Constitution.
38Dred ScottThe case before the court was that of Dred Scott v. Sanford. Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom.Taney -- a staunch supporter of slavery and intent on protecting southerners from northern aggression -- wrote in the Court's majority opinion that, because Scott was black, he was not a citizen and therefore had no right to sue.
39TTYN: Why would Douglas suggest such an idea? Dred ScottAbolitionists were incensed. Although disappointed, Frederick Douglass, found a bright side to the decision and announced, "my hopes were never brighter than now."TTYN: Why would Douglas suggest such an idea?For Douglass, the decision would bring slavery to the attention of the nation and was a step toward slavery's ultimate destruction.
40Dred ScottTTYN – The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, did Taney ignore the basic ideas of each? Specifically, “all men are created equal.”He believed that blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it."
41Dred Scott Public Reaction “It is no novelty to find the Supreme Court following the lead of the Slavery Extension party, to which most of its members belong. Five of the Judges are slaveholders, and two of the other four owe their appointments to their facile ingenuity in making State laws bend to Federal demands in behalf of "the Southern institution.“ - Editorial in the Albany, New York, Evening Journal, 1857
43The Election of 1860The presidential Election of 1860 brought these conflicts to a head with dramatic consequences.The Democratic Party split into three groups along regional lines, each vying for control of the party and each holding different ideas about how to deal with slavery in the West.Three camps lined up against Abraham Lincoln, the nominee of the Republican Party, who advocated that the West be free of slavery entirely.
44The Election of 1860Lincoln’s opponents were so deeply divided, he won with less than forty percent of the popular vote (but with fifty-nine percent of the Electoral College) and without taking a single slave state.Although Lincoln’s election was fair, it nonetheless pushed the Deep South toward secession.
45The Election of 1860Lincoln – The Immediate Reason for SecessionUnpopular in the SouthPerceived hostility towards slaveryPerceived threat to the institutionTruth – Lincoln was not an extreme abolitionistOpposed further extension, but had no intention of interfering with slavery where it existedThe election – The “straw that broke the camel’s back”
46SecessionSouth Carolina responded to Lincoln’s election first, seceding from the Union on December 20, 1860.This action made front-page news in the North two days later when Harper’s Weekly featured portraits of the state’s Congressmen on its cover, titled The Seceding South Carolina Delegation.
47SecessionOther slave states followed in short order: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.In early February, representatives of those states gathered in Montgomery, Alabama, to found a new nation, The Confederate States of America (also known as the Confederacy), and to name its president, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.
48Southern Economic Interests Why Secession?Southern Economic InterestsLong-range threat to the entire economic and social structure of the SouthNo. Republicans pushing for a homestead lawNorthern Railroad plansHigh TariffsSectional balance in the SenateHomestead law – free 160-acre farms to western settlers, would hamper expansion of the plantation system; railroad denies the South of economic benefits; tariffs would raise the coast of what Southern planters would have to pay for the things they needed; would limit trade with the British; sectional balance the South felt protected; balance was lost with CA and two failed attempts to bring in a slave state; mention Cuba and the Ostend Manifesto
49Secession: An opportunity to bring peace? Many believed that secession would put the South into a bargaining position to secure a constitutional amendment to safeguard Southern interests.“Better terms outside of the Union than in it”Peace ConventionSeven Amendments presentedNone were put forwardSecession would have to see it through
50Union in PerilTTYN: Describe how each of the following three quotes explains the necessity to protect and preserve the Union.Document 1“I consider the central idea pervading this struggle is the necessity that is upon on, of proving that popular government is not an absurdity. We must settle this question now, whether in a free government the minority have the right to break up the government whenever they choose. If we fail it will go far to prove the incapability of the people to govern themselves.”Abraham Lincoln
51Union in Peril Document 2 A Southern victory would give courage to the enemies of progress and damp the spirits of its friends all over the civilized world.”John Stuart MillDocument 3“It is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity. The first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.”George Washington
52Document 1“I consider the central idea pervading this struggle is the necessity that is upon on, of proving that popular government is not an absurdity. We must settle this question now, whether in a free government the minority have the right to break up the government whenever they choose. If we fail it will go far to prove the incapability of the people to govern themselves.”Abraham LincolnDocument 2A Southern victory would give courage to the enemies of progress and damp the spirits of its friends all over the civilized world.”John Stuart MillDocument 3“It is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity. The first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.”George Washington
54Causes of the Civil WarThe Civil War - the bloodiest conflict in American history. The war pitted brother against brother, family against family, and state against state. In less than a century after the 13 original colonies celebrated their independence, the Civil War divided the country along deep economic and ideological fault lines.__________________________________________________________________Economic and Social Differences between the North and the SouthState versus federal rightsThe Abolition MovementThe Election of 1860
57Group Presentations “Be a Gamer” – What Did We Learn Personalities – Lincoln, Meade, Barton, Lee, Sherman, McCellan, Jackson, Grant, Douglas, Stowe, Davis; Battles – Shiloh, Gettysburg, Antietam, Bull Run, Sherman’s March
58First Blood and a Touch of Irony Civil War FactsFirst Blood and a Touch of IronyThe first casualties of the war came onApril 19, 1861TTYN: Can you recall another important event in American History that also occurred on April 19?Sixth Massachusetts Regiment reached Balt. By rail in order to defend WashingtonAttacked by a secessionist mobAssaulted with knives and revolversFour soldiers and nine civilians deadFirst blood drawn by Mass. Men on the aniv. of the battles of Lex & Concord
59Civil War Facts1/2 million+ people were killed or wounded in the Civil War60 % of the fighting took place in Virginia
61Highlights & Review “Be a Gamer” – What Did We Learn Personalities – Lincoln, Meade, Barton, Lee, Sherman, McCellan, Jackson, Grant, Douglas, Stowe, Davis; Battles – Shiloh, Gettysburg, Antietam, Bull Run, Sherman’s March
62Abolitionist Movement Abolitionist were people who wanted to end slavery or get rid of it.Frederick Douglass was a well-known abolitionist.“Power concedes nothing without a demand.It never did and it never will.”
63Abolitionist Movement Douglas believed that the election of aRepublican foretold a rupture in thepower of the slaveocracy.TTYN: Interpret the following quote from Douglas“It has taught the North its strength, and shown the South its weakness. More important still, it has demonstrated the possibility of electing, if not an Abolitionist, at least an anti-slavery reputation.”Would eventually become a lecturer with the Mass. Anti-Slavery SocietyWrote an autobiographyEdit his own monthly paper in Rochester, NYHis goal – “the simple sustenance of hope in a better future for blacks in America.” Historian David Blight
64Abolitionist Movement TTYN: Interpret the following quotefrom Douglas“…before the foul and withering curse of slavery.Some thought we had in Mr. Lincoln the nerveOliver Cromwell; but the results shows that we merely have a continuation of the Pierces and Buchanan's.”
65Abolitionist Movement: The Underground Railroad Was a system setup to help slaves (African Americans) escape to the Northern USA or Canada.Slaves hid in barns and houses
66Nat TurnerNat Turner lead a rebellion against plantation owners in 1831 and killed 60 people
67Jefferson DavisPresident for the South during the Civil War.The South’s Capital was Richmond, Virginia
68Stonewall JacksonBetween late 1860 and early 1861, several Southern U.S. states declared their independence and seceded from the Union.At first it was Jackson’s desire that Virginia, then his home state, would stay in the Union.Virginia seceded in the spring of 1861, Jackson showed his support of the Confederacy, choosing to side with his state over the national government.
69He knew that the Valley was the bread basket for the South. Stonewall JacksonHe knew that the Valley was the bread basket for the South.Edinburg produced the most wheat.Jackson only lost in the Kenstown.He didn’t use chairs because he believed that standing was good for you.It was during the Battle of Bull Run in the Civil War when Jackson assumed his nickname. Amidst the tumult of battle, Brigadeer-General Barnard E. Bee stated, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall." As the war continued, Jackson continually impressed his Confederate compatriots with his skill on the battlefield and in planning conferences. He distinguished himself in the Valley campaign of early 1862, the Battle of second Manassas in August 1862, and the Battle of Fredericksburg in December Jackson was a Southern hero, and in spite of his eccentricities, he was loved and respected by his soldiers. He strictly observed the Sabbath, and his religiousity was constant in all facets of his life.On May 2, 1863, in his last march of the Civil War, Jackson was wounded by friendly fire. He died of pneumonia several days later on May 10 at Guiney's Station, Virginia. His body was carried to Richmond and then to Lexington where it was buried. It is said that The Army of Northern Virginia never fully recovered from the loss of Stonewall Jackson's leadership in battle. General Robert E. Lee believed Jackson was irreplacable.
70Robert E. LeeWest Point Grad Grad and former SuperintendentLincoln planned on offering Lee the highestmilitary position within the Union ArmyNo man proved a more worthy opponentto Ulysses S. Grant than Confederate GeneralRobert E. Lee.Supervised the preparation of coastal defenses along the South Atlantic seaboard before being called to Richmond to serve as military advisor to President Jefferson Davis.
71TTYN: Interpret the following quotes from Robert E. Lee “…I look upon secession as anarchy. If I owned the four millions of slaves in the South I would sacrifice them all to the Union; but how can I draw my sword upon Virginia, my native state?”
72TTYN: Interpret the following quotes from Robert E. LeeTTYN: Interpret the following quotes fromRobert E. Lee“to raise my hand against my relatives, my children,my home, I have, therefore, resigned my commission in the Army, and save in defense of my native State (with the sincere hope that my poor services may never be needed) I hope I may never be called upon to draw my sword.”
73Robert E. Lee He assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in May 1862 and immediately embarked ona series of skillful offensive operations that repelledthe Union forces outside Richmond in the Seven DaysBattles in June and July 1862.Lee followed this with an offensive drive northward that culminated in victory at Second Manassas in August 1862.However, his effort to carry the war across the Potomac nearly led to disaster when he barely fended off Union assaults at Antietam.
74Robert E. LeeRetreating back to Virginia, Lee againdisplayed deft generalship by checking Unionoffensives at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville;in the latter battle he prevailed, despite beingoutnumbered 2 to 1Suffered a major defeat at Gettysburg on July 13, 1863.
75The first major battle of the Civil War began on April 12, 1861. After 2 days, the North surrendered to the South.No one was killed during the battle; however, 1 soldier who was killed when a cannon backfired during the surrendering ceremony.Fort Sumter
76The 1st Manassas or 1st Bull Run, VA July 21,1861The general for the confederates was Stonewall Jackson & Buearegard.The general for the Yankees was McDowell.The North had 387 soldiers killed while the South lost 460.The South won the battle.
772nd Manassas or 2nd Bull Run, VA August 29-30, 1862The general for the Confederate was Stonewall Jackson.The general for the Yankees was John Pope.The North lost 16,000 soldiers while the South lost only 9,000The South won the battle.
78Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland September 17, 1862The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee.The general for the Yankees was McClellan.
79Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland The Bloodiest One Day Battle in American HistoryOver 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours of savage combat on September 17, 1862.The Battle of Antietam ended the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia's first invasion into the North and led to Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
80Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland The Battle took place in Farmer Miller’s cornfield.The battle is known as the Single bloodiest day in the Civil War.23,500 men were killed in the Bloody lane.The name of the bridge where the confederates held the Yankees for 4 hours is called, Burnside.The south used rocks when they ran out of ammunition.South won the battle.
81Battle Of Fredericksburg Dec , 1862The general for the Confederates was Robert E. LeeThe general for the Yankees was Burnside.The North had 122,000 soldiers while the South had 78,500
82Battle Of Fredericksburg 9,000 Union soldiers were killed while only 1,500 Southern soldiers were killed.The South won the battle.Lee said, “It is well that was is so horrible, else we should grow too fond of it.’
83The Battle of Gettysburg The Turning PointThinking about our time discussing the Revolutionary War (Remember that??)Which battle during the Revolutionary War is considered the turning point?The Battle of SaratogaThe Battle of GettysburgEvery war has a turning point and the Civil War is no different. The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) is widely considered to be the turning point of the American Civil War
84The Battle of Gettysburg The Turning PointThe Battle of GettysburgFor three grueling days, Union Soldiers and Confederate Soldiers staged one of the bloodiest battles of the war. The South, led by General Robert E. Lee, and supported by 75,000 Confederate Soldiers would ultimately suffer an emotional, physical, and spiritually draining loss against General George Meade and his 97,000 Union Soldiers.Lee would never again attempt an offensive operation of such proportions. Although the war was to continue for two more horrible years, the Confederacy would never recover from the losses of Gettysburg.
86The Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met here on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.But in a larger sense we can not dedicate - we can not consecrate - we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled, here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here.It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they have, thus far, so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
87The Gettysburg Address "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.“….that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from the earth.“- Abraham Lincoln
88So, What does the Gettysburg Address ell Us? Gettysburg Address MeaningLincoln's speech puts the Civil War in perspective as a test of the success of the American Revolution. The nation founded on equality was in the midst of a war to determine whether such a nation could continue to exist. He said that they were gathered to formally dedicate ground hallowed by the men, American citizens, who died there, but his speech turned the event into a rededication of the living to the war effort to preserve a nation of freedom.
89Sherman’s March to the Sea November 15 until December 21, 1864, Union General William T. Sherman led some 60,000 soldiers on a 285-mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.The Goal of this “March to the Sea” was to frighten Georgia’s civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause.
90Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman’s soldiers did not destroy any of the towns in their path, but they stole food and livestock and burned the houses and barns of people who tried to fight back.The Yankees were “not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people,” Sherman explained; as a result, they needed to “make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war.”
103The Emancipation Proclamation In 1862 and 1863, Lincoln delivered the ultimate death blow to slavery. First, 1862, Lincoln issued an executive order, which suggested that any Confederate State that did not return to the Union by Jan. 1, freedom would be granted to all the slaves within those states. Then, on Jan 1, 1863, after no state took Lincoln up on his offer, Lincoln unleashed the ultimate blow – declaring that all slaves in every state are now free.
104The Emancipation Proclamation The proclamation declared, "all persons held as slaves within any States, or designated part of the State, the people whereof shall be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free."The Emancipation Proclamation had almost no immediate effect, since it was impossible for the Federal government to implement it in those regions where it actually applied -- namely the states in rebellion that were not under Federal control.
105The Emancipation Proclamation Despite the lack of any immediate impact on the slaves, the proclamation represented a shift in the attitudes of the North towards its war objectives, where merely reuniting the nation would no longer become the sole outcome. It represented the first step toward the ultimate abolition of slavery in the United States.
106The Emancipation Proclamation A Diplomatic MoveGoal – keep Britain neutralRemember, from the beginning, Lincoln was reluctant to make slavery the key issue. Why?Would drive the border slave states into secessionOnce Military possessions were in the hands of the Union Army, Lincoln throws down the hammer – the Emancipation Proclamation
107The Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln knew that the Queen and working population were anti-slaveryIntroducing the slavery issue would make it impractical for the British Gov’t to come to the aid of the ConfederacyTTYN – Do you believe that Lincoln finally came to his senses regarding slavery or was the Emancipation Proclamation driven by diplomatic purposes?Lincoln acted in response to the growing wave of public opinion, rallying support of Negroes to the Union cause, but the diplomatic purpose was the main one.
108The Civil War TimelineJan – South Carolina, the first state to secede from the UnionMar – Lincoln inauguratedApr – Fort Sumter attackedApr – Battle of Shiloh (24K Troops killed)Jan – Emancipation ProclamationJul – Battle of GettysburgJul. 19, 1863 – Gettysburg AddressNov – Sherman’s March to the SeaNov – Lincoln re-electedApr. 9, 1865 – The South surrendersApr. 14, 1865 – Lincoln assassinated
109Civil War FactsOf the 364,000 on the Union side who lost their lives, a third were killed or died of wounds and two-thirds died of diseaseApproximately 130,000 freed slaves became Union soldiers during the war.According to the U. S. Census, the population of the United States in 1860 numbered 31,443,321 persons. Of these, approximately 23,000,000 were in the 22 Northern states and 9,000,000 in the 11 Southern states. Of the latter total, 3,500,000 were slaves.At one time or another, the Northern armies numbered 2,100,000 soldiers. The Southern armies were considerably smaller. The total dead on both sides was about 500,000.The Union Army consisted of between 2.5 to 2.7 million men while the Confederate forces had 750,000 to 1.2 million men.The Union Army lost approximately 360,000 men during the war. Only 110,070 of these men were listed as having been killed in battles. The remainder were listed as having died of disease or other causes.The Confederate forces lost approximately 258,000 men with 94,000 listed as having died in battles while 164,000 were listed as having died of disease or other causes. The figures of the Confederate's will never be known for sure because many records were either lost or destroyed.
119Day Two: Thematic Essay Unit Assessment:Day Two: Thematic EssayThematic Essay Prompts: You will be offered one of the following prompts to respond to:To the teacher: Why do I give the students the essay prompt prior to the thematic essay portion of the unit exam? Why not? Actually, in my own classroom, I take it a step further – I allow them to bring in index cards highlighting what they perceive as important elements of each topic, which I collect with the completed essay. As for the advanced notice – real simple, I now have the students preparing for two topics, opposed to “winging it” and not studying at all. Additionally, I have read enough scholarly research that suggests, students learn more when preparing to cheat or provided additional opportunities (pathways) to succeed. Eventually, I wean them off the index card technique when we get closer to the statewide assessment, but in the meantime, I believe I am helping them to improve their writing and critical thinking skills, which is what the Common Core is asking of all us. JMO
120Option 1:Throughout the history of the United States, Presidents have made important decisions in an effort to solve crucial problems.From your study of United States history and the Civil War, identify two important Presidential decisions that Abraham Lincoln made.For each decision identified:State one goal the President hoped to accomplish by making the decisionDiscuss the historical circumstances surrounding the Presidential decisionDescribe the extent to which the decision achieved the President's original goalDiscuss one immediate or one long-term effect of the decision on United States historyTo the teacher: Why do I give the students the essay prompt prior to the thematic essay portion of the unit exam? Why not? Actually, in my own classroom, I take it a step further – I allow them to bring in index cards highlighting what they perceive as important elements of each topic, which I collect with the completed essay. As for the advanced notice – real simple, I now have the students preparing for two topics, opposed to “winging it” and not studying at all. Additionally, I have read enough scholarly research that suggests, students learn more when preparing to cheat or provided additional opportunities (pathways) to succeed. Eventually, I wean them off the index card technique when we get closer to the statewide assessment, but in the meantime, I believe I am helping them to improve their writing and critical thinking skills, which is what the Common Core is asking of all us. JMO
121Option 2:During the Antebellum period, there were multiple attempts to stave of secession and maintain the unity of the United States.From your study of the United States history and the Civil War, identify two important compromises made in order to maintain the unity of the United States.For each compromise identified:State one goal the compromise hoped to accomplish• Discuss the historical circumstances surrounding the compromiseDescribe the extent to which the compromise achieved the original goalDiscuss one immediate or one long-term effect of the compromise
122Political Parties of the Antebellum American and the Civil War Era Optional or Suggested ActivityPolitical Parties of the Antebellum American and the Civil War EraGraphic OrganizersKnow Nothing PartyFree SoilDemocratWhigsRepublicanFocus: Platform, When, Leaders, Demise (if applicable), OtherResources: Textbook or Learning Packet (preferred)Learning Stations with Learning PacketTime: No more than one periodDefinitely some merit in doing this activity, with particular focus on the demise of the Whig Party and the birth and evolution of the Party of Lincoln – The Republican Party.