Presentation on theme: "Human Rights History Week 2,3 “The issue of human rights addresses age-old and universal questions about the relationship between individuals and...society”"— Presentation transcript:
Human Rights History Week 2,3 “The issue of human rights addresses age-old and universal questions about the relationship between individuals and...society”
Early Philosophical Visions of Human Rights Philosophers throughout history have considered ideas about: –Human nature –Social justice –The universality of values and principles –The responsibility of the governments to protect the rights of the individuals and the groups.
400 B.C.E. Mo Zi founded Mohist School of Moral Philosophy in China Importance of self-sacrifice duty, and respect for others. 300 B.C.E. Chinese wise man Mencius Wrote on the “ human nature ” – “ Humans are fundamentally good ” He argued that it is acceptable for the subjects to overthrow or even kill a ruler who ignores the people's needs. Philosophical Visions
King Hammurabi (1750 B.C. in Babylonia): Created one of the earliest code of laws to govern behavior – “let the oppressed man come under my statue to seek equal justice in law and to ensure the importance of duty respect towards others.” If this woman does not wish to remain in her husband's house, then he shall compensate her for the dowry that she brought with her from her father's house, and she may go.” Ancient Egypt: They controlled social justice rules. Rights of Ancient Egyptian Women : - Share equally with their husband any wealth both partners acquired within their marriage. - Be a witness in a court case - Adopt children Human Rights writings
Ancient Greek philosophers Plato, Aristotle –Universal justice, Universal law that binds humankind together. – Human nature can be perfected if there is equality among citizens. –Equal respect for all citizens, Equality before the law, equality in political power and election. Ancient Roman philosophers Marcus Tillius Cicero: “ Universal justice and law guided human nature to act justly and be of service to others ” – This natural law “ binds all human society ” together, without distinction and unique dignity of each person. permits the need to protect individuals from political authority abuses..
B.C.E. – Cyrus the great emperor of Persia Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen, he was the father of the known Campuses. When he conqered Bybalon he relaesed all slaves espicially the jewish slaves who were treated as not persian because of their religion He also pronounced what some consider to be one of the first historically important declarations of human rights via the Cyrus Cylinder sometime between 539 and 530 BC.
“I announce that I will respect the traditions, customs and religions of the nations of my empire and never let any of my governors and subordinates look down on or insult them until I am alive. From now on, till Ahura (Persian god) grants me the kingdom favor, I will impose my monarchy on no nation. Each is free to accept it, and if any one of them rejects it, I never resolve on war to reign. Until I am the king of Iran, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions, I never let anyone oppress any others, and if it occurs, I will take his or her right back and penalize the oppressor. And until I am the monarch, I will never let anyone take possession of movable and landed properties of the others by force or without compensation. Until I am alive, I prevent unpaid, forced labor. To day, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other's rights. No one could be penalized for his or her relatives' faults. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains. Such a traditions should be exterminated the world over. I implore to (Ahura) to make me succeed in fulfilling my obligations to the nations of Iran (Persia), Babylon, and the ones of the four directions.”
300 B.C.E. – Ashoka the emperor of peace and social justice in India Freedom of worship and other rights of his subjects, he banned slavery, death sentence, he recommended his people to learn about all religions and respect it, he was the first emperor in human history who has taught the lesson of unity, peace, equality and love, he respected animal life and tree life and allowed females to be educated. He also permitted females to enter religious institutions. “It is my desire that there should be uniformity in law and uniformity in sentencing. I even go this far, to grant a three-day stay for those in prison who have been tried and sentenced to death. During this time their relatives can make appeals to have the prisoners' lives spared. If there is none to appeal on their behalf, the prisoners can give gifts in order to make merit for the next world, or observe fasts.” “All religions should reside everywhere, for all of whom desire self-control and purity of heart.”
Early Sanskrit writings in Indian Responsibility of rulers for the welfare of people. “None should be allowed to suffer… either because of poverty or of any actions on the part of others” Al-Farabi, an Islamic Philosopher He stated that “An isolated individual could not achieve all the perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals.“ He wrote that “It is the innate disposition of every man to join another human being or other men in the labor he ought to perform. A vision of moral society in which all individual had rights and lived together in love and charity with their neighbors.
Magna Carta (1215) (The Great Charter of Freedoms) King John Of England Magna Carta was originally written in Latin Natural law. Justice that proceeds from God, the Universe, inborn qualities of human nature. Human dignity. Mankind as a single, universal community “one body” King has duty to serve; men have right to rebel if king does not serve. Individual has obligation to provide alms “It is the clothes of the naked that hang locked in your wardrobe.”
English Bill of Rights (1689) King is not to suspend the laws or interfere in the execution of the laws without the consent of Parliament (separation of powers). Excessive bail is not to be required. Excessive fines are not to be imposed. Cruel and unusual punishments are not to be inflicted.
French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) “ Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains ” Conventions of war, when men lay down their arms they may not be killed or enslaved (they are no longer enemies) Men are not enemies in war, states are. There is no right to slavery The power to make the laws should be in the hands of the people An act of the king is an agreement between the body politic and its members lawful because the social contract between them ( 1762 )
US Declaration of Independence (1776): All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and happiness. Governments are set up to secure these rights, derive their powers from the consent of the governed If the government becomes destructive, people have the right, even a duty, to alter or abolish it and set up a new government.
US Bill of Rights (1787) No established religion, freedom of religion. Freedom of speech. Soldiers shall not be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, except in time of war in a manner prescribed by law. Private property cannot be taken for public use without just compensation. Accused has right to a speedy, public trial by jury; to be informed of nature of charges against him, to be confronted with witnesses against him, to have assistance of counsel in his defense.
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789) Aim of political association is the preservation of the rights of man: liberty, property, security. Source of all rulers is the nation--no one can exercise authority that does not proceed from the nation. Liberty=power to do anything that does not injure others. No man can be accused, arrested, or detained except when determined by law. The law should establish only penalties that are strictly necessary. Every man is presumed innocent until declared guilty. Everyone has a right to his own opinions, even religious. Every citizen can freely speak, write, and print, subject to responsibility. Public force (police) are for the benefit of all.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863), Abraham Lincoln, US President All slaves in the rebellious states are to be freed. All to be free to abstain from all violence unless in necessary self-defense Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Eleanor Roosevelt: The clear announcement for the Human rights in 30 articles the Untied Nations members agreed upon.
Judaism (Torah) In the eyes of the law all people are equal Rights of the needy more important than property rights The Talmud clarifies the rights of the residents of a city as market prices, wages, etc It ensures all against any form of slavery Human right to life and progeny Any act of disrespect towards another person is an act of disrespect to God Himself Human Rights In Religions
Christianity (Christian bible) All human beings have value in the eyes of God Obligation of compassion-of need to “give of one’s self to others, of clothing the naked, healing the sick, of feeding the hungry, of welcoming the stranger, of providing hope to the hopeless.” Love your neighbor All human beings are your neighbors
Islam ( Koran ) Responsibility to perform acts of charity Respect for all human beings All men are equal in the eyes of God “Religious respect should be guaranteed” Women rights Orphans rights