Presentation on theme: "REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA. Republic of South Africa Fact file Official symbols Geographical position History timeline Political structure Sights and cities."— Presentation transcript:
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
Republic of South Africa Fact file Official symbols Geographical position History timeline Political structure Sights and cities Famous people Natural world Entertainment Links
Fact File Country name Republic of South Africa Location Southern Africa, with Atlantic Ocean on the west and Indian Ocean on the east Capital cities Pretoria (executive); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein (judicial) Other major cities Johannesburg, Durban, Port Elizabeth Area 471,008 square miles (1,219,912 square kilometers); Population 43,647,658 Religion Christian: 68%; Muslim: 2%; Hindu: 1.5%; Indigenous and animist beliefs: 28.5% Languages English widely spoken; 11 official languages: English, Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, and Venda Type of government Republic Administrative divisions 9 provinces Currency Rand Industries Mining, automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, fertilizer, foodstuff Primary exports Gold, diamonds, wool, sugar, fruit Imports Machinery, electrical equipment, computers
National symbols of South Africa Motto: We are the rainbow people. And we make a difference.
Geographical Position Most of South Africa's landscape is made up of high, flat areas called plateaus. These lands are covered with rolling grasslands, called highveld, and tree- dotted plains called bushveld. To the east, south, and west of the plateau lands is a mountainous region called the Great Escarpment. The eastern range, called the Drakensberg, or Dragon's Mountain, is filled with jagged peaks, some more than 11,400 feet (3,475 meters) high. Interestingly, South Africa has another country within its borders. Nestled in the Drakensberg is the mountainous kingdom of Lesotho. Much of South Africa's water comes from the snowcapped peaks of this tiny, landlocked nation.
The country takes up only about one percent of Earth's land surface, but is home to almost 10 percent of the world's known bird, fish, and plant species and about 6 percent of its mammal and reptile species. The seas around South Africa are also crowded with wildlife. About 2,000 marine species visit South African waters at some point during the year. There's also a world- famous sardine run off the east coast each June that draws thousands of hungry sharks, dolphins, and birds. South Africa works to preserve its wildlife with dozens of protected land and marine areas, including the famous Kruger National Park in the north, as well as nearly 9,000 privately-owned game reserves throughout the country. Nevertheless, many of South Africa's animals are hurt by illegal hunting and loss of habitat, and dozens of species are in danger of extinction, including the black rhinoceros, the cheetah, and the African wild dog.
History Timeline 1400s: Zulu and Xhosa tribes establish large kingdoms in the South Africa region. 1652: The Dutch establish the port of Cape Town. The are the first Europeans to settle in South Africa. 1852: The British take control of Cape Town. 1886: Gold is discovered in Johannesburg, making the city rich : Dutch settlers fight the British in the Boer War. Britain eventually gains control of South Africa. 1910: South Africa becomes an independent nation. 1918: Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela is born on July 18 in a small village in South Africa. A teacher later gives him the English name Nelson. 1948: Apartheid is introduced. Laws legally and physically separate different racial groups. 1952: The African National Congress, a black civil rights group, begins a Campaign for Defiance of Unjust Laws as a protest against apartheid. Nelson Mandela is one of its leaders.
1960: In the town of Sharpeville, 67 Africans are killed while protesting Apartheid. 1962: Mandela is arrested for plotting against the government. Though he stays active politically, he will spend 27 years in prison. 1976: Hundreds of black protesters are killed in an uprising in Soweto. 1990: President F.W. de Klerk announces the end of apartheid. Mandela is freed from prison after serving 27 years. 1993: De Klerk and Mandela are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 1994: South Africa holds its first elections in which all races can vote. Nelson Mandela is elected President. 1995: South Africa hosts and wins the World Cup rugby tournament. 1999: Mandela steps down as President. 2004: The African National Congress wins a landslide election, gaining almost 70% of the votes. Thabo Mbeki begins his second term as president.
Provinces: South Africa has nine provinces, each with its own legislature, premier and executive council - and distinctive landscape, population, economy and climate. They are: The Eastern Cape The Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga The Northern Cape North West The Western Cape Each province has its own provincial government, with legislative power. The premier is elected by the legislature and, as with the President at national level, is limited to two five-year terms in office.
Political Structure South Africa has been a democratic republic since holding its first truly open election on April 27, Natural resources, agriculture, tourism, and manufacturing have made South Africa the largest economy on the continent. But problems with unemployment, poverty, and AIDS present huge challenges for the government.
Economy South Africa’s economic strength rests on a number of factors, including its vast mineral wealth, agricultural productivity. Africa is home to Africa’s largest and strongest economy. Two key discoveries set the course of South Africa’s economic history: diamonds in 1867, and gold in South African diamond mines supply about one-half of the world’s gem-quality diamonds. Discovered in the late nineteenth century, the diamonds help drive South Africa’s economy. When their price on the world market drops, the South African economy becomes sluggish.
The Struggle Summer, 1965: At this public park, the effects of apartheid are as clear-cut as the rules. Black African women sit on the ground, while white men and women occupy the “Whites only” benches. Even though many of the blacks are there looking after white children, during apartheid none would dare sit on a bench.
Natural Environment South Africa’s towns have a mix of European and African names, partially as a result of the settlers who colonized the country beginning in the seventeenth century. Its rivers are passable by boat only during the rainy season.
Sights and Cities
Pretoria Pretoria is the capital of South Africa. It is the center of political decision-making and home to many foreign embassies, military bases, and educational institutions. Pretoria is also known as "Jacaranda City" because during October and November, beautiful blue/purple flowers bloom on the 55,000 jacaranda trees that line the capital's streets.
Johannesburg In 1886, thousands of people flocked to the "City of Gold" when rich gold mines were first discovered in the area. South Africa became the world's largest producer of gold and Johannesburg became the center of South Africa's industrial and commercial life. Today, it remains the country's financial center, but is plagued with many problems including poverty and crime.
Soweto The South Western Township, or Soweto, is one of the oldest and most well-known black residential districts in South Africa. It was created in 1930 to house black South Africans who were kicked out of the nearby city of Johannesburg as a result of racist apartheid laws. There were no roads, electricity, or running water in Soweto at the time. Over the years, Soweto developed into a sprawling city now home to over 2 million people. The final stage of the apartheid resistance movement began here in the 1960's. Parts of Soweto remain very poor, but it is also home to well-known Nobel Prize-winning activists, soccer stars and musicians.
Cape Town/Table Mountain Cape Town, the oldest port in southern Africa, is considered one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Backed by the flat-topped Table Mountain, the city is nestled between the mountains and the sea and has miles of pristine beaches. European settlers who arrived in Cape Town in 1652 heavily influenced the city №s architecture and language.
Robben Island This small 7-mile island became famous as the place where Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for over 20 years during the struggle to end apartheid. Dutch settlers named the island for the large number of seals or "rob" that lived there. Today this island is a national monument and museum. It is also a sanctuary for many varieties of seabirds.
Kruger National Park Established in 1898, Kruger National Park is Africa's oldest wildlife sanctuary. It is also one of the largest, stretching across 6.2 million acres. That's bigger than the state of New Jersey! The park is home to more than 500 bird and 147 mammal species, including lions, leopards, rhinos, elephant, and buffalo. Cheetahs, wild dogs, hyenas, zebras, giraffes, hippos, crocodiles, warthogs, and a large number of antelope also roam Kruger's open plains and waterways.
Famous People In 1963, Nelson Mandela, head of the anti-apartheid African National Congress, was given a life sentence in jail for “terrorist” activities. In 1990, after 27 years in prison, he was freed and in 1994, Mandela was elected the president of South Africa. Today, he is one of the most famous and deeply loved leaders in the world. The Most Rev. Dr. Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African activist and Christian cleric who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. He was the first black South African Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town. South Africa, and primate of the Church of the Province of Southern Africa..
Famous People Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts (24 May 1870 – 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher. In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until He served in the First World War and as a British field marshal in the Second World War Harry Frederick Oppenheimer (28 October 1908 – 19 August 2000) was a prominent South African businessman and one of the world's richest men. In 2004 he was voted 60th in the SABC3's Great South Africans
Famous People Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936), was the seventh and last State President of apartheid-era South Africa. De Klerk was also leader of the National Party (which later became the New National Party). He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 Gary Player (born 1 November 1935) is a South African professional golfer. With his nine major championship victories as well as his nine major victories on the Champions Tour, he is widely regarded as one of the greatest players in the history of golf. The player has won 165 tournaments on six continents over six decades.
Animal Life One of the most popular tourist activities is to visit the wildlife game parks and reserves as part of a safari. These trips both boost the economy and preserve the local environment and wildlife, such as these warthogs. South Africa’s “Big Five”— lions, elephants, giraffes, zebras, and hippos
National Holidays April 27 is the most important South African national holiday: Freedom Day. It commemorates the day in 1994 that millions of black South Africans were allowed to vote in an election, and the day that Nelson Mandela, a former political prisoner, was elected president.
Entertainment In many ways, South Africa is a “sports-crazy” country. With its moderate climate and open spaces, people have long been attracted to sports events. In June of 2002, South African fans waved the national flag in the stands to support their soccer team at the World Cup. Blacks and whites joined together to cheer the team, who were treated to a hero’s welcome when they returned to South Africa (despite losing in the first round).
Entertainment Many different peoples make up South Africa, each with their own language and history. The country has 11 official languages and many more unofficial ones. This colorful mix of cultures gives South Africa its nickname "rainbow nation." South Africans are passionate about music, often using song and dance to express social and political ideas. They're also known worldwide for their skill in sports, including rugby, cricket, golf, and soccer. In 2010, South Africa becomes the first African nation to host the World Cup